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SAGE Open Med ; 11: 20503121231165670, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303931


Objective: Romania began its COVID-19 immunization programme with approved vaccinations in three stages, as follows: The first step of vaccination is for health and social professionals, the second stage is for high-risk persons and the third stage is for the remainder of the general public. This study aims at assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice towards COVID-19 and vaccination against COVID-19 in the Romanian population during the third wave of the pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on a Bosnian and Herzegovinian study on COVID-19 vaccination during the country's third wave of COVID-19 pandemic. Results: Our study sample, dominantly female (629; 61.0%), with a bachelor's degree (734; 71.2%), either single (539; 52.3%) or in a relationship (363; 35.2%), engaged in intellectual labour (910; 88.3%) and living in an urban environment (874; 84.8%) with a mean age of 25.07 ± 8.21 years, 294 (28.5%) people with COVID-19 symptoms and 86 (8.3%) were tested COVID-19 positive, had a mean knowledge score of 16.38 ± 4.0 with correct answer rates on questions ranging from 30.1% to 88.2%. Being single (odds ratio = 3.92, p = 0.029) or in a relationship (odds ratio = 3.79, p = 0.034), having a bachelor's degree and higher (odds ratio = 1.61, p = 0.006) and being COVID-19 tested (odds ratio = 1.82, p < 0.001) were associated with higher knowledge test scores. Our sample had relatively optimistic attitudes towards final COVID-19 disease containment (712; 69.1%) and vaccination programmes (679; 65.9%). The majority of the sample followed socio-epidemiological measures and did not visit places of mass social gatherings (666; 64.1%) and wore masks (992; 95.7%) while being outside their home. In terms of vaccination rates, 382 (37.0%) of the individuals were presently immunized against COVID-19. Higher knowledge test scores (>15 points) (odds ratio = 1.66, p = 0.002) and positive attitudes of this study (odds ratio = 1.59, p = 0.001, odds ratio = 4.16, p < 0.001) were identified as independent predictors for vaccinating against COVID-19. Conclusion: Romanian citizens have had good knowledge, optimistic attitudes and appropriate practices towards COVID-19 vaccination during the third wave of COVID-19 outbreak in the country. Higher knowledge regarding the disease and vaccination against it not only increased attitudes towards the end of the pandemic, but also increased the willingness to be vaccinated and to avoid infection risk factors.

Mater Sociomed ; 34(2): 107-111, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202733


Background: Nowadays, most women of reproductive age utilize various methods of contraception to avoid undesired pregnancy and regulate menstrual cycles. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate current sexual patterns, menstrual health status and use of contraceptive methods in reproductive aged females in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the period between February 21st and March 5th 2022 via an online anonymous questionnaire which was distributed using social media platforms. Results: Menstrual periods were normally regular in 269 (85.7 %) of the females, whereas 45 (14.3 %) experienced irregular menstrual cycles. Females report having either one sexual partner 149 (47.5%) or no sexual partners 76 (24.2%) and typically no 92 (29.3%) or frequent (more than 8 sexual intercourses) sexual intercourses per month. The usage of contraceptive methods was reported among the majority 212 (67.5%) and mostly by using of male condom 104 (33.1%), followed by the withdrawal method 64 (20.4%), oral contraceptive pills 35 (11.1%), emergency contraceptive pills "after 24h" 2 (0.6%) and intrauterine device 7 (2.2%). The usage of contraceptive methods was higher among younger females (X2=18.07, p<0.001) and among those who were employed (X2=10.86, p<0.001). Those who used oral contraceptive pills used mostly pills that are combination of progesterone and oestrogen 32 (91.4%) and for the purpose of regulation of menstrual cycles 26 (74.2%) and to prevent unwanted pregnancies 9 (25.8%). Females who had no sexual intercourses per month (OR+0.27, 95% CI 0.09-0.79, p=0.018) were less likely, while those who had irregular menstrual cycles (OR=2.44, 95% CI 1.04-5.71, p=0.039) were more prone to use oral contraceptive pills. Conclusion: Bosnia and Herzegovina reproductive aged female had relatively regular menstrual cycles, the majority used modern contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies or for the regulation of menstrual cycles during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Mater Sociomed ; 34(1): 8-13, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924545


Background: Mental health, substance abuse and suicidal ideation present an emerging healthcare problem during COVID-19 pandemic as a result of socio-epidemiological measures, isolations, work modifications, constant media overload with COVID-19 related news and no effective cure for the disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse substance abuse, suicidal ideation and mental health status among university students during the COVID-19 outbreak in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: This cross-sectional study, was conducted via an online anonymous questionnaire based on a Patient Health Questionnaire-4 and Impact of Event Scale-6 which was distributed to the student population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Results: In total 827 subjects, the majority of whom were female (636), had a high school degree (431), were unemployed (587), lived in an urban environment (747) and had a median age of 23.0 (21.0,32.0), completed the questionnaire. Being female [(OR=1.643, p=0.040); (OR=1.643, p=0.032)], taking sedatives [(OR=1.519, p<0.001); (OR=1.250, p=0.029)] and having high IES-6 score [(OR=2.190, p<0.001); (OR=2.013, p<0.001)] were independent predictors of developing depressive and anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak, respectively. Suicidal ideation was present in 71 subjects, with 11 attempting to commit suicide. Sedative (OR=1.381, p=0.005) or alcohol (OR=1.493, p=0.002) use, unemployment (OR=4.551, p<0.001) and depressive symptoms (OR=7.261, p<0.001) were independent predictor of developing suicidal ideation. Conclusion: Bosnia and Herzegovina students show a significant prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms, trauma- and stressor-related disorder related to the pandemic, suicidal ideation and substance abuse during the COVID-19 outbreak, especially in association with gender, occupation and abuse of a specific substance.

BMJ Open ; 12(5): e060381, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865183


OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the sleep patterns among young West Balkan adults during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted using an anonymous online questionnaire based on established sleep questionnaires Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) (February-August 2021). PARTICIPANTS: Young adults of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. RESULTS: Of 1058 subjects, mean age was 28.19±9.29 years; majority were women (81.4%) and students (61.9%). Compared with before the pandemic, 528 subjects (49.9%) reported a change in sleeping patterns during the pandemic, with 47.3% subjects reporting sleeping less. Mean sleeping duration during the COVID-19 pandemic was 7.71±2.14 hours with median sleep latency of 20 (10.0-30.0) min. Only 91 (8.6%) subjects reported consuming sleeping medications. Of all, 574 (54.2%) subjects had ISI score >7, with majority (71.2%) having subthreshold insomnia, and 618 (58.4%) PSQI score ≥5, thus indicating poor sleep quality. Of 656 (62.0%) tested subjects, 464 (43.9%) were COVID-19 positive (both symptomatic and asymptomatic) who were 48.8%, next to women (70%), more likely to have insomnia symptoms; and 66.9% were more likely to have poor sleep quality. Subjects using sleep medication were 44 times, and subjects being positive to ISI 15.36 times more likely to have poor sleep quality. In contrast, being a student was a negative independent predictor for both insomnia symptoms and poor sleep quality, and mental labour and not working were negative independent predictors for insomnia symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: During the third wave of the pandemic, sleep patterns were impaired in about half of young West Balkan adults, with COVID-19-positive subjects and being women as positive independent predictors and being a student as negative independent predictor of impaired sleep pattern. Due to its importance in long-term health outcomes, sleep quality in young adults, especially COVID-19-positive ones, should be thoroughly assessed.

COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Balkan Peninsula , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Quality , Young Adult