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1.
eClinicalMedicine ; 56:101785, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165232

ABSTRACT

Summary Background The SAVE-MORE trial demonstrated that anakinra treatment in COVID-19 pneumonia with plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator (suPAR) levels of 6 ng/mL or more was associated with 0.36 odds for a worse outcome compared to placebo when expressed by the WHO-Clinical Progression Scale (CPS) at day 28. Herein, we report the results of subgroup analyses and long-term outcomes. Methods This prospective, double-blind, randomised clinical trial, recruited patients with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, in need of hospitalisation, lower respiratory tract infection and plasma suPAR ≥6 ng/mL from 37 academic and community hospitals in Greece and Italy. Patients were 1:2 randomised to subcutaneous treatment with placebo or anakinra (100 mg) once daily for 10 days. Pre-defined subgroups of Charlson's comorbidity index (CCI), sex, age, level of suPAR, and time from symptom onset were analysed for the primary endpoint (overall comparison of distribution of frequencies of the scores from the WHO-CPS between treatments on day 28), by multivariable ordinal regression analysis in the intention to treat (ITT) population. This trial is registered with the EU Clinical Trials Register (2020-005828-11) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04680949). Findings Patients were enrolled between 23 December 2020 and 31 March 2021;189 patients in the placebo arm and 405 patients in the anakinra arm were the ITT population. Multivariable analysis showed that anakinra treatment was accompanied by significantly lower odds for worse outcome compared to placebo at day 28 for all studied subgroups (CCI ≥ 2, OR: 0.34, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.22–0.50;CCI < 2, OR: 0.38, 95% CI 0.21–0.68;suPAR > 9 ng/mL, OR: 0.35, 95% CI 0.19–0.66;suPAR 6–9 ng/mL, OR: 0.35, 95% CI 0.24–0.52;patients ≥65 years, OR: 0.41, 95% CI 0.25–0.66;and patients <65 years, OR: 0.29, 95% CI 0.19–0.45). The benefit was uniform, irrespective of the time from start of symptoms until the start of the study drug. At days 60 and 90, anakinra treatment had odds of 0.40 (95% CI 0.28–0.57) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.32–0.67) respectively, for a worse outcome compared to placebo. The costs of general ward stay, ICU stay, and drugs were lower with anakinra treatment. Interpretation Anakinra represents an important therapeutic tool in the management of COVID-19 that may be administered in all subgroups of patients;benefits are maintained until day 90. Funding Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis;Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB.

2.
Cytokine ; 162:156111, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2158716

ABSTRACT

Objectives Elevated concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) predict progression to severe respiratory failure (SRF) or death among patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and guide early anakinra treatment. As suPAR testing may not be routinely available in every health-care setting, alternative biomarkers are needed. We investigated the performance of C-reactive protein (CRP), interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) for predicting SRF or death in COVID-19. Methods Two cohorts were studied;one discovery cohort with 534 patients from the SAVE-MORE clinical trial;and one validation cohort with 364 patients from the SAVE trial including also 145 comparators. CRP, IP-10 and TRAIL were measured by the MeMed Key® platform in order to select the biomarker with the best prognostic performance for the early prediction of progression into SRF or death. Results

3.
Andrology ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Male patients with COVID-19 have been found with reduced serum total testosterone (tT) levels and with more severe clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess total testosterone (tT) levels and the probability of recovering eugonadal tT levels during a minimum 12-month timespan in a cohort of men who have been followed over time after the recovery from laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic, clinical and hormonal values were collected for the overall cohort. Hypogonadism was defined as tT ≤9.2 nmol/l. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to score health-significant comorbidities. Descriptive statistics was used to compare hormonal levels at baseline versus 7-month (FU1) versus 12-month (FU2) follow-up, respectively. Multivariate cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify the potential predictors of eugonadism recovery over time among patients with hypogonadism at the time of infection. RESULTS: Of the original cohort of 286 patients, follow-up data were available for 121 (42.3%) at FU1 and 63 (22%) patients at FU2, respectively. Higher median interquartile range (IQR) tT levels were detected at FU2 (13.8 (12.3-15.3) nmol/L) versus FU1 (10.2 [9.3-10.9] nmol/L) and versus baseline (3.6 [3.02-4.02] nmol/L) (all p < 0.0001), whilst both LH and E2 levels significantly decreased over the same time frame (all p ≤ 0.01). Circulating IL-6 levels further decreased at FU2 compared to FU1 levels (19.3 vs. 72.8 pg/ml) (p = 0.02). At multivariable cox regression analyses, baseline tT level (HR 1.19; p = 0.03 [1.02-1.4]) was independently associated with the probability of tT level normalization over time, after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating tT levels keep increasing over time in men after COVID-19. Still, almost 30% of men who recovered from COVID-19 had low circulating T levels suggestive for a condition of hypogonadism at a minimum 12-month follow-up.

4.
Drug design, development and therapy ; 16:3645-3654, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073818

ABSTRACT

Background Evidence regarding the impact of remdesivir (RDV) on SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance (VC) is scarce. The aim of this study was to compare VC timing in hospitalized COVID-19 patients who did or did not receive RDV. Methods This was a matched-cohort study of patients hospitalized with pneumonia, a SARS-CoV-2-positive nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) at admission, and at least one NPS during follow-up. Patients who received RDV (cases) and those who did not (controls) were matched in a 1:2 ratio by age, sex, and PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) values at admission. NPSs were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Time to VC (within 30 days after hospital discharge) was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier curve. A multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was fitted to determine factors associated with VC. Results There were 648 patients enrolled in the study (216 cases and 432 controls). VC was observed in 490 patients (75.6%), with a median time of 25 (IQR 16–34) days. Overall, time to VC was similar between cases and controls (p = 0.519). However, time to VC was different when considering both RDV treatment status and age (p = 0.007). A significant finding was also observed when considering both RDV treatment status and P/F values at admission (p = 0.007). A multivariate analysis showed that VC was associated with a younger age (aHR = 0.990, 95% CI 0.983–0.998 per every 10-year increase in age;p = 0.009) and a higher baseline P/F ratio (aHR=1.275, 95% CI 1.029–1.579;p=0.026), but not with RDV treatment status. Conclusion Time to VC was similar in cases and controls. However, there was a benefit associated with using RDV in regard to time to VC in younger patients and in those with a P/F ratio ≤200 mmHg at hospital admission.

5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(9): ofac454, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051512

ABSTRACT

Background: This study's primary aim was to evaluate the impact of thrombotic complications on the development of secondary infections. The secondary aim was to compare the etiology of secondary infections in patients with and without thrombotic complications. Methods: This was a cohort study (NCT04318366) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients hospitalized at IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital between February 25 and June 30, 2020. Incidence rates (IRs) were calculated by univariable Poisson regression as the number of cases per 1000 person-days of follow-up (PDFU) with 95% confidence intervals. The cumulative incidence functions of secondary infections according to thrombotic complications were compared with Gray's method accounting for competing risk of death. A multivariable Fine-Gray model was applied to assess factors associated with risk of secondary infections. Results: Overall, 109/904 patients had 176 secondary infections (IR, 10.0; 95% CI, 8.8-11.5; per 1000-PDFU). The IRs of secondary infections among patients with or without thrombotic complications were 15.0 (95% CI, 10.7-21.0) and 9.3 (95% CI, 7.9-11.0) per 1000-PDFU, respectively (P = .017). At multivariable analysis, thrombotic complications were associated with the development of secondary infections (subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.788; 95% CI, 1.018-3.140; P = .043). The etiology of secondary infections was similar in patients with and without thrombotic complications. Conclusions: In patients with COVID-19, thrombotic complications were associated with a high risk of secondary infections.

6.
Pathogens ; 11(9)2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010226

ABSTRACT

Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines may trigger immune-mediated adverse events, including myocarditis. Evidence of vaccine safety in patients with rheumatic disorders and underlying autoimmune myocarditis is scarce. To address this issue, we studied 13 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and allied conditions with a history of myocarditis and receiving mRNA-based vaccines. Data about general and cardiac laboratory tests, treatment, and disease status were collected during routine consultations before and after the primary vaccination course and after each vaccine dose administration, while myocarditis symptoms were closely monitored. A significant increase in troponin levels from baseline was found after 13 (6-20) days from the first (p = 0.046) and 17 (4-29) days after the second dose (p = 0.013). Troponin levels progressively decreased within 3 (1-6) months in the absence of typical symptoms or signs of myocarditis. A significant increase in the constitutional domain of the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index (p = 0.046) was observed in SLE patients. However, no patient needed any treatment change. mRNA-based anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines can apparently be safely administered to patients with SLE and lupus-like disorders with previous myocarditis despite potential subclinical and transient rises in cardiac damage markers.

8.
Curr Pharm Des ; 28(24): 2022-2028, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902781

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune systemic diseases (ASD) represent a predisposing condition to COVID-19. Our prospective, observational multicenter telephone survey study aimed to investigate the prevalence, prognostic factors, and outcomes of COVID-19 in Italian ASD patients. METHODS: The study included 3,918 ASD pts (815 M, 3103 F; mean age 59±12SD years) consecutively recruited between March 2020 and May 2021 at the 36 referral centers of COVID-19 and ASD Italian Study Group. The possible development of COVID-19 was recorded by means of a telephone survey using a standardized symptom assessment questionnaire. RESULTS: ASD patients showed a significantly higher prevalence of COVID-19 (8.37% vs. 6.49%; p<0.0001) but a death rate statistically comparable to the Italian general population (3.65% vs. 2.95%). Among the 328 ASD patients developing COVID-19, 17% needed hospitalization, while mild-moderate manifestations were observed in 83% of cases. Moreover, 12/57 hospitalized patients died due to severe interstitial pneumonia and/or cardiovascular events; systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients showed a significantly higher COVID-19-related death rate compared to the general population (6.29% vs. 2.95%; p=0.018). Major adverse prognostic factors to develop COVID-19 were: older age, male gender, SSc, pre-existing ASD-related interstitial lung involvement, and long-term steroid treatment. Of note, patients treated with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) showed a significantly lower prevalence of COVID-19 compared to those without (3.58% vs. 46.99%; p=0.000), as well as the SSc patients treated with low dose aspirin (with 5.57% vs. without 27.84%; p=0.000). CONCLUSION: During the first three pandemic waves, ASD patients showed a death rate comparable to the general population despite the significantly higher prevalence of COVID-19. A significantly increased COVID-19- related mortality was recorded in only SSc patients' subgroup, possibly favored by preexisting lung fibrosis. Moreover, ongoing long-term treatment with csDMARDs in ASD might usefully contribute to the generally positive outcomes of this frail patients' population.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Scleroderma, Systemic , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Prospective Studies
9.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 15: 815-824, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896596

ABSTRACT

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare connective tissue disease characterised by immune dysfunction, vascular damage and fibrosis affecting the skin and multiple internal organs. The clinical spectrum of SSc is wide and its manifestations may lead to severe morbidity and mortality, in addition to a great impact on patients' quality of life. Due to the multifaceted clinical manifestations of SSc, its management requires a combined expertise of different medical specialists to guarantee an adequate disease control and prevent organ complications. Multi-disciplinary teams (MDT), which are composed by physicians and other specialized health professionals, represent therefore a key element for the comprehensive management of SSc patients. Moreover, MTD can improve communication and patients' empowerment while the presence of dedicated nurses can help patients to ask questions about their condition. The scope of this narrative review is to analyse the available evidences regarding the role of MDT in the management of SSc patients, and how this holistic approach may improve different disease domains and the overall prognosis. MDT regarding the cardiovascular and lung complication are the more represented in literature, given the great impact in prognosis. Nonetheless, MDT have been shown to be fundamental also in other disease domains as they can intercept early manifestations, thus stratifying patients based on the individual risks in order to personalize patients' follow-up. MDTs may also minimize the treatment delay, enabling fast-track specialist referral. On the other hand, there are few trials specifically studying MDT in SSc and several authors have highlight the lack of standardization.

10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875815

ABSTRACT

Vulnerable subjects, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, have been prioritised to receive anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Few data about the safety of these vaccines in SLE are available. The aim of our study is to investigate the safety of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in SLE. We included 452 SLE patients, referring to seven tertiary centres, who were immunised. A total of 119 (26%) reported side effects (SE) after the first and/or the second shot (the most frequent SE were fever, local reaction, fatigue, and arthralgia). Patients with constitutional symptoms and those on an immunosuppressive regimen (especially belimumab) showed more SE. In addition, 19 (4%) had a flare after the immunisation (flares classified by organ involvement: six musculoskeletal with constitutional symptoms, four renal, three cardio-respiratory, three haematological, two mucocutaneous). None of the patients needed hospitalisation and none died. Moreover, 15 required a transient increase in corticosteroids and four were treated with steroid pulses. One patient required an additional rituximab course. Anti-dsDNA, moderate/high DAS before vaccine, and belimumab were found more frequently in patients with disease flare. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are safe in SLE patients, and they should be recommended in these patients, as the potential benefits widely outweigh the risk of SE. Treatment adjustment might be considered with the aim of minimising SE risk and flare.

11.
Eur J Intern Med ; 101: 37-38, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804001

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Interleukin-6
13.
Inflamm Res ; 71(3): 293-307, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729272

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is capable of inducing the activation of NACHT, leucine-rich repeat, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a macromolecular structure sensing the danger and amplifying the inflammatory response. The main product processed by NLRP3 inflammasome is interleukin (IL)-1ß, responsible for the downstream production of IL-6, which has been recognized as an important mediator in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since colchicine is an anti-inflammatory drug with the ability to block NLRP3 inflammasome oligomerization, this may prevent the release of active IL-1ß and block the detrimental effects of downstream cytokines, i.e. IL-6. To date, few randomized clinical trials and many observational studies with colchicine have been conducted, showing interesting signals. As colchicine is a nonspecific inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome, compounds specifically blocking this molecule might provide increased advantages in reducing the inflammatory burden and its related clinical manifestations. This may occur through a selective blockade of different steps preceding NLRP3 inflammasome oligomerization as well as through a reduced release of the main cytokines (IL-1ß and IL-18). Since most evidence is based on observational studies, definitive conclusion cannot be drawn and additional studies are needed to confirm preliminary results and further dissect how colchicine and other NLRP3 inhibitors reduce the inflammatory burden and evaluate the timing and duration of treatment.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Inflammasomes/immunology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Humans
15.
Panminerva Med ; 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung damage leading to gas-exchange deficit and sepsis leading to systemic hypoperfusion are well-known features of severe pneumonia. Although frequently described in COVID-19, their prognostic impact in COVID-19-related pneumonia vs COVID-19-urelated pneumonia has never been compared. This study assesses fundamental gas-exchange and hemodynamic parameters and explores their prognostic impact in COVID-19 pneumonia and non-COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated arterial pO2/FiO2, alveolar to arterial O2 gradient, shock index, and serum lactate in 126 COVID-19 pneumonia patients, aged 18- 65, presenting to the emergency department with acute, non-hypercapnic respiratory failure. As a control group we identified 1:1 age-, sex-, and pO2/FiO2-matched COVID-19-urelated pneumonia patients. Univariate and multivariable predictors of 30-day survival were identified in both groups. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed lower arterial serum lactate concentration (p<0.001) and shock index (p<0.001) values as compared to non-COVID-19 patients. While we did not observe differences in lactate concentration or in shock index values in deceased vs surviving COVID-19 patients (respectively, p=0.7 and p=0.6), non-COVID-19 deceased patients showed significantly higher lactate and shock index than non-COVID-19 survivors (p<0.001 and p=0.03). The pO2/FiO2 was the most powerful determinant of survival by Cox regression multivariate analysis in COVID-19 patients (p=0.006), while it was lactate in non-COVID-19 patients (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to COVID19-unrelated pneumonia, COVID-19 pneumonia outcome seems more strictly correlated to the extent of lung damage, rather than to the systemic circulatory and metabolic derangements typical of sepsis.

18.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S354-S355, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564848

ABSTRACT

Background Evidence regarding the impact of remdesivir (RDV) on SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance (VC) is scarce. Aim of this study was to compare VC timing in COVID-19 patients who received RDV with those who did not. Methods Matched-cohort study conducted (25 February 2020-15 April 2021) at the IRCSS San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. The study enrolled hospitalized patients with pneumonia and a SARS-CoV-2 positive nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) at admission and at least one NPS during follow-up. Follow-up started at hospital admission and ended at the date of the first negative NPS (within 30 days after discharge). Patients who received RDV (cases) and patients who did not (controls) were matched based on age (±5 years), sex and PaO2/FiO2 (P/F;±10 mmHg) values at admission. NPS were analyzed with RT-PCR. Results described as median (IQR) or frequency (%). Time to VC was estimated with Kaplan-Meier curve and compared with log-rank test. Results 648 patients were enrolled: 216 cases and 432 controls. Patients’ characteristics at admission are reported in Table 1. VC was observed in 490 patients (75.6%) in a median time of 25 (16-34) days. Overall, time to VC was similar in patients receiving or not receiving remdesivir (p=0.519). However, time to VC was different when considering both the use of RDV (yes vs no) and age (≤ or > 63 years), as shown in Figure 1A. A significant finding was also observed considering the use of RDV and P/F values at admission (≤ or > 200 mmHg), as reported in Figure 1B. Among the 490 patients who reached VC during follow-up, overall time to VC was similar in patients receiving or not receiving RDV (p=0.075;Figure 2A);however, RDV use was associated with a higher probability of VC in the subgroup of patients with P/F admission values ≤ 200mmHg (p=0.035;Figure 2B), in the age group 55-65 years (p=0.025;Figure 2C) and in patients with comorbidities (p=0.028). Time to viral clearance among the 490 patients who reached VC during follow-up. Panel A: time to VC according to RDV use. Panel B: time to VC according to RDV and P/F ratio value at admission. Panel C: time to VC according to RDV in the age group 55-65 years. Conclusion Time to viral clearance was similar in patients receiving or not receiving remdesivir;however the use of RDV was associated with a benefit on time to viral clearance in younger patients and in those with a P/F ratio at admission ≤200 mmHg. Disclosures Vincenzo Spagnuolo, MD, ViiV Healthcare (Other Financial or Material Support, Preparation of educational material) Antonella Castagna, MD, Gilead Sciences (Other Financial or Material Support, Speaking fee)Jansenn-Cilag (Other Financial or Material Support, Speaking fee)MSD (Other Financial or Material Support, Speaking fee)Theratechnologies (Other Financial or Material Support, Speaking fee)ViiV Healthcare (Other Financial or Material Support, Speaking fee)

20.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(5): 1354-1363, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with COVID-19 frequently develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Data on long-term survival of these patients are lacking. The authors investigated 1-year survival, quality of life, and functional recovery of patients with COVID-19 ARDS requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Tertiary-care university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All patients with COVID-19 ARDS receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and discharged alive from hospital. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were contacted by phone after 1 year. Functional, cognitive, and psychological outcomes were explored through a questionnaire and assessed using validated scales. Patients were offered the possibility to undergo a follow-up chest computed tomography (CT) scan. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The study included all adult (age ≥18 years) patients with COVID-19-related ARDS admitted to an ICU of the authors' institution between February 25, 2020, and April 27, 2020, who received at least 1 day of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Of 116 patients who received IMV, 61 (52.6%) survived to hospital discharge. These survivors were assessed 1 year after discharge and 56 completed a battery of tests of cognition, activities of daily living, and interaction with family members. They had overall good functional recovery, with >80% reporting good recovery and no difficulties in usual activities. A total of 52 (93%) of patients had no dyspnea at rest. Severe anxiety/depression was reported by 5 (8.9%) patients. Comparing 2-month and 1-year data, the authors observed the most significant improvements in the areas of working status and exertional dyspnea. One-year chest CT scans were available for 36 patients; fibrotic-like changes were present in 4 patients. CONCLUSIONS: All patients who survived the acute phase of COVID-19 and were discharged from the hospital were alive at the 1-year follow up, and the vast majority of them had good overall recovery and quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Activities of Daily Living , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
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