Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 17 de 17
Filter
1.
STAR Protocols ; : 101902, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2120452

ABSTRACT

Summary Memory B cells (MBCs), part of the immune response elicited by infection or vaccination, can persist in lymphoid organs and peripheral blood and are capable of rapid reactivation upon secondary antigen exposure. Here, we describe a flow cytometric assay to identify antigen-specific MBCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and characterize their isotypes and activation status. We detail steps to use fluorescently labeled antigen probes derived from the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. These can be adapted to detect MBCs against other antigens.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089016

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein is synthesized as large precursor protein and must be activated by proteolytic cleavage into S1 and S2. A recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing native, full-length S protein (MVA-SARS-2-S) is currently under investigation as candidate vaccine in phase I clinical studies. Initial results from immunogenicity monitoring revealed induction of S-specific antibodies binding to S2, but low-level antibody responses to the S1 domain. Follow-up investigations of native S antigen synthesis in MVA-SARS-2-S infected cells revealed limited levels of S1 protein on the cell surface. In contrast, we found superior S1 cell surface presentation upon infection with a recombinant MVA expressing a stabilized version of SARS-CoV-2 S protein with an inactivated S1/2 cleavage site and K986→P and V987→P mutations (MVA-SARS-2-ST). When comparing immunogenicity of MVA vector vaccines, mice vaccinated with MVA-SARS-2-ST mounted substantial levels of S broadly reactive antibodies that effectively neutralized different SARS-CoV-2 variants. Importantly, intramuscular MVA-SARS-2-ST immunization of hamsters and mice resulted in potent immune responses upon challenge infection and protected from disease and severe lung pathology. Our results suggest that MVA-SARS-2-ST represents an improved clinical candidate vaccine and that the presence of plasma membrane-bound S1 is highly beneficial to induce protective antibody levels.

3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4182, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947341

ABSTRACT

Vaccine development is essential for pandemic preparedness. We previously conducted a Phase 1 clinical trial of the vector vaccine candidate MVA-MERS-S against the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), expressing its full spike glycoprotein (MERS-CoV-S), as a homologous two-dose regimen (Days 0 and 28). Here, we evaluate the safety (primary objective) and immunogenicity (secondary and exploratory objectives: magnitude and characterization of vaccine-induced humoral responses) of a third vaccination with MVA-MERS-S in a subgroup of trial participants one year after primary immunization. MVA-MERS-S booster vaccination is safe and well-tolerated. Both binding and neutralizing anti-MERS-CoV antibody titers increase substantially in all participants and exceed maximum titers observed after primary immunization more than 10-fold. We identify four immunogenic IgG epitopes, located in the receptor-binding domain (RBD, n = 1) and the S2 subunit (n = 3) of MERS-CoV-S. The level of baseline anti-human coronavirus antibody titers does not impact the generation of anti-MERS-CoV antibody responses. Our data support the rationale of a booster vaccination with MVA-MERS-S and encourage further investigation in larger trials. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03615911.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
4.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(7): 100685, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937310

ABSTRACT

The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a respiratory disease caused by MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In follow up to a phase 1 trial, we perform a longitudinal analysis of immune responses following immunization with the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine MVA-MERS-S encoding the MERS-CoV-spike protein. Three homologous immunizations were administered on days 0 and 28 with a late booster vaccination at 12 ± 4 months. Antibody isotypes, subclasses, and neutralization capacity as well as T and B cell responses were monitored over a period of 3 years using standard and bead-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 50% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT50), enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot), and flow cytometry. The late booster immunization significantly increases the frequency and persistence of spike-specific B cells, binding immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and neutralizing antibodies but not T cell responses. Our data highlight the potential of a late boost to enhance long-term antibody and B cell immunity against MERS-CoV. Our findings on the MVA-MERS-S vaccine may be of relevance for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Vaccination , Vaccinia virus
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1037-1048, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752041

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent for the disease COVID-19. To capture the IgA, IgG, and IgM antibody response of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 at individual epitope resolution, we constructed planar microarrays of 648 overlapping peptides that cover the four major structural proteins S(pike), N(ucleocapsid), M(embrane), and E(nvelope). The arrays were incubated with sera of 67 SARS-CoV-2 positive and 22 negative control samples. Specific responses to SARS-CoV-2 were detectable, and nine peptides were associated with a more severe course of the disease. A random forest model disclosed that antibody binding to 21 peptides, mostly localized in the S protein, was associated with higher neutralization values in cellular anti-SARS-CoV-2 assays. For antibodies addressing the N-terminus of M, or peptides close to the fusion region of S, protective effects were proven by antibody depletion and neutralization assays. The study pinpoints unusual viral binding epitopes that might be suited as vaccine candidates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Epitopes , Humans , Machine Learning , Peptides , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 798276, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606542

ABSTRACT

Effects of initiation of programmed-death-protein 1 (PD1) blockade during active SARS-CoV-2 infection on antiviral immunity, COVID-19 course, and underlying malignancy are unclear. We report on the management of a male in his early 40s presenting with highly symptomatic metastatic lung cancer and active COVID-19 pneumonia. After treatment initiation with pembrolizumab, carboplatin, and pemetrexed, the respiratory situation initially worsened and high-dose corticosteroids were initiated due to suspected pneumonitis. After improvement and SARS-CoV-2 clearance, anti-cancer treatment was resumed without pembrolizumab. Immunological analyses with comparison to otherwise healthy SARS-CoV-2-infected ambulatory patients revealed a strong humoral immune response with higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-reactive IgG and neutralizing serum activity. Additionally, sustained increase of Tfh as well as activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was observed. Sequential CT scans showed regression of tumor lesions and marked improvement of the pulmonary situation, with no signs of pneumonitis after pembrolizumab re-challenge as maintenance. At the latest follow-up, the patient is ambulatory and in ongoing partial remission on pembrolizumab. In conclusion, anti-PD1 initiation during active COVID-19 pneumonia was feasible and cellular and humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 appeared enhanced in our hospitalized patient. However, distinguishing COVID-19-associated changes from anti-PD1-associated immune-related pneumonitis posed a considerable clinical, radiographic, and immunologic challenge.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Pneumonia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
9.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 23: 418-423, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466817

ABSTRACT

Vaccination with the adenoviral-vector-based AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (Vaxzevria) vaccine is efficient and safe. However, in rare cases vaccinated individuals developed life-threatening thrombotic complications, including thrombosis in cerebral sinus and splanchnic veins. Monitoring of the applied vector in vivo represents an important precondition to study the molecular mechanisms underlying vaccine-driven adverse effects now referred to as vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). We previously have shown that digital PCR (dPCR) is an excellent tool to quantify transgene copies in vivo. Here, we present a highly sensitive dPCR for in situ quantification of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 copies. Using this method, we quantified vector copies in human plasma 24, 72, and 168 h post vaccination and in a variety of murine tissues in an experimental vaccination model 30 min post injection. We describe a method for high-sensitivity quantitative detection of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 with possible implications to elucidate the mechanisms of severe ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine complications.

10.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 9(3): 905-917, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hamburg is a city state of approximately 1.9 Mio inhabitants in Northern Germany. Currently, the COVID-19 epidemic that had largely subsided during last summer is resurging in Hamburg and in other parts of the world, underlining the need for additional tools to monitor SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. AIM: We aimed to develop and validate a simple, low-cost assay for detecting antibodies against the native coronavirus 2 spike protein (CoV-2 S) that does not require recombinant protein or virus. METHOD: We transiently co-transfected HEK cells or CHO cells with expression vectors encoding CoV-2 S and nuclear GFP. Spike protein-specific antibodies in human serum samples bound to transfected cells were detected with fluorochrome conjugated secondary antibodies by flow cytometry orimmunofluorescence microscopy. We applied this assay to monitor antibody development in COVID-19 patients, household contacts, and hospital personnel during the ongoing epidemic in the city state of Hamburg. RESULTS: All recovered COVID-19 patients showed high levels of CoV-2 S-specific antibodies. With one exception, all household members that did not develop symptoms also did not develop detectable antibodies. Similarly, lab personnel that worked during the epidemic and followed social distancing guidelines remained antibody-negative. CONCLUSION: We conclude that high-titer CoV-2 S-specific antibodies are found in most recovered COVID-19 patients and in symptomatic contacts, but only rarely in asymptomatic contacts. The assay may help health care providers to monitor disease progression and antibody responses in vaccination trials, to identify health care personnel that likely are resistant to re-infection, and recovered individuals with high antibody titers that may be suitable asplasma and/or antibody donors.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Flow Cytometry , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
11.
Pathogens ; 10(4)2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178372

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). A better understanding of its immunogenicity can be important for the development of improved diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. Here, we report the longitudinal analysis of three COVID-19 patients with moderate (#1) and mild disease (#2 and #3). Antibody serum responses were analyzed using spike glycoprotein enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), full-proteome peptide, and glycan microarrays. ELISA immunoglobulin A, G, and M (IgA, IgG, and IgM) signals increased over time for individuals #1 and #2, whereas #3 only showed no clear positive IgG and IgM result. In contrast, peptide microarrays showed increasing IgA/G signal intensity and epitope spread only in the moderate patient #1 over time, whereas early but transient IgA and stable IgG responses were observed in the two mild cases #2 and #3. Glycan arrays showed an interaction of antibodies to fragments of high-mannose and core N-glycans, present on the viral shield. In contrast to protein ELISA, microarrays allow for a deeper understanding of IgA, IgG, and IgM antibody responses to specific epitopes of the whole proteome and glycans of SARS-CoV-2 in parallel. In the future, this may help to better understand and to monitor vaccination programs and monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics.

12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125926

ABSTRACT

We are in the midst of a pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 has caused more than two million deaths after one year of the pandemic. The world is experiencing a deep economic recession. Safe and effective vaccines are needed to prevent further morbidity and mortality. Vaccine candidates against COVID-19 have been developed at an unprecedented speed, with more than 200 vaccine candidates currently under investigation. Among those, 20 candidates have entered the clinical Phase 3 to evaluate efficacy, and three have been approved by the European Medicines Agency. The aim of immunization is to act against infection, disease and/or transmission. However, the measurement of vaccine efficacy is challenging, as efficacy trials need to include large cohorts with verum and placebo cohorts. In the future, this will be even more challenging as further vaccine candidates will receive approval, an increasing number of humans will receive vaccinations and incidence might decrease. To evaluate novel and second-generation vaccine candidates, randomized placebo-controlled trials might not be appropriate anymore. Correlates of protection (CoP) could be an important tool to evaluate novel vaccine candidates, but vaccine-induced CoP have not been clearly defined for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. In this review, we report on immunogenicity against natural SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccine-induced immune responses and discuss immunological markers that can be linked to protection. By discussing the immunogenicity and efficacy of forerunner vaccines, we aim to give a comprehensive overview of possible efficacy measures and CoP.

13.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(7): 827-838, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a respiratory disease with a case fatality rate of up to 35%. Given its potential to cause a public health emergency and the absence of efficacious drugs or vaccines, MERS is one of the WHO priority diseases warranting urgent research and development of countermeasures. We aimed to assess safety and tolerability of an anti-MERS-CoV modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine candidate that expresses the MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein, MVA-MERS-S, in healthy adults. METHODS: This open-label, phase 1 trial was done at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Hamburg, Germany). Participants were healthy men and women aged 18-55 years with no clinically significant health problems as determined during medical history and physical examination, a body-mass index of 18·5-30·0 kg/m2 and weight of more than 50 kg at screening, and a negative pregnancy test for women. A key exclusion criterion was a previous MVA vaccination. For the prime immunisation, participants received doses of 1 × 107 plaque-forming unit (PFU; low-dose group) or 1 × 108 PFU (high-dose group) MVA-MERS-S intramuscularly. A second identical dose was administered intramuscularly as a booster immunisation 28 days after first injection. As a control group for immunogenicity analyses, blood samples were drawn at identical study timepoints from six healthy adults, who did not receive any injections. The primary objectives of the study were safety and tolerability of the two dosage levels and reactogenicity after administration. Immunogenicity was assessed as a secondary endpoint by ELISA and neutralisation tests. T-cell immunity was evaluated by interferon-γ-linked enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot assay. All participants who were vaccinated at least once were included in the safety analysis. Immunogenicity was analysed in the participants who completed 6 months of follow-up. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03615911, and EudraCT, 2014-003195-23 FINDINGS: From Dec 17, 2017, to June 5, 2018, 26 participants (14 in the low-dose group and 12 in the high-dose group) were enrolled and received the first dose of the vaccine according to their group allocation. Of these, 23 participants (12 in the low-dose group and 11 in the high-dose group) received a second dose of MVA-MERS-S according to their group allocation after a 28-day interval and completed follow-up. Homologous prime-boost immunisation with MVA-MERS-S revealed a benign safety profile with only transient mild-to-moderate reactogenicity. Participants had no severe or serious adverse events. 67 vaccine-related adverse events were reported in ten (71%) of 14 participants in the low-dose group, and 111 were reported in ten (83%) of 12 participants in the high-dose group. Solicited local reactions were the most common adverse events: pain was observed in 17 (65%; seven in the low-dose group vs ten in the high-dose group) participants, swelling in ten (38%; two vs eight) participants, and induration in ten (38%; one vs nine) participants. Headaches (observed in seven participants in the low-dose group vs nine in the high-dose group) and fatigue or malaise (ten vs seven participants) were the most common solicited systemic adverse events. All adverse events resolved swiftly (within 1-3 days) and without sequelae. Following booster immunisation, nine (75%) of 12 participants in the low-dose group and 11 (100%) participants in the high-dose group showed seroconversion using a MERS-CoV S1 ELISA at any timepoint during the study. Binding antibody titres correlated with MERS-CoV-specific neutralising antibodies (Spearman's correlation r=0·86 [95% CI 0·6960-0·9427], p=0·0001). MERS-CoV spike-specific T-cell responses were detected in ten (83%) of 12 immunised participants in the low-dose group and ten (91%) of 11 immunised participants in the high-dose group. INTERPRETATION: Vaccination with MVA-MERS-S had a favourable safety profile without serious or severe adverse events. Homologous prime-boost immunisation induced humoral and cell-mediated responses against MERS-CoV. A dose-effect relationship was demonstrated for reactogenicity, but not for vaccine-induced immune responses. The data presented here support further clinical testing of MVA-MERS-S in larger cohorts to advance MERS vaccine development. FUNDING: German Center for Infection Research.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Genetic Vectors , Germany , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Vaccines, DNA , Young Adult
14.
Front Immunol ; 11: 601170, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045522

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are one of the greatest public health achievements and have saved millions of lives. They represent a key countermeasure to limit epidemics caused by emerging infectious diseases. The Ebola virus disease crisis in West Africa dramatically revealed the need for a rapid and strategic development of vaccines to effectively control outbreaks. Seven years later, in light of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, this need has never been as urgent as it is today. Vaccine development and implementation of clinical trials have been greatly accelerated, but still lack strategic design and evaluation. Responses to vaccination can vary widely across individuals based on factors like age, microbiome, co-morbidities and sex. The latter aspect has received more and more attention in recent years and a growing body of data provide evidence that sex-specific effects may lead to different outcomes of vaccine safety and efficacy. As these differences might have a significant impact on the resulting optimal vaccine regimen, sex-based differences should already be considered and investigated in pre-clinical and clinical trials. In this Review, we will highlight the clinical observations of sex-specific differences in response to vaccination, delineate sex differences in immune mechanisms, and will discuss the possible resulting implications for development of vaccine candidates against emerging infections. As multiple vaccine candidates against COVID-19 that target the same antigen are tested, vaccine development may undergo a decisive change, since we now have the opportunity to better understand mechanisms that influence vaccine-induced reactogenicity and effectiveness of different vaccines.


Subject(s)
Immunity/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sex Characteristics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods
15.
J Immunol Methods ; 490: 112958, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012442

ABSTRACT

The current Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is a public health emergency of international concern. Sensitive and precise diagnostic tools are urgently needed. In this study, we developed a SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1) protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. The SARS-CoV-2 S1 ELISA was found to be specific [97.8% (95% CI, 96.7% - 98.5%)], reproducible and precise (intra-assay coefficient of variability (CV) 5.3%, inter-assay CV 7.9%). A standard curve and the interpolation of arbitrary ELISA units per milliliter served to reduce the variability between different tests and operators. Cross-reactivity to other human coronaviruses was addressed by using sera positive for MERS-CoV- and hCoV HKU1-specific antibodies. Monitoring antibody development in various samples of twenty-three and single samples of twenty-nine coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients revealed seroconversion and neutralizing antibodies against authentic SARS-CoV-2 in all cases. The comparison of the SARS-CoV-2 (S1) ELISA with a commercially available assay showed a better sensitivity for the in-house ELISA. The results demonstrate a high reproducibility, specificity and sensitivity of the newly developed ELISA, which is suitable for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein-specific antibody responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enzyme Assays , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
16.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4339-4354, 2020 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745888

ABSTRACT

Emergence and re-emergence of pathogens bearing the risk of becoming a pandemic threat are on the rise. Increased travel and trade, growing population density, changes in urbanization, and climate have a critical impact on infectious disease spread. Currently, the world is confronted with the emergence of a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, responsible for yet more than 800 000 deaths globally. Outbreaks caused by viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, HIV, Ebola, influenza, and Zika, have increased over the past decade, underlining the need for a rapid development of diagnostics and vaccines. Hence, the rational identification of biomarkers for diagnostic measures on the one hand, and antigenic targets for vaccine development on the other, are of utmost importance. Peptide microarrays can display large numbers of putative target proteins translated into overlapping linear (and cyclic) peptides for a multiplexed, high-throughput antibody analysis. This enabled for example the identification of discriminant/diagnostic epitopes in Zika or influenza and mapping epitope evolution in natural infections versus vaccinations. In this review, we highlight synthesis platforms that facilitate fast and flexible generation of high-density peptide microarrays. We further outline the multifaceted applications of these peptide array platforms for the development of serological tests and vaccines to quickly encounter pandemic threats.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes , Pandemics , Protein Array Analysis/methods , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Communicable Diseases/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
17.
Immunity ; 53(2): 442-455.e4, 2020 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626455

ABSTRACT

We profiled adaptive immunity in COVID-19 patients with active infection or after recovery and created a repository of currently >14 million B and T cell receptor (BCR and TCR) sequences from the blood of these patients. The B cell response showed converging IGHV3-driven BCR clusters closely associated with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Clonality and skewing of TCR repertoires were associated with interferon type I and III responses, early CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation, and counterregulation by the co-receptors BTLA, Tim-3, PD-1, TIGIT, and CD73. Tfh, Th17-like, and nonconventional (but not classical antiviral) Th1 cell polarizations were induced. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses were driven by TCR clusters shared between patients with a characteristic trajectory of clonotypes and traceability over the disease course. Our data provide fundamental insight into adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 with the actively updated repository providing a resource for the scientific community urgently needed to inform therapeutic concepts and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Cytokines , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL