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Antioxidants ; 11(8):1498, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023086


Quinocetone (QCT), a member of the quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs) family, can cause genotoxicity and hepatotoxicity, however, the precise molecular mechanisms of QCT are unclear. This present study investigated the protective effect of quercetin on QCT-induced cytotoxicity and the underlying molecular mechanisms in human L02 and HepG2 cells. The results showed that quercetin treatment (at 7.5–30 μM) significantly improved QCT-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative damage in human L02 and HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, quercetin treatment at 30 μM significantly inhibited QCT-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, an increase in the expression of the CytC protein and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and an increase in caspases-9 and -3 activity, and finally improved cell apoptosis. Quercetin pretreatment promoted the expression of the phosphorylation of p38, Nrf2, and HO-1 proteins. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 significantly inhibited quercetin-mediated activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Consistently, pharmacological inhibitions of the Nrf2 or p38 pathways both promoted QCT-induced cytotoxicity and partly abolished the protective effects of quercetin. In conclusion, for the first time, our results reveal that quercetin could improve QCT-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis by activating the p38/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and inhibiting the ROS/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Our study highlights that quercetin may be a promising candidate for preventing QdNOs-induced cytotoxicity in humans or animals.

Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(5)2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875461


Ivermectin (IVM) could cause potential neurotoxicity; however, the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear. This study explores the cytotoxicity of IVM in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results show that IVM treatment (2.5-15 µM) for 24 h could induce dose-dependent cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. Compared to the control, IVM treatment significantly promoted the production of ROS, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell apoptosis. IVM treatment also promoted mitophagy and autophagy, which were charactered by the decreased expression of phosphorylation (p)-Akt and p-mTOR proteins, increased expression of LC3II, Beclin1, ATG5, PINK, and Pakin1 proteins and autophagosome formation. N-acetylcysteine treatment significantly inhibited the IVM-induced production of ROS and cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. Autophagy inhibitor (e.g., 3-methyladenine) treatment significantly inhibited IVM-induced autophagy, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis. Taken together, our results reveal that IVM could induce autophagy and apoptotic cell death in SH-SY5Y cells, which involved the production of ROS, activation of mitochondrial pathway, and inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway. Autophagy inhibition improved IVM-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. This current study provides new insights into understanding the molecular mechanism of IVM-induced neurotoxicity and facilitates the discovery of potential neuroprotective agents.

Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(3)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760315


The rapid spread of antibiotic resistance and lack of effective drugs for treating infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria in animal and human medicine have forced us to find new antibacterial strategies. Natural products have served as powerful therapeutics against bacterial infection and are still an important source for the discovery of novel antibacterial drugs. Curcumin, an important constituent of turmeric, is considered safe for oral consumption to treat bacterial infections. Many studies showed that curcumin exhibited antibacterial activities against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial action of curcumin involves the disruption of the bacterial membrane, inhibition of the production of bacterial virulence factors and biofilm formation, and the induction of oxidative stress. These characteristics also contribute to explain how curcumin acts a broad-spectrum antibacterial adjuvant, which was evidenced by the markedly additive or synergistical effects with various types of conventional antibiotics or non-antibiotic compounds. In this review, we summarize the antibacterial properties, underlying molecular mechanism of curcumin, and discuss its combination use, nano-formulations, safety, and current challenges towards development as an antibacterial agent. We hope that this review provides valuable insight, stimulates broader discussions, and spurs further developments around this promising natural product.