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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 945865, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974643

ABSTRACT

Stress in poultry can lead to changes in body metabolism and immunity, which can increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, knowledge regarding chicken responses to viral infection under stress is limited. Dexamethasone (Dex) is a synthetic glucocorticoid similar to that secreted by animals under stress conditions, and has been widely used to induce stress in chickens. Herein, we established a stress model in 7-day-old chickens injected with Dex to elucidate the effects of stress on IBV replication in the kidneys. The metabolic changes, immune status and growth of the chickens under stress conditions were comprehensively evaluated. Furthermore, the metabolic profile, weight gain, viral load, serum cholesterol levels, cytokines and peripheral blood lymphocyte ratio were compared in chickens treated with Dex and infected with IBV. An LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics method was used to examine differentially enriched metabolites in the kidneys. A total of 113 metabolites whose abundance was altered after Dex treatment were identified, most of which were lipids and lipid-like molecules. The principal metabolic alterations in chicken kidneys caused by IBV infection included fatty acid, valine, leucine and isoleucine metabolism. Dex treatment before and after IBV infection mainly affected the host's tryptophan, phenylalanine, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism. In addition, Dex led to up-regulation of serum cholesterol levels and renal viral load in chickens, and to the inhibition of weight gain, peripheral blood lymphocytes and IL-6 production. We also confirmed that the exogenous cholesterol in DF-1 cells promoted the replication of IBV. However, whether the increase in viral load in kidney tissue is associated with the up-regulation of cholesterol levels induced by Dex must be demonstrated in future experiments. In conclusion, chick growth and immune function were significantly inhibited by Dex. Host cholesterol metabolism and the response to IBV infection are regulated by Dex. This study provides valuable insights into the molecular regulatory mechanisms in poultry stress, and should support further research on the intrinsic link between cholesterol metabolism and IBV replication under stress conditions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Chromatography, Liquid , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Kidney , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Weight Gain
2.
J Inorg Biochem ; 231: 111777, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873158

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is currently the major challenge to global public health. Two proteases, papain-like protease (PLpro) and the 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro or Mpro), are indispensable for SARS-CoV-2 replication, making them attractive targets for antiviral therapy development. Here we screened a panel of essential metal ions using a proteolytic assay and identified that zinc gluconate, a widely-used zinc supplement, strongly inhibited the proteolytic activities of the two proteases in vitro. Biochemical and crystallographic data reveal that zinc gluconate exhibited the inhibitory function via binding to the protease catalytic site residues. We further show that treatment of zinc gluconate in combination with a small molecule ionophore hinokitiol, could lead to elevated intracellular Zn2+ level and thereby significantly impaired the two protease activities in cellulo. Particularly, this approach could also be applied to rescue SARS-CoV-2 infected mammalian cells, indicative of potential application to combat coronavirus infections. Our studies provide the direct experimental evidence that elevated intracellular zinc concentration directly inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication and suggest the potential benefits to use the zinc supplements for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Gluconates , Mammals/metabolism , Monoterpenes , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Tropolone/analogs & derivatives , Zinc/pharmacology
3.
Sci Transl Med ; : eabm7621, 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846322

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus driving the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, continues to rapidly evolve. Due to the limited efficacy of vaccination in prevention of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and continuous emergence of variants of concern (VOC), orally bioavailable and broadly efficacious antiviral drugs are urgently needed. Previously we showed that the parent nucleoside of remdesivir, GS-441524, possesses potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. Herein, we report that esterification of the 5'-hydroxyl moieties of GS-441524 markedly improved antiviral potency. This 5'-hydroxyl-isobutyryl prodrug, ATV006, demonstrated excellent oral bioavailability in rats and cynomolgus monkeys and exhibited potent antiviral efficacy against different SARS-CoV-2 VOCs in vitro and in three mouse models. Oral administration of ATV006 reduced viral loads and alleviated lung damage when administered prophylactically and therapeutically to K18-hACE2 mice challenged with the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2. These data indicate that ATV006 represents a promising oral antiviral drug candidate for SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 791267, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834396

ABSTRACT

Host cholesterol metabolism remodeling is significantly associated with the spread of human pathogenic coronaviruses, suggesting virus-host relationships could be affected by cholesterol-modifying drugs. Cholesterol has an important role in coronavirus entry, membrane fusion, and pathological syncytia formation, therefore cholesterol metabolic mechanisms may be promising drug targets for coronavirus infections. Moreover, cholesterol and its metabolizing enzymes or corresponding natural products exert antiviral effects which are closely associated with individual viral steps during coronavirus replication. Furthermore, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections are associated with clinically significant low cholesterol levels, suggesting cholesterol could function as a potential marker for monitoring viral infection status. Therefore, weaponizing cholesterol dysregulation against viral infection could be an effective antiviral strategy. In this review, we comprehensively review the literature to clarify how coronaviruses exploit host cholesterol metabolism to accommodate viral replication requirements and interfere with host immune responses. We also focus on targeting cholesterol homeostasis to interfere with critical steps during coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cholesterol/metabolism , Humans , Virus Replication
6.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 65, 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569241

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, poses a serious public health threat. Effective therapeutic and prophylactic treatments are urgently needed. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2, which binds to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Here, we developed recombinant human ACE2-Fc fusion protein (hACE2-Fc) and a hACE2-Fc mutant with reduced catalytic activity. hACE2-Fc and the hACE2-Fc mutant both efficiently blocked entry of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and HCoV-NL63 into hACE2-expressing cells and inhibited SARS-CoV-2 S protein-mediated cell-cell fusion. hACE2-Fc also neutralized various SARS-CoV-2 strains with enhanced infectivity including D614G and V367F mutations, as well as the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), B.1.617.1 (Kappa), and B.1.617.2 (Delta), demonstrating its potent and broad-spectrum antiviral effects. In addition, hACE2-Fc proteins protected HBE from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Unlike RBD-targeting neutralizing antibodies, hACE2-Fc treatment did not induce the development of escape mutants. Furthermore, both prophylactic and therapeutic hACE2-Fc treatments effectively protected mice from SARS-CoV-2 infection, as determined by reduced viral replication, weight loss, histological changes, and inflammation in the lungs. The protection provided by hACE2 showed obvious dose-dependent efficacy in vivo. Pharmacokinetic data indicated that hACE2-Fc has a relative long half-life in vivo compared to soluble ACE2, which makes it an excellent candidate for prophylaxis and therapy for COVID-19 as well as for SARS-CoV and HCoV-NL63 infections.

7.
Phytomedicine ; 95: 153874, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) pose a huge threat to human public health, no specific treatment is available. Jinzhen granule (JZ) is a traditional eight ingredients-Chinese medicine with prominent efficacy for treating viral-induced diseases. However, little is known about the antiviral effect and mechanism of JZ against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E. PURPOSE: This study aimed to reveal the antiviral effects of JZ against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E, and to further explore the underlying mechanisms regulating the host immune response. METHODS: The chromatographic separation of JZ was performed using a Shimadzu analytical high-performance liquid chromatograph with UV detection and Alltech ELSD 2000ES. We conducted cytopathic effect (CPE) and plaque reduction assays to evaluate the antiviral effect of JZ. A lethal human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) transgenic mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 was established to determine the protective effect of JZ on mortality and lung virus titers. Real-time quantitative PCR assays were used to analyze the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo. Western blotting was further performed to determine the activities on regulating the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)/MAPK pathway. Finally, mitochondrial membrane potential assays, flow cytometry analysis and western blotting were used to assess the anti-apoptotic potency toward HCoV-229E infection. RESULTS: The results showed that 13 chemical components were identified and five peaks were determined and quantitated (gallic acid 1.97 mg/g, baicalin 20.69 mg/g, glycyrrhizic acid 4.92 mg/g, hyodeoxycholic acid 4.86 mg/g, cholic acid 4.07 mg/g). We found that JZ exerted inhibitory potency against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E in vitro by using CPE and plaque reduction assays, and it was further found that JZ protected mice infected by SARS-CoV-2 from death and inhibited lung virus titers. JZ also significantly decreased the induction of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6, CCL-5 and MIP-1ß), similar to the observed in vitro effect. Moreover, JZ suppressed the release of inflammatory cytokines in vitro and it decreased the protein expression of p-p38 MAPK, p-JNK, p-NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα induced by HCoV-229E and increased the expression of IκBα. Notably, JZ significantly protected HCoV-229E-infected Huh-7 cells from mitochondrial damage and decreased apoptotic cells. The activation of the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway was inhibited by JZ, as shown by the reduced expression of cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and p-PARP. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, JZ (gallic acid 1.97 mg/g, baicalin 20.69 mg/g, glycyrrhizic acid 4.92 mg/g, hyodeoxycholic acid 4.86 mg/g, cholic acid 4.07 mg/g) exhibited antiviral activities against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E by regulating the NF-κB/MAPK pathway and the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. These findings demonstrated the efficacy of JZ against CoVs and suggested JZ treatment as a novel clinical therapeutic strategy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice , NF-kappa B
8.
Chem Sci ; 12(42): 14098-14102, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472230

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro or Mpro) is a key cysteine protease for viral replication and transcription, making it an attractive target for antiviral therapies to combat the COVID-19 disease. Here, we demonstrate that bismuth drug colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) is a potent inhibitor for 3CLpro in vitro and in cellulo. Rather than targeting the cysteine residue at the catalytic site, CBS binds to an allosteric site and results in dissociation of the 3CLpro dimer and proteolytic dysfunction. Our work provides direct evidence that CBS is an allosteric inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro.

9.
Genomics ; 113(6): 3449-3460, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364519

ABSTRACT

The high rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a serious threat to public health. Previous studies have suggested that SARS-CoV-2 can infect human ovary, the core organ of the female reproductive system. However, it remains unclear which type of ovarian cells are easily infected by SARS-CoV-2 and whether ovarian infectivity differs from puberty to menopause. In this study, public datasets containing bulk and single-cell RNA-Seq data derived from ovarian tissues were analyzed to demonstrate the mRNA expression and protein distribution of the two key entry receptors for SARS-CoV-2-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2). Furthermore, an immunohistochemical study of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in human ovaries of different ages was conducted. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis of ovaries of different ages and with varying ovarian reserves was conducted to explore the potential functions of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the ovary. The analysis of the public datasets indicated that the co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was observed mostly in oocytes and partially in granulosa cells. However, no marked difference was observed in ACE2 or TMPRSS2 expression between young and old ovaries and ovaries with low and high reserves. Correspondingly, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were detected in the human ovarian cortex and medulla, especially in oocytes of different stages, with no observed variations in their expression level in ovaries of different ages, which was consistent with the results of bioinformatic analyses. Remarkably, DEG analysis showed that a series of viral infection-related pathways were more enriched in ACE2-positive ovarian cells than in ACE2-negative ovarian cells, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may potentially target specific ovarian cells and affect ovarian function. However, further fundamental and clinical research is still needed to monitor the process of SARS-CoV-2 entry into ovarian cells and the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the ovarian function in recovered females.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Ovary/cytology , Ovary/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Menopause , Middle Aged , Ovary/virology , Puberty , RNA, Messenger , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Young Adult
10.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104850, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318927

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide through person-to-person contact, causing a public health emergency of international concern. At present, there is no specific antiviral treatment recommended for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Liu Shen capsule (LS), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been proven to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immunomodulatory activities. However, little is known about the antiviral effect of LS against SARS-CoV-2. Herein, the study was designed to investigate the antiviral activity of SARS-CoV-2 and its potential effect in regulating the host's immune response. The inhibitory effect of LS against SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells was evaluated by using the cytopathic effect (CPE) and plaque reduction assay. The number of virions of SARS-CoV-2 was observed under transmission electron microscope after treatment with LS. Proinflammatory cytokine expression levels upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays. The results showed that LS could significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells, and reduce the number of virus particles and it could markedly reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-8, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CXCL-10/IP-10) production at the mRNA levels. Moreover, the expression of the key proteins in the NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway was detected by western blot and it was found that LS could inhibit the expression of p-NF-κB p65, p-IκBα and p-p38 MAPK, while increasing the expression of IκBα. These findings indicate that LS could inhibit SARS-CoV-2 virus infection via downregulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines induced virus and regulating the activity of NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway in vitro, making its promising candidate treatment for controlling COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Complex Mixtures/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virion/drug effects
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(9): e240-e248, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that females with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have a lower morbidity, severe case rate, and mortality and better outcome than those of male individuals. However, the reasons remained to be addressed. METHODS: To find the factors that potentially protect females from COVID-19, we recruited all confirmed patients hospitalized at 3 branches of Tongji Hospital (N = 1902), and analyzed the correlation between menstrual status (n = 509, including 68 from Mobile Cabin Hospital), female hormones (n = 78), and cytokines related to immunity and inflammation (n = 263), and the severity/clinical outcomes in female patients <60 years of age. RESULTS: Nonmenopausal female patients had milder severity and better outcome compared with age-matched men (P < .01 for both). Menopausal patients had longer hospitalization times than nonmenopausal patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.91 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.06-3.46]; P = .033). Both anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and estradiol (E2) showed a negative correlation with severity of infection (adjusted HR, 0.146 [95% CI, .026-.824], P = .029 and 0.304 [95% CI, .092-1.001], P = .05, respectively). E2 levels were negatively correlated with interleukin (IL) 2R, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in the luteal phase (P = .033, P = .048, P = .054, and P = .023) and C3 in the follicular phase (P = .030). CONCLUSIONS: Menopause is an independent risk factor for female COVID-19 patients. AMH and E2 are potential protective factors, negatively correlated with COVID-19 severity, among which E2 is attributed to its regulation of cytokines related to immunity and inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
12.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035695

ABSTRACT

Virus-specific T cells play essential roles in protection against multiple virus infections, including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. While SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells have been identified in COVID-19 patients, their role in the protection of SARS-CoV-2-infected mice is not established. Here, using mice sensitized for infection with SARS-CoV-2 by transduction with an adenovirus expressing the human receptor (Ad5-hACE2), we identified SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell epitopes recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Virus-specific T cells were polyfunctional and were able to lyse target cells in vivo. Further, type I interferon pathway was proved to be critical for generating optimal antiviral T cell responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection. T cell vaccination alone partially protected SARS-CoV-2-infected mice from severe disease. In addition, the results demonstrated cross-reactive T cell responses between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, but not MERS-CoV, in mice. Understanding the role of the T cell response will guide immunopathogenesis studies of COVID-19 and vaccine design and validation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cross Reactions , Epitope Mapping , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
13.
J Virol ; 94(15)2020 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-762192

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory disease in humans. MERS-CoV strains from early epidemic clade A and contemporary epidemic clade B have not been phenotypically characterized to compare their abilities to infect cells and mice. We isolated the clade B MERS-CoV ChinaGD01 strain from a patient infected during the South Korean MERS outbreak in 2015 and compared the phylogenetics and pathogenicity of MERS-CoV EMC/2012 (clade A) and ChinaGD01 (clade B) in vitro and in vivo Genome alignment analysis showed that most clade-specific mutations occurred in the orf1ab gene, including mutations that were predicted to be potential glycosylation sites. Minor differences in viral growth but no significant differences in plaque size or sensitivity to beta interferon (IFN-ß) were detected between these two viruses in vitro ChinaGD01 virus infection induced more weight loss and inflammatory cytokine production in human DPP4-transduced mice. Viral titers were higher in the lungs of ChinaGD01-infected mice than with EMC/2012 infection. Decreased virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell numbers were detected in the lungs of ChinaGD01-infected mice. In conclusion, MERS-CoV evolution induced changes to reshape its pathogenicity and virulence in vitro and in vivo and to evade adaptive immune response to hinder viral clearance.IMPORTANCE MERS-CoV is an important emerging pathogen and causes severe respiratory infection in humans. MERS-CoV strains from early epidemic clade A and contemporary epidemic clade B have not been phenotypically characterized to compare their abilities to infect cells and mice. In this study, we showed that a clade B virus ChinaGD01 strain caused more severe disease in mice, with delayed viral clearance, increased inflammatory cytokines, and decreased antiviral T cell responses, than the early clade A virus EMC/2012. Given the differences in pathogenicity of different clades of MERS-CoV, periodic assessment of currently circulating MERS-CoV is needed to monitor potential severity of zoonotic disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genotype , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Adult , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Genome, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Interferon Type I/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/classification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Virulence , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
14.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 17(10): 1095-1097, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748174
15.
Phytomedicine ; 78: 153296, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-747894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has extensively and rapidly spread in the world, causing an outbreak of acute infectious pneumonia. However, no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines can be used. Phillyrin (KD-1), a representative ingredient of Forsythia suspensa, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and antiviral activities. However, little is known about the antiviral abilities and mechanism of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). PURPOSE: The study was designed to investigate the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of KD-1 against the novel SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E and its potential effect in regulating host immune response in vitro. METHODS: The antiviral activities of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E were assessed in Vero E6 cells using cytopathic effect and plaque-reduction assay. Proinflammatory cytokine expression levels upon infection with SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays. Western blot assay was used to determine the protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, p-NF-κB p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα in Huh-7 cells, which are the key targets of the NF-κB pathway. RESULTS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E replication in vitro. KD-1 could also markedly reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, MCP-1, and IP-10) at the mRNA levels. Moreover, KD-1 could significantly reduce the protein expression of p-NF-κB p65, NF-κB p65, and p-IκBα, while increasing the expression of IκBα in Huh-7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit virus proliferation in vitro, the up-regulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E by regulating the activity of the NF-кB signaling pathway. Our findings indicated that KD-1 protected against virus attack and can thus be used as a novel strategy for controlling the coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections , Glucosides/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Forsythia/chemistry , Humans , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
16.
Cell ; 182(3): 734-743.e5, 2020 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592236

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a virulent pneumonia, with >4,000,000 confirmed cases worldwide and >290,000 deaths as of May 15, 2020. It is critical that vaccines and therapeutics be developed very rapidly. Mice, the ideal animal for assessing such interventions, are resistant to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we overcome this difficulty by exogenous delivery of human ACE2 with a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad5-hACE2). Ad5-hACE2-sensitized mice developed pneumonia characterized by weight loss, severe pulmonary pathology, and high-titer virus replication in lungs. Type I interferon, T cells, and, most importantly, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) are critical for virus clearance and disease resolution in these mice. Ad5-hACE2-transduced mice enabled rapid assessments of a vaccine candidate, of human convalescent plasma, and of two antiviral therapies (poly I:C and remdesivir). In summary, we describe a murine model of broad and immediate utility to investigate COVID-19 pathogenesis and to evaluate new therapies and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vaccination , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/genetics , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , STAT1 Transcription Factor/genetics , STAT1 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Transduction, Genetic , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Virus Replication
18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 991-993, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133551

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 caused a major outbreak of severe pneumonia (COVID-19) in humans. Viral RNA was detected in multiple organs in COVID-19 patients. However, infectious SARS-CoV-2 was only isolated from respiratory specimens. Here, infectious SARS-CoV-2 was successfully isolated from urine of a COVID-19 patient. The virus isolated could infect new susceptible cells and was recognized by its' own patient sera. Appropriate precautions should be taken to avoid transmission from urine.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/urine , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/urine , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Aged , Animals , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
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