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1.
PLoS Med ; 19(5): e1003953, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heterologous boost vaccination has been proposed as an option to elicit stronger and broader, or longer-lasting immunity. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of heterologous immunization with a recombinant adenovirus type-5-vectored Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine (Convidecia, hereafter referred to as CV) and a protein-subunit-based COVID-19 vaccine (ZF2001, hereafter referred to as ZF). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, in which healthy adults aged 18 years or older, who have received 1 dose of Convidecia, with no history of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, were recruited in Jiangsu, China. Sixty participants were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive either 1 dose of ZF2001 or placebo control (trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV)) administered at 28 days after priming, and received the third injection with ZF2001 at 5 months, referred to as CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D28-M5) and CV/ZF (D0-M5) regimen, respectively. Sixty participants were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive either 1 dose of ZF2001 or TIV administered at 56 days after priming, and received the third injection with ZF2001 at 6 months, referred to as CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D56-M6) and CV/ZF (D0-M6) regimen, respectively. Participants and investigators were masked to the vaccine received but not to the boosting interval. Primary endpoints were the geometric mean titer (GMT) of neutralizing antibodies against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and 7-day solicited adverse reactions. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population. Between April 7, 2021 and May 6, 2021, 120 eligible participants were randomly assigned to receive ZF2001/ZF2001 (n = 40) or TIV/ZF2001 (n = 20) 28 days and 5 months post priming, and receive ZF2001/ZF2001 (n = 40) or TIV/ZF2001 (n = 20) 56 days and 6 months post priming. Of them, 7 participants did not receive the third injection with ZF2001. A total of 26 participants (21.7%) reported solicited adverse reactions within 7 days post boost vaccinations, and all the reported adverse reactions were mild, with 13 (32.5%) in CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D28-M5) regimen, 7 (35.0%) in CV/ZF (D0- M5) regimen, 4 (10.0%) in CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D56-M6) regimen, and 2 (10.0%) in CV/ZF (D0-M6) regimen, respectively. At 14 days post first boost, GMTs of neutralizing antibodies in recipients receiving ZF2001 at 28 days and 56 days post priming were 18.7 (95% CI 13.7 to 25.5) and 25.9 (17.0 to 39.3), respectively, with geometric mean ratios of 2.0 (1.2 to 3.5) and 3.4 (1.8 to 6.4) compared to TIV. GMTs at 14 days after second boost of neutralizing antibodies increased to 107.2 (73.7 to 155.8) in CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D28-M5) regimen and 141.2 (83.4 to 238.8) in CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D56-M6) regimen. Two-dose schedules of CV/ZF (D0-M5) and CV/ZF (D0-M6) induced antibody levels comparable with that elicited by 3-dose schedules, with GMTs of 90.5 (45.6, 179.8) and 94.1 (44.0, 200.9), respectively. Study limitations include the absence of vaccine effectiveness in a real-world setting and current lack of immune persistence data. CONCLUSIONS: Heterologous boosting with ZF2001 following primary vaccination with Convidecia is more immunogenic than a single dose of Convidecia and is not associated with safety concerns. These results support flexibility in cooperating viral vectored and recombinant protein vaccines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Study on Heterologous Prime-boost of Recombinant COVID-19 Vaccine (Ad5 Vector) and RBD-based Protein Subunit Vaccine; ClinicalTrial.gov NCT04833101.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects
2.
N Engl J Med ; 386(22): 2097-2111, 2022 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ZF2001 vaccine, which contains a dimeric form of the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant, was shown to be safe, with an acceptable side-effect profile, and immunogenic in adults in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial to investigate the efficacy and confirm the safety of ZF2001. The trial was performed at 31 clinical centers across Uzbekistan, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Ecuador; an additional center in China was included in the safety analysis only. Adult participants (≥18 years of age) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive a total of three 25-µg doses (30 days apart) of ZF2001 or placebo. The primary end point was the occurrence of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), as confirmed on polymerase-chain-reaction assay, at least 7 days after receipt of the third dose. A key secondary efficacy end point was the occurrence of severe-to-critical Covid-19 (including Covid-19-related death) at least 7 days after receipt of the third dose. RESULTS: Between December 12, 2020, and December 15, 2021, a total of 28,873 participants received at least one dose of ZF2001 or placebo and were included in the safety analysis; 25,193 participants who had completed the three-dose regimen, for whom there were approximately 6 months of follow-up data, were included in the updated primary efficacy analysis that was conducted at the second data cutoff date of December 15, 2021. In the updated analysis, primary end-point cases were reported in 158 of 12,625 participants in the ZF2001 group and in 580 of 12,568 participants in the placebo group, for a vaccine efficacy of 75.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.0 to 79.8). Severe-to-critical Covid-19 occurred in 6 participants in the ZF2001 group and in 43 in the placebo group, for a vaccine efficacy of 87.6% (95% CI, 70.6 to 95.7); Covid-19-related death occurred in 2 and 12 participants, respectively, for a vaccine efficacy of 86.5% (95% CI, 38.9 to 98.5). The incidence of adverse events and serious adverse events was balanced in the two groups, and there were no vaccine-related deaths. Most adverse reactions (98.5%) were of grade 1 or 2. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of adults, the ZF2001 vaccine was shown to be safe and effective against symptomatic and severe-to-critical Covid-19 for at least 6 months after full vaccination. (Funded by the National Science and Technology Major Project and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04646590.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines, Subunit , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines , Vaccines, Subunit/adverse effects , Vaccines, Subunit/therapeutic use , Young Adult
3.
Cell ; 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803705

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough infections by SARS-CoV-2 variants become the global challenge for pandemic control. Previously, we developed the protein subunit vaccine ZF2001 based on the dimeric receptor-binding domain (RBD) of prototype SARS-CoV-2. Here, we developed a chimeric RBD-dimer vaccine approach to adapt SARS-CoV-2 variants. A prototype-Beta chimeric RBD-dimer was first designed to adapt the resistant Beta variant. Compared with its homotypic forms, the chimeric vaccine elicited broader sera neutralization of variants and conferred better protection in mice. The protection of the chimeric vaccine was further verified in macaques. This approach was generalized to develop Delta-Omicron chimeric RBD-dimer to adapt the currently prevalent variants. Again, the chimeric vaccine elicited broader sera neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 variants and conferred better protection against challenge by either Delta or Omicron SARS-CoV-2 in mice. The chimeric approach is applicable for rapid updating of immunogens, and our data supported the use of variant-adapted multivalent vaccine against circulating and emerging variants.

4.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 123, 2021 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768807

ABSTRACT

A safe and effective vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is urgently needed to tackle the COVID-19 global pandemic. Here, we describe the development of chimpanzee adenovirus serotypes 6 and 68 (AdC6 and AdC68) vector-based vaccine candidates expressing the full-length transmembrane spike glycoprotein. We assessed the vaccine immunogenicity, protective efficacy, and immune cell profiles using single-cell RNA sequencing in mice. Mice were vaccinated via the intramuscular route with the two vaccine candidates using prime-only regimens or heterologous prime-boost regimens. Both chimpanzee adenovirus-based vaccines elicited strong and long-term antibody and T cell responses, balanced Th1/Th2 cell responses, robust germinal center responses, and provided effective protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in mouse lungs. Strikingly, we found that heterologous prime-boost immunization induced higher titers of protective antibodies, and more spike-specific memory CD8+ T cells in mice. Potent neutralizing antibodies produced against the highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 lineage (also known as N501Y.V1) and B.1.351 lineage (also known as N501Y.V2) were detectable in mouse sera over 6 months after prime immunization. Our results demonstrate that the heterologous prime-boost strategy with chimpanzee adenovirus-based vaccines is promising for further development to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.

5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1058-1071, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752040

ABSTRACT

Safe, efficacious, and deployable vaccines are urgently needed to control COVID-19 in the large-scale vaccination campaigns. We report here the preclinical studies of an approved protein subunit vaccine against COVID-19, ZF2001, which contains tandem-repeat dimeric receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein with alum-based adjuvant. We assessed vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in both mice and non-human primates (NHPs). ZF2001 induced high levels of RBD-binding and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody in both mice and non-human primates, and elicited balanced TH1/TH2 cellular responses in NHPs. Two doses of ZF2001 protected Ad-hACE2-transduced mice against SARS-CoV-2 infection, as detected by reduced viral RNA and relieved lung injuries. In NHPs, vaccination of either 25 µg or 50 µg ZF2001 prevented infection with SARS-CoV-2 in lung, trachea, and bronchi, with milder lung lesions. No evidence of disease enhancement was observed in both animal models. ZF2001 has been approved for emergency use in China, Uzbekistan, Indonesia, and Columbia. The high safety, immunogenicity, and protection efficacy in both mice and NHPs found in this preclinical study was consistent with the results in human clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carrier Proteins , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Primates , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit
6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329517

ABSTRACT

Background: Heterologous boost vaccination has been proposed as an option to elicit stronger and broader, or longer-lasting immunity. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of heterologous immunization with a recombinant adenovirus type-5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine (Convidecia) and a protein-subunit-based COVID-19 vaccine (ZF2001). Methods and Findings We did a randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in healthy adults previously received one dose of Convidecia. Participants were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive either ZF2001 (vaccine group) or a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) (placebo group) at either 28-day or 56-day intervals. For both regimens, all participants received the 2nd injection with ZF2001 at 4 months after a dose of ZF2001 or TIV, with three-dose schedules of Convidecia/Convidecia/ZF2001 at day 0, day 28 and month 5 (referred to as CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D28-M5)) and CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D56-M6), and two-dose schedules of CV/ZF (D0-M5) and CV/ZF (D0-M6). The primary outcome was the geometric mean titer (GMT) of the neutralizing antibodies against live SARS-CoV-2 virus 14 days after each boost vaccination. The safety outcome was 7-day reactogenicity, measured as solicited local or systemic adverse reactions after each vaccination. Between April 7, 2021, and May 6, 2021, 120 participants were enrolled, among whom 60 were randomly assigned to receive ZF2001 (n=40) or TIV (n=20) at a 28-day interval, and 60 were randomly assigned to receive ZF2001 (n=40) or TIV (n=20) at a 56-day interval. 113 (94.2%) participants received the 2nd injection with ZF2001 4 months after a dose of ZF2001 or TIV. A total of 26 participants (21.7%) reported solicited adverse events within 7 days post boost vaccinations, and all the reported adverse reactions were mild . Among participants receiving ZF001 as second dose, the GMTs of neutralizing antibodies increased to 58.4 IU/ml (42.8-79.8) in 0-28 regimen, and to 80.8 IU/ml (53.1-122.9) in 0-56 regimen at 14 days post first boost dose. The GMTs of neutralizing antibodies increased to 334.9 IU/ml (95% CI 230.4, 486.9) in C/Z/Z (D0-D28-M5) regimen, and 441.2 IU/ml (260.8, 746.4) in C/Z/Z (D0-D56-M6) regimen at 14 days after the third dose. Two-dose schedules of CV/ZF (D0-M5) and CV/ZF (D0-M6) induced comparable antibody level comparable with that elicited by three-dose schedules, with the GMTs of 282.9 IU/ml (142.5, 561.8) and 293.9 IU/ml (137.6, 627.9), respectively. Study limitations include the absence of vaccine effectiveness in real-world, and current lack of immune persistence data and the neutralizing antibodies to Omicron. Conclusions Heterologous boosting with ZF001 following primary vaccination of Convidecia is safe and more immunogenic than a single dose of Convidecia. These results support flexibility in cooperating viral vectored vaccines and recombinant protein vaccine. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT04833101

8.
Int Immunol ; 33(10): 529-540, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575943

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused millions of deaths, and serious consequences to public health, economies and societies. Rapid responses in vaccine development have taken place since the isolation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the release of the viral genome sequence. By 21 May 2021, 101 vaccines were under clinical trials, and published data were available for 18 of them. Clinical study results from some vaccines indicated good immunogenicity and acceptable reactogenicity. Here, we focus on these 18 vaccines that had published clinical data to dissect the induced humoral and cellular immune responses as well as their safety profiles and protection efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Animals , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
9.
Mol Biomed ; 2(1): 29, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515465

ABSTRACT

In the face of the emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2, there is an urgent need to develop a vaccine that can induce fast, effective, long-lasting and broad protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we developed a trimeric SARS-CoV-2 S protein vaccine candidate adjuvanted by PIKA, which can induce robust cellular and humoral immune responses. The results showed a high level of neutralizing antibodies induced by the vaccine was maintained for at least 400 days. In the study of non-human primates, PIKA adjuvanted S-trimer induced high SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers and protected from virus replication in the lung following SARS-CoV-2 challenge. In addition, the long-term neutralizing antibody response induced by S-trimer vaccine adjuvanted by PIKA could neutralize multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants and there is no obvious different among the SARS- CoV-2 variants of interest or concern, including B.1.351, B.1.1.7, P.1, B.1.617.1 and B.1.617.2 variants. These data support the utility of S-trimer protein adjuvanted by PIKA as a potential vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s43556-021-00054-z.

10.
Int Immunol ; 33(10): 529-540, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398104

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused millions of deaths, and serious consequences to public health, economies and societies. Rapid responses in vaccine development have taken place since the isolation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the release of the viral genome sequence. By 21 May 2021, 101 vaccines were under clinical trials, and published data were available for 18 of them. Clinical study results from some vaccines indicated good immunogenicity and acceptable reactogenicity. Here, we focus on these 18 vaccines that had published clinical data to dissect the induced humoral and cellular immune responses as well as their safety profiles and protection efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Animals , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1574-1588, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320287

ABSTRACT

A safe and effective vaccine is urgently needed to control the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. Four adenovirus-vectored vaccines expressing spike (S) protein have been approved for use. Here, we generated several recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus (AdC7) vaccines expressing S, receptor-binding domain (RBD), or tandem-repeat dimeric RBD (RBD-tr2). We found vaccination via either intramuscular or intranasal route was highly immunogenic in mice to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. AdC7-RBD-tr2 showed higher antibody responses compared to either AdC7-S or AdC7-RBD. Intranasal administration of AdC7-RBD-tr2 additionally induced mucosal immunity with neutralizing activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Either single-dose or two-dose mucosal administration of AdC7-RBD-tr2 protected mice against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, with undetectable subgenomic RNA in lung and relieved lung injury. AdC7-RBD-tr2-elicted sera preserved the neutralizing activity against the circulating variants, especially the Delta variant. These results support AdC7-RBD-tr2 as a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Genetic Vectors/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Injections, Intramuscular , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pan troglodytes/virology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , Vero Cells
13.
Front Med ; 15(4): 507-527, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188167

ABSTRACT

The avian influenza A (H7N9) virus is a zoonotic virus that is closely associated with live poultry markets. It has caused infections in humans in China since 2013. Five waves of the H7N9 influenza epidemic occurred in China between March 2013 and September 2017. H7N9 with low-pathogenicity dominated in the first four waves, whereas highly pathogenic H7N9 influenza emerged in poultry and spread to humans during the fifth wave, causing wide concern. Specialists and officials from China and other countries responded quickly, controlled the epidemic well thus far, and characterized the virus by using new technologies and surveillance tools that were made possible by their preparedness efforts. Here, we review the characteristics of the H7N9 viruses that were identified while controlling the spread of the disease. It was summarized and discussed from the perspectives of molecular epidemiology, clinical features, virulence and pathogenesis, receptor binding, T-cell responses, monoclonal antibody development, vaccine development, and disease burden. These data provide tools for minimizing the future threat of H7N9 and other emerging and re-emerging viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , China/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Poultry , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(8): 1107-1119, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several COVID-19 vaccines have been developed so far, they will not be sufficient to meet the global demand. Development of a wider range of vaccines, with different mechanisms of action, could help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 globally. We developed a protein subunit vaccine against COVID-19 using a dimeric form of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as the antigen. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine, ZF2001, and determine the appropriate dose and schedule for an efficacy study. METHODS: We did two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 and phase 2 trials. Phase 1 was done at two university hospitals in Chongqing and Beijing, China, and phase 2 was done at the Hunan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Xiangtan, China. Healthy adults aged 18-59 years, without a history of SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 infection, an RT-PCR-positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, a history of contact with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases, and severe allergies to any component of the vaccine were eligible for enrolment. In phase 1, participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive three doses of the vaccine (25 µg or 50 µg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart. In phase 2, participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1) to receive the vaccine (25 µg or 50 µg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart, in either a two-dose schedule or a three-dose schedule. Investigators, participants, and the laboratory team were masked to group allocation. For phase 1, the primary outcome was safety, measured by the occurrence of adverse events and serious adverse events. For phase 2, the primary outcome was safety and immunogenicity (the seroconversion rate and the magnitude, in geometric mean titres [GMTs], of SARS-CoV-2-neutralising antibodies). Analyses were done on an intention-to-treat and per-protocol basis. These trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04445194 and NCT04466085) and participant follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between June 22 and July 3, 2020, 50 participants were enrolled into the phase 1 trial and randomly assigned to receive three doses of placebo (n=10), the 25 µg vaccine (n=20), or the 50 µg vaccine (n=20). The mean age of participants was 32·6 (SD 9·4) years. Between July 12 and July 17, 2020, 900 participants were enrolled into the phase 2 trial and randomly assigned to receive two doses of placebo (n=150), 25 µg vaccine (n=150), or 50 µg vaccine (n=150), or three doses of placebo (n=150), 25 µg vaccine (n=150), or 50 µg vaccine (n=150). The mean age of participants was 43·5 (SD 9·2) years. In both phase 1 and phase 2, adverse events reported within 30 days after vaccination were mild or moderate (grade 1 or 2) in most cases (phase 1: six [60%] of ten participants in the placebo group, 14 [70%] of 20 in the 25 µg group, and 18 [90%] of 20 in the 50 µg group; phase 2: 37 [25%] of 150 in the two-dose placebo group, 43 [29%] of 150 in the two-dose 25 µg group, 50 [33%] of 150 in the two-dose 50 µg group, 47 [31%] of 150 in the three-dose placebo group, 72 [48%] of 150 in the three-dose 25 µg group, and 65 [43%] of 150 in the three-dose 50 µg group). In phase 1, two (10%) grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported in the 50 µg group. In phase 2, grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported by 18 participants (four [3%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, four [3%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and six [4%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group), and 11 were considered vaccine related (two [1%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, two [1%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and five [3%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group); seven participants reported serious adverse events (one [1%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, one [1%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and two [1%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group), but none was considered vaccine related. In phase 2, on the two-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the second dose were 76% (114 of 150 participants) in the 25 µg group and 72% (108 of 150) in the 50 µg group; on the three-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the third dose were 97% (143 of 148 participants) in the 25 µg group and 93% (138 of 148) in the 50 µg group. In the two-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the second dose were 17·7 (95% CI 13·6-23·1) in the 25 µg group and 14·1 (10·8-18·3) in the 50 µg group. In the three-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the third dose were 102·5 (95% CI 81·8-128·5) in the 25 µg group and 69·1 (53·0-90·0) in the 50 µg group. INTERPRETATION: The protein subunit vaccine ZF2001 appears to be well tolerated and immunogenic. The safety and immunogenicity data from the phase 1 and 2 trials support the use of the 25 µg dose in a three-dose schedule in an ongoing phase 3 trial for large-scale evaluation of ZF2001's safety and efficacy. FUNDING: National Program on Key Research Project of China, National Science and Technology Major Projects of Drug Discovery, Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Multimerization , Tandem Repeat Sequences , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
16.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-21, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121345

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the current global pandemic of COVID-19; this virus infects multiple organs, such as the lungs and gastrointestinal tract. The microbiome in these organs, including the bacteriome and virome, responds to infection and might also influence disease progression and treatment outcome. In a cohort of 13 COVID-19 patients in Beijing, China, we observed that the gut virome and bacteriome in the COVID-19 patients were notably different from those of five healthy controls. We identified a bacterial dysbiosis signature by observing reduced diversity and viral shifts in patients, and among the patients, the bacterial/viral compositions were different between patients of different severities, although these differences are not entirely distinguishable from the effect of antibiotics. Severe cases of COVID-19 exhibited a greater abundance of opportunistic pathogens but were depleted for butyrate-producing groups of bacteria compared with mild to moderate cases. We replicated our findings in a mouse COVID-19 model, confirmed virome differences and bacteriome dysbiosis due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and observed that immune/infection-related genes were differentially expressed in gut epithelial cells during infection, possibly explaining the virome and bacteriome dynamics. Our results suggest that the components of the microbiome, including the bacteriome and virome, are affected by SARS-CoV-2 infections, while their compositional signatures could reflect or even contribute to disease severity and recovery processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Dysbiosis/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Virome , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , China , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , MicroRNAs , Middle Aged , Transcriptome
17.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(2): 73-82, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989862

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are urgently needed to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to help the return to pre-pandemic normalcy. A great many vaccine candidates are being developed, several of which have completed late-stage clinical trials and are reporting positive results. In this Progress article, we discuss which viral elements are used in COVID-19 vaccine candidates, why they might act as good targets for the immune system and the implications for protective immunity.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Viral Proteins/immunology
18.
Advanced Materials ; 32(40):2070303, 2020.
Article | Wiley | ID: covidwho-833847

ABSTRACT

For enhanced COVID-19 vaccines, in article number 2004210, Yufei Xia, Guanghui Ma, and co-workers pack licensed alum on a squalene/water interphase. Thereby, this century-old adjuvant ?travels through time? in a new form of alum-stabilized Pickering emulsion (PAPE), which not only inherits the clinically acknowledged biosafety, but also demonstrates enhanced cellular uptake and cross-presentation of antigens for potent humoral and cellular responses.

19.
Adv Mater ; 32(40): e2004210, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734755

ABSTRACT

For rapid response against the prevailing COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 19), it is a global imperative to exploit the immunogenicity of existing formulations for safe and efficient vaccines. As the most accessible adjuvant, aluminum hydroxide (alum) is still the sole employed adjuvant in most countries. However, alum tends to attach on the membrane rather than entering the dendritic cells (DCs), leading to the absence of intracellular transfer and process of the antigens, and thus limits T-cell-mediated immunity. To address this, alum is packed on the squalene/water interphase is packed, forming an alum-stabilized Pickering emulsion (PAPE). "Inheriting" from alum and squalene, PAPE demonstrates a good biosafety profile. Intriguingly, with the dense array of alum on the oil/water interphase, PAPE not only adsorbs large quantities of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) antigens, but also harbors a higher affinity for DC uptake, which provokes the uptake and cross-presentation of the delivered antigens. Compared with alum-treated groups, more than six times higher antigen-specific antibody titer and three-fold more IFN-γ-secreting T cells are induced, indicating the potent humoral and cellular immune activations. Collectively, the data suggest that PAPE may provide potential insights toward a safe and efficient adjuvant platform for the enhanced COVID-19 vaccinations.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Alum Compounds/chemistry , Animals , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Emulsions , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
20.
Cell ; 182(3): 722-733.e11, 2020 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628738

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are urgently needed to control the ongoing pandemic COVID-19 and previously emerging MERS/SARS caused by coronavirus (CoV) infections. The CoV spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) is an attractive vaccine target but is undermined by limited immunogenicity. We describe a dimeric form of MERS-CoV RBD that overcomes this limitation. The RBD-dimer significantly increased neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers compared to conventional monomeric form and protected mice against MERS-CoV infection. Crystal structure showed RBD-dimer fully exposed dual receptor-binding motifs, the major target for NAbs. Structure-guided design further yielded a stable version of RBD-dimer as a tandem repeat single-chain (RBD-sc-dimer) which retained the vaccine potency. We generalized this strategy to design vaccines against COVID-19 and SARS, achieving 10- to 100-fold enhancement of NAb titers. RBD-sc-dimers in pilot scale production yielded high yields, supporting their scalability for further clinical development. The framework of immunogen design can be universally applied to other beta-CoV vaccines to counter emerging threats.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS Virus/immunology , Universal Design , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/immunology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Sf9 Cells , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Spodoptera , Transfection , Vaccination/methods , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines
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