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PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272515, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974327


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To understand the utility of glycated haemoglobin (HBA1C) in screening for diabetes and Abnormal Glucose Regulation (AGR) in primary care, we compared its performance to that of the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test. METHODS: This was a prospective diagnostic accuracy study conducted in eastern Uganda. Patients eligible for inclusion were consecutive adults, 30-75 years, receiving care at the outpatient department of a general hospital in eastern Uganda. We determined the sensitivity, specificity and optimum cut-off points for HBA1C and FPG tests using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as a clinical reference standard. RESULTS: A total of 1659 participants underwent FPG testing of whom 310 were also HBA1C and OGTT tested. A total of 113 tested positive for diabetes and 168 for AGR on the OGTT. At recommended cut-off points for diabetes, the HBA1C and FPG tests had comparable sensitivity [69.8% (95% CI 46.3-86.1) versus 62.6% (95% CI 41.5-79.8), respectively] and specificity [98.6% (95% CI 95.4-99.6) versus 99.4% (95% CI 98.9-99.7), respectively]. Similarly, the sensitivity of HBA1C and the FPG tests for Abnormal Glucose Regulation (AGR) at ADA cut-offs were comparable [58.9% (95% CI 46.7-70.2) vs 47.7% (95% CI 37.3-58.4), respectively]; however, the HBA1C test had lower specificity [70.7% (95% CI 65.1-75.8)] than the FPG test [93.5% (95% CI 88.6-96.4)]. At the optimum cut-offs points for diabetes [45.0 mmol/mol (6.3%) for HBA1C and 6.4 mmol/L (115.2 mg/dl) for FPG], HBA1C and FPG sensitivity [71.2% (95% CI 46.9-87.8) versus 72.7% (95% CI 49.5-87.8), respectively] and specificity [95.1% (95% CI91.8 97.2) versus 98.7% (95% CI 98.0 99.2), respectively] were comparable. Similarly, at the optimum cut-off points for AGR [42.0 mmol/mol (6.0%) for the HBA1C and 5.5 mmol/l (99.0 mg/dl) for the FPG test], HBA1C and FPG sensitivity [42.3% (95% CI 31.8-53.6) and 53.2 (95% CI 43.1-63.1), respectively] and specificity [89.1% (95% CI 84.1 92.7) and 92.7% (95% CI 91.0 94.1), respectively] were comparable. DISCUSSION: HBA1C is a viable alternative diabetes screening and confirmatory test to the FPG test; however, the utility of both tests in screening for prediabetes in this outpatient population is limited.

Diabetes Mellitus , Fasting , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Humans , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Prospective Studies , Uganda
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e053122, 2022 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794501


INTRODUCTION: There is an urgent need to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), particularly in low-and middle-income countries, where the greatest burden lies. Yet, there is little research concerning the specific issues involved in scaling up NCD interventions targeting low-resource settings. We propose to examine this gap in up to 27 collaborative projects, which were funded by the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD) 2019 Scale Up Call, reflecting a total funding investment of approximately US$50 million. These projects represent diverse countries, contexts and adopt varied approaches and study designs to scale-up complex, evidence-based interventions to improve hypertension and diabetes outcomes. A systematic inquiry of these projects will provide necessary scientific insights into the enablers and challenges in the scale up of complex NCD interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will apply systems thinking (a holistic approach to analyse the inter-relationship between constituent parts of scaleup interventions and the context in which the interventions are implemented) and adopt a longitudinal mixed-methods study design to explore the planning and early implementation phases of scale up projects. Data will be gathered at three time periods, namely, at planning (TP), initiation of implementation (T0) and 1-year postinitiation (T1). We will extract project-related data from secondary documents at TP and conduct multistakeholder qualitative interviews to gather data at T0 and T1. We will undertake descriptive statistical analysis of TP data and analyse T0 and T1 data using inductive thematic coding. The data extraction tool and interview guides were developed based on a literature review of scale-up frameworks. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The current protocol was approved by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC number 23482). Informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and more broadly through the GACD network.

Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Developing Countries , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/therapy , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Systems Analysis