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Transplant Proc ; 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000741


BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of data regarding the consequences of ABO-incompatible kidney transplant (ABOiKTx) among post-COVID-19 candidates. METHODS: The study was designed as a retrospective, multicentric cohort study across 11 sites in India, from August 2020 to December 2021. The data for ABOiKTx conducted for post-COVID-19 candidates were investigated. The primary outcome of biopsy-proven acute rejection was compared with the ABO protocol implemented through Kaplan-Meier analysis. The secondary outcomes were graft loss, patient survival, and infections. RESULTS: A total of 38 ABOiKTx with candidates of median (interquartile range) age of 38.5 (31.25-47.5) years were performed. Nineteen cases had mild COVID-19 severity, while 9 cases (23.6%) had an oxygen requirement. Six (15.7%) donors also were post-COVID-19. The most common ABO incompatibility reported was A to O in 14 (36.8%) pairs followed by B to O in 10 (26.3%) pairs. The maximum isoagglutinin titer cutoff was 1:2048 and 1:64 for baseline and pretransplant levels, respectively. The median time from COVID-19 infection to surgery was 130 (63.2-183) days. Biopsy-proven acute rejection, graft loss, and mortality were 13.1%, 2.6%, and 2.6%, respectively. The Breslow-Wilcoxon's P value in Kaplan-Meier plots were 0.57 and 0.93 for thymoglobulin-based induction and high dose rituximab-based regimen, respectively. The incidence of reinfection was 2.6%. Two (5.2%) urinary tract infections were reported. No cytomegalovirus or BK polyomavirus infection was reported. The median serum creatinine at 1 year of follow-up was 1.1 (0.8-1.3) mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: Our report implies that ABOiKTx in post-COVID-19 candidates can be successfully performed with no major deviation from standard ABO protocol.

EClinicalMedicine ; 46: 101359, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828410


Background: There is an enormous knowledge gap on management strategies, clinical outcomes, and follow-up after kidney transplantation (KT) in recipients that have recovered from coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods: We conducted a multi-center, retrospective analysis in 23 Indian transplant centres between June 26, 2020 to December 1, 2021 on KT recipients who recovered after COVID-19 infections. We analyzed clinical and biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (AR) incidence and used cox-proportional modeling to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for predictors of AR. We also performed competing risk analysis. Additional outcome measures included graft loss, all-cause mortality, waiting time from a positive real-time polymerase test (RT-PCR) to KT, laboratory parameters, and quality of life in follow-up. Findings: Among 372 KT which included 38(10·21%) ABO-incompatible, 12(3·22%) sensitized, 64(17·20%) coexisting donors with COVID-19 history and 20 (5·37%) recipients with residual radiographic abnormalities, the incidence of AR was 34 (9·1%) with 1(0·26%) death censored graft loss, and 4(1·07%) all-cause mortality over a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 241 (106-350) days. In our cox hazard proportional analysis, absence of oxygen requirement during COVID-19 compared to oxygen need [HR = 0·14(0·03-0·59); p-value = 0·0071], and use of thymoglobulin use compared to other induction strategies [HR = 0·17(0·03-0.95); p-value = 0·044] had a lower risk for AR. Degree of Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR mismatch had the highest risk of AR [HR = 10.2(1·74-65·83); p-value = 0·011]. With competing risk analysis, with death as a competing event, HLA DR mismatch, and oxygen requirement continued to be associated with AR. Age, gender, obesity, inflammatory markers, dialysis vintage, steroid use, sensitization and ABO-incompatibility have not been associated with a higher risk of AR. The median duration between COVID-19 real time polymerase test negativity to transplant was 88(40-145) days (overall), and ranged from 88(40-137), 65(42-120), 110(49-190), and 127(64-161) days in World Health Organization ordinal scale ≤ 3, 4, 5, and 6-7, respectively. There was no difference in quality of life, tacrolimus levels, blood counts, and mean serum creatinine assessed in patients with a past COVID-19 infection independent of severity. Interpretation: Our findings support that the outcomes of KT after COVID-19 recovery are excellent with absence of COVID-19 sequelae during follow-up. Additionally, there does not seem to be a need for changes in the induction/immunosuppression regimen based on the severity of COVID-19. Funding: Sanofi.

Transplantation ; 105(4): 851-860, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991012


BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data on the consequences of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) infections in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) from emerging countries. METHODS: Here, we present a cohort study of 13 transplant centers in India including 250 KTR (226 living and 24 deceased donors) with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 positivity from March 23, 2020, until September 15, 2020. We detailed demographics, immunosuppression regimen, clinical profile, treatment, and outcomes. RESULTS: Median age of transplant recipients was 43 years, and recipients presented at a median of 3.5 years after transplant. Most common comorbidities (94%) included arterial hypertension (84%) and diabetes (32%); presenting symptoms at the time of COVID-19 included fever (88%), cough (72%), and sputum production (52%). Clinical severity ranged from asymptomatic (6%), mild (60%), and moderate (20%) to severe (14%). Strategies to modify immunosuppressants included discontinuation of antimetabolites without changes in calcineurin inhibitors and steroids (60%). Risk factors for mortality included older age; dyspnea; severe disease; obesity; allograft dysfunction before COVID-19 infection; acute kidney injury; higher levels of inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 level, and procalcitonin; chest X-ray abnormality, and intensive care unit/ventilator requirements. Overall patient mortality was 11.6% (29 of 250), 14.5% (29 of 200) in hospitalized patients, 47% (25 of 53) in intensive care unit patients, and 96.7% (29 of 30) in patients requiring ventilation. KTRs with mild COVID-19 symptoms (n = 50) were managed as outpatients to optimize the utilization of scarce resources during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality rates in COVID-19-positive KTR appear to be higher than those in nonimmunosuppressed patients, and high mortality was noted among those requiring intensive care and those on ventilator.

COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy/adverse effects , Immunosuppression Therapy/methods , India/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult , COVID-19 Drug Treatment