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Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e138, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960187


We aimed to descriptively analyse the possible impact of the national COVID-19 interventions on the incidence of common infectious diseases in Denmark during spring and summer 2020. This observational study focused on national register data on infections caused by 16 different bacterial and viral pathogens. We included new cases registered between 1 January 2016 and 31 July 2020. The weekly number of new cases were analysed with respect to the COVID-19-related interventions introduced during 2020. We found a marked decrease in infections associated with droplet transmission coinciding with the COVID-19 interventions in spring and summer 2020. These included decreases in both viral and bacterial airway infections and also decreases in invasive infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis. There was also a reduction in cases associated with foodborne transmission during the COVID-19 lockdown period. We found no effect of the lockdown on infections by invasive beta-haemolytic streptococci group B, C and G, Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Clostridioides difficile. In conclusion, we found that the widespread interventions such as physical distancing, less travel, hygiene measures and lockdown of schools, restaurants and workplaces together coincided with a marked decline in respiratory infections and, to a smaller extent, some foodborne-transmitted infections.

Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Staphylococcal Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Staphylococcus aureus
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(6): e360-e370, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240696


BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, which are typically transmitted via respiratory droplets, are leading causes of invasive diseases, including bacteraemic pneumonia and meningitis, and of secondary infections subsequent to post-viral respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of invasive disease due to these pathogens during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this prospective analysis of surveillance data, laboratories in 26 countries and territories across six continents submitted data on cases of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis from Jan 1, 2018, to May, 31, 2020, as part of the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance (IRIS) Initiative. Numbers of weekly cases in 2020 were compared with corresponding data for 2018 and 2019. Data for invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae, a non-respiratory pathogen, were collected from nine laboratories for comparison. The stringency of COVID-19 containment measures was quantified using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. Changes in population movements were assessed using Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports. Interrupted time-series modelling quantified changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in 2020 relative to when containment measures were imposed. FINDINGS: 27 laboratories from 26 countries and territories submitted data to the IRIS Initiative for S pneumoniae (62 837 total cases), 24 laboratories from 24 countries submitted data for H influenzae (7796 total cases), and 21 laboratories from 21 countries submitted data for N meningitidis (5877 total cases). All countries and territories had experienced a significant and sustained reduction in invasive diseases due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in early 2020 (Jan 1 to May 31, 2020), coinciding with the introduction of COVID-19 containment measures in each country. By contrast, no significant changes in the incidence of invasive S agalactiae infections were observed. Similar trends were observed across most countries and territories despite differing stringency in COVID-19 control policies. The incidence of reported S pneumoniae infections decreased by 68% at 4 weeks (incidence rate ratio 0·32 [95% CI 0·27-0·37]) and 82% at 8 weeks (0·18 [0·14-0·23]) following the week in which significant changes in population movements were recorded. INTERPRETATION: The introduction of COVID-19 containment policies and public information campaigns likely reduced transmission of S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis, leading to a significant reduction in life-threatening invasive diseases in many countries worldwide. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust (UK), Robert Koch Institute (Germany), Federal Ministry of Health (Germany), Pfizer, Merck, Health Protection Surveillance Centre (Ireland), SpID-Net project (Ireland), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (European Union), Horizon 2020 (European Commission), Ministry of Health (Poland), National Programme of Antibiotic Protection (Poland), Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland), Agencia de Salut Pública de Catalunya (Spain), Sant Joan de Deu Foundation (Spain), Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), Swedish Research Council (Sweden), Region Stockholm (Sweden), Federal Office of Public Health of Switzerland (Switzerland), and French Public Health Agency (France).

Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/transmission , COVID-19/prevention & control , Haemophilus influenzae , Humans , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Neisseria meningitidis , Population Surveillance , Prospective Studies , Public Health Practice , Streptococcus agalactiae , Streptococcus pneumoniae
Euro Surveill ; 26(5)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067624


In June-November 2020, SARS-CoV-2-infected mink were detected in 290 of 1,147 Danish mink farms. In North Denmark Region, 30% (324/1,092) of people found connected to mink farms tested SARS-CoV-2-PCR-positive and approximately 27% (95% confidence interval (CI): 25-30) of SARS-CoV-2-strains from humans in the community were mink-associated. Measures proved insufficient to mitigate spread. On 4 November, the government ordered culling of all Danish mink. Farmed mink constitute a potential virus reservoir challenging pandemic control.

Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Transmission, Infectious/veterinary , Mink/virology , Pandemics/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Denmark/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Farms , Genes, Viral , Humans , Incidence , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Public Health , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Viral Zoonoses/virology , Whole Genome Sequencing , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology