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1.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(7): 949-953, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of COVID-19 infection in cancer patients is critical to co-manage their underlying disease and infection appropriately. Our study aimed at evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of screening patients with cancer for COVID-19 infection. METHODS: All oncology patients receiving care at Department of Oncology at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh were screened using the acute respiratory infection (ARI) survey. Nasopharyngeal and throat swap for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was performed on patients who have high ARI score (i.e. ≥ 4), or any patient requiring elective/emergency hospitalization, undergoing a procedure as well as screening asymptomatic patients receiving chemotherapy between April 1st and July 30, 2020. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained. Descriptive and inferential analyses were done and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were calculated considering the COVID-19 PCR as the gold standard. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 473 patients were included with a median age was 56 years (14-104), 51% were female, 73% had solid tumors, and 66% received treatment within the last 3 months. These patients underwent 688 PCR tests along with ARI survey screening. Testing was done in the outpatient, inpatient, and emergency department setting in 41%, 40% and 19% of the patients, respectively. Majority of tests were screening of asymptomatic patients and only 23% were tested for suspected infections with ARI ≥ 4. A total of 54 patients (8%) had positive PCR for COVID-19 infection. The prevalence of infection varied from month to month ranging from 1.09% in April up to 19.70% in June and correlated with the average daily and active case load at a national level. The diagnostic yield of the ARI score also correlated with infection burden nationally. The PPV and NPV of the ARI as a screening tool was 18.24% (0-31.8) and 95.6% (86.36-98.86%) with the PPN fluctuating considerably in parallel with the prevalence of COVID-19 result. Similarly, the sensitivity and specificity of the ARI were 55.77% (0-70.59) and 79.4 (69.19-92), respectively. CONCLUSION: The yield of screening asymptomatic patients with cancer varies based on the community burden of COVID-19 infection. As universal screening can cause delays to patient care, it should be tailored based on the individual patient risks and infection burden in the region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(9): 2144-2151, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205432

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a potentially lethal infection. Cancer patients, and specifically hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients are severely immunocompromised and may be at a higher risk of a complicated course with this infection. We aimed to study the COVID-19 outcomes and severity in post HCT patients. We retrospectively reviewed post-HCT patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 15, 2020, and December 1, 2020 at 10 transplant centers across the Middle East. We identified 91 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection across 10 transplant centers. The median age upon presentation with COVID-19 was 35. Fifty two patients were post allo-HCT while the remaining 39 patients were post auto-HCT. The median time from transplant was 14.9 months. Mortality rate was 4.4%. Hospital admission rate was 53%. ICU admission rate was 14%. Mechanical ventilation rate was 10%. Oxygen supplementation rate was 18%. Time from HCT to COVID-19 >6 months was associated with lower admission rates and lower rates of the "severity" composite endpoint. Antibody responses was seen 67% of evaluable patients. In this series of HCT recipients, we report overall favorable clinical outcomes for patients with COVID-19 and provide preliminary insights into the clinical course of this disease in this specific population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
4.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(2): 215-227, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-941206

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cytokine release syndrome with elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels is associated with multiorgan damage and death in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our objective was to perform a living systematic review of the literature concerning the efficacy and toxicity of the IL-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Data sources were Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Daily, Ovid Embase, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, Scopus up, preprint servers and Google up to October 8, 2020. Study eligibility criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies at low or moderate risk of bias. Participants were hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Interventions included tocilizumab versus placebo or standard of care. We pooled crude risk ratios (RRs) of RCTs and adjusted RRs from cohorts, separately. We evaluated inconsistency between studies with I2. We assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Of 1156 citations, 24 studies were eligible (five RCTs and 19 cohorts). Five RCTs at low risk of bias, with 1325 patients, examined the effect of tocilizumab on short-term mortality; pooled RR was 1.09 (95%CI 0.80-1.49, I2 = 0%). Four RCTs with 771 patients examined the effect of tocilizumab on risk of mechanical ventilation; pooled RR was 0.71 (95%CI 0.52-0.96, I2 = 0%), with a corresponding number needed to treat of 17 (95%CI 9-100). Among 18 cohorts at moderate risk of bias with 9850 patients, the pooled adjusted RR for mortality was 0.58 (95%CI 0.51-0.66, I2 = 2.5%). This association was observed over all degrees of COVID-19 severity. Data from the RCTs did not show a higher risk of infections or adverse events with tocilizumab: pooled RR 0.63 (95%CI 0.38-1.06, five RCTs) and 0.83 (95%CI 0.55-1.24, five RCTs), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative moderate-certainty evidence shows that tocilizumab reduces the risk of mechanical ventilation in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. While RCTs showed that tocilizumab did not reduce short-term mortality, low-certainty evidence from cohort studies suggests an association between tocilizumab and lower mortality. We did not observe a higher risk of infections or adverse events with tocilizumab use. This review will continuously evaluate the role of tocilizumab in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Odds Ratio , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety
5.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 21(1): e66-e75, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-718689

ABSTRACT

Histiocytic disorders are an exceptionally rare group of diseases with diverse manifestations and a paucity of approved treatments, thereby leading to various challenges in their diagnosis and management. With the discovery of novel molecular targets and the incorporation of targeted agents in the management of various adult histiocytic disorders, their management has become increasingly complex. In an attempt to improve the understanding of the clinical features and management of common adult histiocytic disorders (Langerhans cell histiocytosis, Erdheim-Chester disease, Rosai-Dorfman disease, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis), we created this document based on existing literature and expert opinion.


Subject(s)
Erdheim-Chester Disease/drug therapy , Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell/drug therapy , Histiocytosis, Sinus/drug therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Adult , Drug Therapy, Combination , Erdheim-Chester Disease/diagnosis , Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell/diagnosis , Histiocytosis, Sinus/diagnosis , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome
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