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1.
Eur J Immunol ; 52(5): 770-783, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589126

ABSTRACT

TRIANNI mice carry an entire set of human immunoglobulin V region gene segments and are a powerful tool to rapidly isolate human monoclonal antibodies. After immunizing these mice with DNA encoding the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and boosting with spike protein, we identified 29 hybridoma antibodies that reacted with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Nine antibodies neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infection at IC50 values in the subnanomolar range. ELISA-binding studies and DNA sequence analyses revealed one cluster of three clonally related neutralizing antibodies that target the receptor-binding domain and compete with the cellular receptor hACE2. A second cluster of six clonally related neutralizing antibodies bind to the N-terminal domain of the spike protein without competing with the binding of hACE2 or cluster 1 antibodies. SARS-CoV-2 mutants selected for resistance to an antibody from one cluster are still neutralized by an antibody from the other cluster. Antibodies from both clusters markedly reduced viral spread in mice transgenic for human ACE2 and protected the animals from SARS-CoV-2-induced weight loss. The two clusters of potent noncompeting SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies provide potential candidates for therapy and prophylaxis of COVID-19. The study further supports transgenic animals with a human immunoglobulin gene repertoire as a powerful platform in pandemic preparedness initiatives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 148, 2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) has been linked to thrombotic complications and endothelial dysfunction. We assessed the prognostic implications of endothelial activation through measurement of endothelin-I precursor peptide (proET-1), the stable precursor protein of Endothelin-1, in a well-defined cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: We measured proET-1 in 74 consecutively admitted adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 and compared its prognostic accuracy to that of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (n = 876) and viral bronchitis (n = 371) from a previous study by means of logistic regression analysis. The primary endpoint was all-cause 30-day mortality. RESULTS: Overall, median admission proET-1 levels were lower in COVID-19 patients compared to those with pneumonia and exacerbated bronchitis, respectively (57.0 pmol/l vs. 113.0 pmol/l vs. 96.0 pmol/l, p < 0.01). Although COVID-19 non-survivors had 1.5-fold higher admission proET-1 levels compared to survivors (81.8 pmol/l [IQR: 76 to 118] vs. 53.6 [IQR: 37 to 69]), no significant association of proET-1 levels and mortality was found in a regression model adjusted for age, gender, creatinine level, diastolic blood pressure as well as cancer and coronary artery disease (adjusted OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.0009 to 14.7). In patients with pneumonia (adjusted OR 25.4, 95% CI 5.1 to 127.4) and exacerbated bronchitis (adjusted OR 120.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 7499) we found significant associations of proET-1 and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to other types of pulmonary infection, COVID-19 shows only a mild activation of the endothelium as assessed through measurement of proET-1. Therefore, the high mortality associated with COVID-19 may not be attributed to endothelial dysfunction by the surrogate marker proET-1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelin-1/analysis , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Protein Precursors/analysis , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/analysis , Blood Pressure , Cohort Studies , Creatinine/blood , Endpoint Determination , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Survival Analysis
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