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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(12): 106118, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: RCVS (Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstrictive Syndrome) is a condition associated with vasoactive agents that alter endothelial function. There is growing evidence that endothelial inflammation contributes to cerebrovascular disease in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In our study, we describe the clinical features, risk factors, and outcomes of RCVS in a multicenter case series of patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multicenter retrospective case series. We collected clinical characteristics, imaging, and outcomes of patients with RCVS and COVID-19 identified at each participating site. RESULTS: Ten patients were identified, 7 women, ages 21 - 62 years. Risk factors included use of vasoconstrictive agents in 7 and history of migraine in 2. Presenting symptoms included thunderclap headache in 5 patients with recurrent headaches in 4. Eight were hypertensive on arrival to the hospital. Symptoms of COVID-19 included fever in 2, respiratory symptoms in 8, and gastrointestinal symptoms in 1. One patient did not have systemic COVID-19 symptoms. MRI showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in 3 cases, intraparenchymal hemorrhage in 2, acute ischemic stroke in 4, FLAIR hyperintensities in 2, and no abnormalities in 1 case. Neurovascular imaging showed focal segment irregularity and narrowing concerning for vasospasm of the left MCA in 4 cases and diffuse, multifocal narrowing of the intracranial vasculature in 6 cases. Outcomes varied, with 2 deaths, 2 remaining in the ICU, and 6 surviving to discharge with modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores of 0 (n=3), 2 (n=2), and 3 (n=1). CONCLUSIONS: Our series suggests that patients with COVID-19 may be at risk for RCVS, particularly in the setting of additional risk factors such as exposure to vasoactive agents. There was variability in the symptoms and severity of COVID-19, clinical characteristics, abnormalities on imaging, and mRS scores. However, a larger study is needed to validate a causal relationship between RCVS and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Arteries/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Vasoconstriction , Vasospasm, Intracranial/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebral Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Syndrome , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States , Vasospasm, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Vasospasm, Intracranial/physiopathology , Vasospasm, Intracranial/therapy , Young Adult
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105412, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907409

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Early studies suggest that acute cerebrovascular events may be common in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and may be associated with a high mortality rate. Most cerebrovascular events described have been ischemic strokes, but both intracerebral hemorrhage and rarely cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) have also been reported. The diagnosis of CVST can be elusive, with wide-ranging and nonspecific presenting symptoms that can include headache or altered sensorium alone. OBJECTIVE: To describe the presentation, barriers to diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of CVST in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We abstracted data on all patients diagnosed with CVST and COVID-19 from March 1 to August 9, 2020 at Boston Medical Center. Subsequently, we reviewed the literature and extracted all published cases of CVST in patients with COVID-19 from January 1, 2020 through August 9, 2020 and included all studies with case descriptions. RESULTS: We describe the clinical features and management of CVST in 3 women with COVID-19 who developed CVST days to months after initial COVID-19 symptoms. Two patients presented with encephalopathy and without focal neurologic deficits, while one presented with visual symptoms. All patients were treated with intravenous hydration and anticoagulation. None suffered hemorrhagic complications, and all were discharged home. We identified 12 other patients with CVST in the setting of COVID-19 via literature search. There was a female predominance (54.5%), most patients presented with altered sensorium (54.5%), and there was a high mortality rate (36.4%). CONCLUSIONS: During this pandemic, clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for CVST in patients with a recent history of COVID-19 presenting with non-specific neurological symptoms such as headache to provide expedient management and prevent complications. The limited data suggests that CVST in COVID-19 is more prevalent in females and may be associated with high mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
5.
Epilepsy Behav ; 112: 107335, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a global pandemic, with over 1.8 million confirmed cases worldwide to date. Preliminary reports suggest that the disease may present in diverse ways, including with neurological symptoms, but few published reports in the literature describe seizures in patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to characterize the risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes of seizures in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series. Cases were identified through a review of admissions and consultations to the neurology and neurocritical care services between April 1, 2020 and May 15, 2020. SETTING: The study setting was in a tertiary care, safety-net hospital in Boston, MA. PARTICIPANTS: Patients presenting with seizures and COVID-19 during the study period were included in the study. RESULTS: Seven patients met inclusion criteria (5 females, 71%). Patients ranged in age from 37 to 88 years (median: 75 years). Three patients had a prior history of well-controlled epilepsy (43%), while 4 patients had new-onset seizures, including 2 patients with prior history of remote stroke. Three patients had no preceding symptoms of COVID-19 prior to presentation (57%), and in all cases, seizures were the symptom that prompted presentation to the emergency department, regardless of prior symptoms of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Provoking factors for seizures in patients with COVID-19 may include metabolic factors, systemic illness, and possibly direct effects of the virus. In endemic areas with community spread of COVID-19, clinicians should be vigilant for the infection in patients who present with seizures, which may precede respiratory symptoms or prompt presentation to medical care. Early testing, isolation, and contact tracking of these patients can prevent further transmission of the virus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Boston , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/drug therapy , Seizures/etiology
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105010, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548353

ABSTRACT

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients require frequent neurological examinations, neuroradiographic diagnostic testing and lengthy intensive care unit stay. Previously established SAH treatment protocols are impractical to impossible to adhere to in the current COVID-19 crisis due to the need for infection containment and shortage of critical care resources, including personal protective equipment (PPE). Centers need to adopt modified protocols to optimize SAH care and outcomes during this crisis. In this opinion piece, we assembled a multidisciplinary, multicenter team to develop and propose a modified guidance algorithm that optimizes SAH care and workflow in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. This guidance is to be adapted to the available resources of a local institution and does not replace clinical judgment when faced with an individual patient.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/therapy , Algorithms , COVID-19 , Clinical Protocols , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Virulence , Workflow
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