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1.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22269952

ABSTRACT

BackgroundA rapid increase in incidence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant occurred in France in December 2021, while the Delta variant was prevailing since July 2021. We aimed to determine whether the risk of a severe hospital event following symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection differs for Omicron versus Delta. MethodsWe conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare severe hospital events (admission to intensive care unit or death) between Omicron and Delta symptomatic cases matched according to week of virological diagnosis and age. The analysis was adjusted for age, sex, vaccination status, presence of comorbidities and region of residence, using Cox proportional hazards model. FindingsBetween 06/12/2021-28/01/2022, 184 364 cases were included, of which 931 had a severe hospital event (822 Delta, 109 Omicron). The risk of severe event was lower among Omicron versus Delta cases; the difference in severity between the two variants decreased with age (aHR=0{middle dot}11 95%CI: 0{middle dot}07-0{middle dot}17 among 40-64 years, aHR=0{middle dot}51 95%CI: 0{middle dot}26-1{middle dot}01 among 80+ years). The risk of severe event increased with the presence of comorbidities (for very-high-risk comorbidity, aHR=4{middle dot}18 95%CI: 2{middle dot}88-6{middle dot}06 among 40-64 years) and in males (aHR=2{middle dot}29 95%CI: 1{middle dot}83-2{middle dot}86 among 40-64 years) and was higher in unvaccinated compared to primo-vaccinated (aHR=6{middle dot}90 95%CI: 5{middle dot}26-9{middle dot}05 among 40-64 years). A booster dose reduced the risk of severe hospital event in 80+ years infected with Omicron (aHR=0{middle dot}27; 95%CI: 0{middle dot}11-0{middle dot}65). InterpretationThis study confirms the lower severity of Omicron compared to Delta. However, the difference in disease severity is less marked in the elderly.

2.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21261133

ABSTRACT

AbstractAs vaccination against COVID-19 stalls in some countries, increased accessibility and more adaptive approaches may be useful to keep the epidemic under control. Here, we study the impact of reactive vaccination targeting schools and workplaces where cases are detected, with an agent-based model accounting for COVID-19 natural history, vaccine characteristics, individuals demography and behaviour and social distancing. At an equal number of doses reactive vaccination produces a higher reduction in cases compared with non-reactive strategies, in the majority of scenarios. However, at high initial vaccination coverage or low incidence, few people are found to vaccinate around cases, thus the reactive strategy may be less effective than non-reactive strategies with moderate/high vaccination pace. In case of flare-ups, reactive vaccination could hinder spread if it is implemented quickly, is supported by enhanced test-trace-isolate and triggers an increased vaccine uptake. These results provide key information to plan an adaptive vaccination deployment.

3.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21260367

ABSTRACT

BackgroundInterventions to mitigate coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic may impact other respiratory diseases such as pertussis. We aimed to study the course of pertussis in France over an 8-year period and its association with COVID-19 mitigation strategies, using multiple nationwide data sources. MethodsWe analyzed the number of French pertussis cases between 2013 and 2020, using the PCR test results from nationwide outpatient laboratories (Source 1) and the pediatric network of 41 hospitals (Source 2), and using the reports of an office-based pediatric national network (Source 3). We conducted a quasi-experimental interrupted time-series analysis, relying on negative binomial regression models. The models accounted for seasonality, long-term cycles, and secular trend, and included a binary variable for the first national lockdown (ordered on March 16, 2021). ResultsWe identified 19,039 cases of pertussis from the three data sources during the study period. There was a significant decrease of pertussis cases following the implementation of mitigation measures, with adjusted incidence rate ratios of 0.102 (95% CI 0.040-0.256) and 0.216 (95% CI 0.071-0.656) for Source 1 and Source 2, respectively. The association was confirmed in Source 3 (median of 1 [IQR 0-2] vs. 0 [IQR 0-0] pertussis cases per month before and after lockdown, respectively, p=0.0048). ConclusionThe drastic reduction of outpatient and hospitalized cases of pertussis strongly suggests an impact of COVID-19 mitigation measures and their consequences on pertussis epidemiology. Pertussis vaccination recommendations should be carefully followed, and disease monitoring should be continued to detect any resurgence after relaxation of mitigation measures. FundingThere was no specific funding for the study.

4.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21257088

ABSTRACT

After one year of stop-and-go COVID-19 mitigation, some European countries still experience sustained viral circulation due to the B.1.1.7 variant. As the prospect of phasing out this stage through vaccination draws closer, it is critical to balance the efficacy of long-lasting interventions and their impact on the quality of life. Focusing on the current situation in France, we show that moderate interventions require a much longer time to achieve the same result as high intensity lockdowns, with the additional risk of deteriorating control as adherence wanes. Integrating intensity and duration of social distancing in a data-driven "distress" index, we show that shorter strict lockdowns are largely more performant than longer moderate lockdowns, for similar intermediate distress and infringement on individual freedom. Our study shows that favoring milder interventions over more stringent short approaches on the basis of perceived acceptability could be detrimental in the long term, especially with waning adherence.

5.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21251708

ABSTRACT

Facing B.1.1.7 variant, social distancing was strengthened in France in January 2021. Using a 2-strain mathematical model calibrated on genomic surveillance, we estimated that curfew measures allowed hospitalizations to plateau, by decreasing transmission of the historical strain while B.1.1.7 continued to grow. School holidays appear to have further slowed down progression in February. Without progressively strengthened social distancing, a rapid surge of hospitalizations is expected, despite the foreseen increase in vaccination rhythm.

6.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21249435

ABSTRACT

BackgroundRegional monitoring of the proportion infected by SARS-CoV-2 is important to guide local management of the epidemic, but is difficult in the absence of regular nationwide serosurveys. MethodsWe developed a method to reconstruct in real-time the proportion infected by SARS-CoV-2 and the proportion of infections being detected from the joint analysis of age-stratified seroprevalence, hospitalisation and case data. We applied our approach to the 13 French metropolitan regions. FindingsWe estimate that 5.7% [5.1%-6.4%] of adults in metropolitan France had been infected by SARS-CoV-2 by May 2020. This proportion remained stable until August and increased to 12.6% [11.2%-14.3%] by the end of November. With 23.8% [21.2%-26.8%] infected in the Paris region compared to 4.0% [3.5% - 4.6%] in Brittany, regional variations remained large (Coefficient of Variation CV: 0.53) although less so than in May (CV: 0.74). The proportion infected was twice higher (17.6% [13.4%-22.7%]) in 20-49 y.o. than in 50+ y.o (8.0% [5.7% - 11.5%]). Forty percent [33.7% - 45.4%] of infections in adults were detected in June-August compared to 55.7% [48.7% - 63.1%] in September-November. Our method correctly predicted seroprevalence in 11 regions in which only hospitalisation data were used. InterpretationIn the absence of contemporary serosurvey, our real-time monitoring indicates that the proportion infected by SARS-CoV-2 may be above 20% in some French regions. FundingEU RECOVER, ANR, Fondation pour la Recherche Medicale, Inserm.

7.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20227025

ABSTRACT

Seroprevalence results coupled with surveillance data were used to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalization (IHR) and infection fatality ratios (IFR) in France. IHR and IFR were dramatically high in the very elderly (80-90 years: IHR: 30%, IFR: 11%), but also substantial in middle-aged adults (40-50 years: IHR: 1.2%, IFR: 0.05%).

8.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20213116

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAssessment of cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections is critical for monitoring the course and the extent of the epidemic. As asymptomatic or mild cases were typically not captured by surveillance data in France, we implemented nationwide serological surveillance. We present estimates for prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the French population and the proportion of infected individuals who developed potentially protective neutralizing antibodies throughout the first epidemic wave. MethodsWe performed serial cross-sectional sampling of residual sera over three periods: prior to (9-15 March), during (6-12 April) and following (11-17 May) a nationwide lockdown. Each sample was tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies targeting the Nucleoprotein and Spike using two Luciferase-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assays, and for neutralising antibodies using a pseudo-neutralisation assay. We fitted a general linear mixed model of seropositivity in a Bayesian framework to derive prevalence estimates stratified by age, sex and region. FindingsIn total, sera from 11 021 individuals were analysed. Nationwide seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was estimated at 0.41% [0.05-0.88] mid-March, 4.14% [3.31-4.99] mid-April and 4.93% [4.02-5.89] mid-May. Approximately 70% of seropositive individuals had detectable neutralising antibodies. Seroprevalence was higher in regions where circulation occurred earlier and was more intense. Seroprevalence was lowest in children under 10 years of age (2.72% [1.10-4.87]). InterpretationSeroprevalence estimates confirm that the nationwide lockdown substantially curbed transmission and that the vast majority of the French population remains susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Low seroprevalence in school age children suggests limited susceptibility and/or transmissibility in this age group. Our results show a clear picture of the progression of the first epidemic wave and provide a framework to inform the ongoing public health response as viral transmission is picking up again in France and globally. FundingSante publique France.

9.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20072413

ABSTRACT

France has been heavily affected by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic and went into lockdown on the 17th March 2020. Using models applied to hospital and death data, we estimate the impact of the lockdown and current population immunity. We find 2.6% of infected individuals are hospitalized and 0.53% die, ranging from 0.001% in those <20y to 8.3% in those >80y. Across all ages, men are more likely to be hospitalized, enter intensive care, and die than women. The lockdown reduced the reproductive number from 3.3 to 0.5 (84% reduction). By 11 May, when interventions are scheduled to be eased, we project 3.7 million (range: 2.3-6.7) people, 5.7% of the population, will have been infected. Population immunity appears insufficient to avoid a second wave if all control measures are released at the end of the lockdown.

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