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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 835156, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902991

ABSTRACT

Complement plays an important role in the direct defense to pathogens, but can also activate immune cells and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, in critically ill patients with COVID-19 the immune system is inadequately activated leading to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and acute kidney injury, which is associated with higher mortality. Therefore, we characterized local complement deposition as a sign of activation in both lungs and kidneys from patients with severe COVID-19. Using immunohistochemistry we investigated deposition of complement factors C1q, MASP-2, factor D (CFD), C3c, C3d and C5b-9 as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) positive neutrophils and SARS-CoV-2 virus particles in lungs and kidneys from 38 patients who died from COVID-19. In addition, tissue damage was analyzed using semi-quantitative scores followed by correlation with complement deposition. Autopsy material from non-COVID patients who died from cardiovascular causes, cerebral hemorrhage and pulmonary embolism served as control (n=8). Lung injury in samples from COVID-19 patients was significantly more pronounced compared to controls with formation of hyaline membranes, thrombi and edema. In addition, in the kidney tubular injury was higher in these patients and correlated with lung injury (r=0.361*). In autopsy samples SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was detected in 22% of the lungs of COVID-19 patients but was lacking in kidneys. Complement activation was significantly stronger in lung samples from patients with COVID-19 via the lectin and alternative pathway as indicated by deposition of MASP-2, CFD, C3d and C5b9. Deposits in the lung were predominantly detected along the alveolar septa, the hyaline membranes and in the alveolar lumina. In the kidney, complement was significantly more deposited in patients with COVID-19 in peritubular capillaries and tubular basement membranes. Renal COVID-19-induced complement activation occurred via the lectin pathway, while activation of the alternative pathway was similar in both groups. Furthermore, MPO-positive neutrophils were found in significantly higher numbers in lungs and kidneys of COVID-19 patients and correlated with local MASP-2 deposition. In conclusion, in patients who died from SARS-CoV-2 infection complement was activated in both lungs and kidneys indicating that complement might be involved in systemic worsening of the inflammatory response. Complement inhibition might thus be a promising treatment option to prevent deregulated activation and subsequent collateral tissue injury in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Complement Pathway, Alternative/immunology , Lectins/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Kidney/immunology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Peroxidase/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
2.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(11): 3125-3139, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241944

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a major threat to the lungs and multiple other organs, occasionally causing death. Until effective vaccines are developed to curb the pandemic, it is paramount to define the mechanisms and develop protective therapies to prevent organ dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. Individuals that develop severe manifestations have signs of dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. Emerging evidence implicates neutrophils and the disbalance between neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of inflammation, coagulopathy, organ damage, and immunothrombosis that characterize severe cases of COVID-19. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting a role for NETs in COVID-19 manifestations and present putative mechanisms, by which NETs promote tissue injury and immunothrombosis. We present therapeutic strategies, which have been successful in the treatment of immunο-inflammatory disorders and which target dysregulated NET formation or degradation, as potential approaches that may benefit patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Citrullination , Complement Activation , Humans , Neutrophils/metabolism , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/etiology
3.
Front Immunol ; 11: 594849, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083385

ABSTRACT

Most patients who became critically ill following infection with COVID-19 develop severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) attributed to a maladaptive or inadequate immune response. The complement system is an important component of the innate immune system that is involved in the opsonization of viruses but also in triggering further immune cell responses. Complement activation was seen in plasma adsorber material that clogged during the treatment of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Apart from the lung, the kidney is the second most common organ affected by COVID-19. Using immunohistochemistry for complement factors C1q, MASP-2, C3c, C3d, C4d, and C5b-9 we investigated the involvement of the complement system in six kidney biopsies with acute kidney failure in different clinical settings and three kidneys from autopsy material of patients with COVID-19. Renal tissue was analyzed for signs of renal injury by detection of thrombus formation using CD61, endothelial cell rarefaction using the marker E-26 transformation specific-related gene (ERG-) and proliferation using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-staining. SARS-CoV-2 was detected by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Biopsies from patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, n = 5), severe acute tubular injury (ATI, n = 7), zero biopsies with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, n = 7) and 1 year protocol biopsies from renal transplants (Ctrl, n = 7) served as controls. In the material clogging plasma adsorbers used for extracorporeal therapy of patients with COVID-19 C3 was the dominant protein but collectin 11 and MASP-2 were also identified. SARS-CoV-2 was sporadically present in varying numbers in some biopsies from patients with COVID-19. The highest frequency of CD61-positive platelets was found in peritubular capillaries and arteries of COVID-19 infected renal specimens as compared to all controls. Apart from COVID-19 specimens, MASP-2 was detected in glomeruli with DIC and ATI. In contrast, the classical pathway (i.e. C1q) was hardly seen in COVID-19 biopsies. Both C3 cleavage products C3c and C3d were strongly detected in renal arteries but also occurs in glomerular capillaries of COVID-19 biopsies, while tubular C3d was stronger than C3c in biopsies from COVID-19 patients. The membrane attack complex C5b-9, demonstrating terminal pathway activation, was predominantly deposited in COVID-19 biopsies in peritubular capillaries, renal arterioles, and tubular basement membrane with similar or even higher frequency compared to controls. In conclusion, various complement pathways were activated in COVID-19 kidneys, the lectin pathway mainly in peritubular capillaries and in part the classical pathway in renal arteries whereas the alternative pathway seem to be crucial for tubular complement activation. Therefore, activation of the complement system might be involved in the worsening of renal injury. Complement inhibition might thus be a promising treatment option to prevent deregulated activation and subsequent collateral tissue injury.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Complement Activation/physiology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
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