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1.
Sports (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765851

ABSTRACT

Mental alterations were described during the COVID-19 pandemic and sleep deprivation has been reported as a consequence of social isolation. In Italy, the COVID-19 pandemic spread out at the beginning of 2020 determining severe lockdown periods. The aim of our study was to observe the effects of lockdown on sleep and anxiety in trained non-professional subjects and professional athletes who continued to train during the lockdown period. Forty-six subjects (21 trained non-professional subjects and 25 professional athletes) were recruited from a variety of team and individual sports to complete a battery of previously validated and widely used questionnaires assessing psychometric and anthropometric parameters, physical activity levels, lifestyle habits, and sleep quality. Subjects were aged 27.0 ± 5.14. All items were evaluated as percentages and chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed, as appropriate. Our data showed that the prevalence of the difficulty of falling asleep (over 30%), the tendency of nocturnal awakenings (over 30%), and moderate anxiety (over 38%) were at the same extent in the two groups. Of the professional athletes, 72.73% declared snoring during sleep vs 42.86% of non-professional subjects. No other significant differences were found between the two groups except for the perception of being constant in daily activity, significantly more reported by trained subjects (p < 0.005). Our data show a similar scenario of anxiety and sleep disturbances for the two groups, suggesting that lockdown by the COVID-19 pandemic has partially mitigated the known beneficial effects due to physical activity on mental health and sleep quality. Further analyses are necessary to define the associated risk factors.

2.
Biomedicines ; 9(6)2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256425

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of 2020, the new pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 and named coronavirus disease 19 (COVID 19) has changed our socio-economic life. In just a few months, SARS-CoV-2 was able to spread worldwide at an unprecedented speed, causing hundreds of thousands of deaths, especially among the weakest part of the population. Indeed, especially at the beginning of this pandemic, many reports highlighted how people, suffering from other pathologies, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes, are more at risk of severe outcomes if infected. Although this pandemic has put the entire academic world to the test, it has also been a year of intense research and many important contributions have advanced our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 origin, its molecular structure and its mechanism of infection. Unfortunately, despite this great effort, we are still a long way from fully understanding how SARS-CoV-2 dysregulates organismal physiology and whether the current vaccines will be able to protect us from possible future pandemics. Here, we discuss the knowledge we have gained during this year and which questions future research should address.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138747

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, a new coronavirus (COVID-19) appeared on the world scene, which mainly affects the respiratory system, causing pneumonia and multi-organ failure, and, although it starts with common symptoms such as shortness of breath and fever, in about 2-3% of cases it leads to death. Unfortunately, to date, no specific treatments have been found for the cure of this virus and, therefore, it is advisable to implement all possible strategies in order to prevent infection. In this context, it is important to better define the role of all behaviors, in particular nutrition, in order to establish whether these can both prevent infection and improve the outcome of the disease in patients with COVID-19. In the literature, it is widely shown that states of malnutrition, overweight, and obesity negatively affect the immune system, leading to viral infections, and several studies have shown that nutritional interventions can act as immunostimulators, helping to prevent viral infections. Even if several measures, such as the assumption of a specific diet regimen, the use of dietary supplements, and other similar interventions, are promising for the prevention, management, and recovery of COVID-19 patients, it is important to highlight that strong data from randomized clinical trials are needed to support any such assumption. Considering this particular scenario, we present a literature review addressing several important aspects related to diet and SARS-CoV-2 infection, in order to highlight the importance of diet and supplementation in prevention and management of, as well as recovery from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Nutritional Status , Diet , Humans
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2941, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062774

ABSTRACT

In recent months, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread throughout the world. COVID-19 patients show mild, moderate or severe symptoms with the latter ones requiring access to specialized intensive care. SARS-CoV-2 infections, pathogenesis and progression have not been clearly elucidated yet, thus forcing the development of many complementary approaches to identify candidate cellular pathways involved in disease progression. Host lipids play a critical role in the virus life, being the double-membrane vesicles a key factor in coronavirus replication. Moreover, lipid biogenesis pathways affect receptor-mediated virus entry at the endosomal cell surface and modulate virus propagation. In this study, targeted lipidomic analysis coupled with proinflammatory cytokines and alarmins measurement were carried out in serum of COVID-19 patients characterized by different severity degree. Serum IL-26, a cytokine involved in IL-17 pathway, TSLP and adiponectin were measured and correlated to lipid COVID-19 patient profiles. These results could be important for the classification of the COVID-19 disease and the identification of therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Alarmins/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Discriminant Analysis , Female , Humans , Least-Squares Analysis , Lipids/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2020: 8896536, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975747

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, which can result in serious respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia leading to respiratory failure. It was first reported in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in December 2019 and rapidly spread globally, becoming a pandemic in March 2020. Among comorbidities observed in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, hypertension (68.3%) and type 2-diabetes (30.1%) are the most frequent conditions. Although symptoms are highly heterogeneous (ranging from absence of symptoms to severe acute respiratory failure), patients with metabolic-associated diseases often experience worse COVID-19 outcomes. This review investigates the association between metabolic disorders and COVID-19 severity, exploring the molecular mechanisms potentially underlying this relationship and those that are responsible for more severe COVID-19 outcomes. In addition, the role of the main biological processes that may connect metabolic alterations to SARS-CoV-2 infection such as hyperglycemia, immune system deregulation, ACE-2 receptor modulation, and inflammatory response is described. The impact of metabolic disorders on the prognosis of COVID-19 has major implications in public health especially for countries affected by a high incidence of metabolic diseases.

6.
Lung ; 198(6): 867-877, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917117

ABSTRACT

Despite the unprecedented effort of the scientific community, the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected more than 46 million people worldwide, killing over one million two hundred thousand. Understanding the mechanisms by which some individuals are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and why a subgroup of them are prone to experience severe pneumonia, and death should lead to a better approach and more effective treatments for COVID-19. Here, we focus our attention on ACE2, a primary receptor of SARS-CoV-2. We will discuss its biology, tissue expression, and post-translational regulation that determine its potential to be employed by SARS-CoV-2 for cell entry. Particular attention will be given to how the ACE2 soluble form can have a great impact on disease progression and thus be used in a potential therapeutic strategy. Furthermore, we will discuss repercussions that SARS-CoV-2/ACE2 binding has on the renin-angiotensin system and beyond. Indeed, although mostly neglected, ACE2 can also act on [des-Arg 937]-bradykinin of the kinin-kallikrein system regulating coagulation and inflammation. Thorough comprehension of the role that ACE2 plays in different pathways will be the key to assess the impact that SARS-CoV-2/ACE2 binding has on organismal physiology and will help us to find better therapies and diagnostic tools.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , COVID-19/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Receptors, Coronavirus/physiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Virus Internalization
7.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 120(12): 2569-2582, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743726

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA) represents the first line of defence against diseases characterised by increased inflammation status, such as metabolic and infectious diseases. Conversely, a sedentary lifestyle-associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders-negatively impacts on general health status, including susceptibility to infections. At a time of a pandemic SARS-CoV2 infection, and in the context of the multiorgan crosstalk (widely accepted as a mechanism participating in the pathophysiology of all organs and systems), we examine the complex interplay mediated by skeletal muscle contraction involving the immune system and how this contributes to control health status and to counteract viral infections. In so doing, we review the molecular mechanisms and expression of molecules modulated by PA, able to provide the proper molecular equipment against viral infections such as the current SARS-CoV2. METHODS: A critical review of the literature was performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and mediators induced by PA that potentially impact on viral infections such as SARS-CoV2. RESULTS: We showed the effects mediated by regular moderate PA on viral adverse effects through the regulation of biological processes involving the crosstalk between skeletal muscle, the immune system and adipose tissue. Evidence was provided of the effects mediated by modulation of the expression of inflammation markers. CONCLUSION: A tigth association between PA and reduction in inflammation status allows effective counteracting of SARS-CoV2 infection. It is therefore essential to persuade people to keep active.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Exercise , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
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