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1.
Infez Med ; 30(2): 180-193, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893779

ABSTRACT

The priority of the Sustainable Development Goals for 2022 is to reduce all causes related to mortality. In this regard, microbial bioactive compounds with characteristics such as optimal compatibility and close interaction with the host immune system are considered a novel therapeutic approach. The fermentation process is one of the most well-known pathways involved in the natural synthesis of a diverse range of postbiotics. However, some postbiotics are a type of probiotic response behavior to environmental stimuli that usually play well-known biological roles. Also, postbiotics with unique structure and function are key mediators between intestinal microbiota and host cellular processes/metabolic pathways that play a significant role in maintaining homeostasis. By further understanding the nature of parent microbial cells, factors affecting their metabolic pathways, and the development of compatible extraction and identification methods, it is possible to achieve certain formulations of postbiotics with special efficiencies, which in turn will significantly improve the performance of health systems (especially in developing countries) toward a wide range of acute/chronic diseases. The present review aims to describe the fundamental role of postbiotics as the key mediators of the microbiota-host interactions. Besides, it presents the available current evidence regarding the interaction between postbiotics and host cells through potential cell receptors, stimulation/improvement of immune system function, and the enhancement of the composition and function of the human microbiome.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 743248, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To limit the spread of COVID-19 due to imported cases, Burkina Faso has set up quarantine measures for arriving passengers. We aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of imported cases of COVID-19 in Burkina Faso. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed using data from passengers arriving at the airport from April 9 to August 31, 2020. The data was extracted from the District Health Information Software 2 (DHIS2) platform. Cox regression was used to identify predictors of imported cases of COVID-19. RESULTS: Among 6,332 travelers who arrived in the study period, 173 imported cases (2.7%) were recorded. The incidence rate was 1.9 cases per 1,000 traveler-days (95%CI: 1.6-2.2 per 1,000). Passengers arriving in April (Adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 3.56; 95%CI: 1.62-7.81) and May (aHR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.18-3.12) were more at risk of being tested positive compared to those arriving in August, as well as, passengers presenting with one symptom (aHR = 3.71; 95% CI: 1.63-8.43) and at least two symptoms (aHR = 10.82; 95% CI: 5.24-22,30) compared to asymptomatic travelers. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of imported cases was relatively low in Burkina Faso between April and August 2020. The period of travel and the presence of symptoms at arrival predicted the risk of being tested positive to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This is essential in the context of the high circulation of virus variants worldwide and the low local capacity to perform genotyping tests to strengthen the surveillance and screening capacities at the points of entry into the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614006

ABSTRACT

In Mali, a country in West Africa, cumulative confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths among healthcare workers (HCWs) remain enigmatically low, despite a series of waves, circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants, the country's weak healthcare system, and a general lack of adherence to public health mitigation measures. The goal of the study was to determine whether exposure is important by assessing the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in HCWs. The study was conducted between November 2020 and June 2021. HCWs in the major hospitals where COVID-19 cases were being cared for in the capital city, Bamako, Mali, were recruited. During the study period, vaccinations were not yet available. The ELISA of the IgG against the spike protein was optimized and quantitatively measured. A total of 240 HCWs were enrolled in the study, of which seropositivity was observed in 147 cases (61.8%). A continuous increase in the seropositivity was observed, over time, during the study period, from 50% at the beginning to 70% at the end of the study. HCWs who provided direct care to COVID-19 patients and were potentially highly exposed did not have the highest seropositivity rate. Vulnerable HCWs with comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, and asthma had even higher seropositivity rates at 77.8%, 75.0%, and 66.7%, respectively. Overall, HCWs had high SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence, likely reflecting a "herd" immunity level, which could be protective at some degrees. These data suggest that the low number of cases and deaths among HCWs in Mali is not due to a lack of occupational exposure to the virus but rather related to other factors that need to be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Mali/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies
4.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2021: 8866311, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298414

ABSTRACT

Resveratrol is a polyphenolic antioxidant whose possible health benefits include anticarcinogenic, antiaging, and antimicrobial properties that have gained significant attention. The compound is well accepted by individuals and has been commonly used as a nutraceutical in recent decades. Its widespread usage makes it essential to study as a single agent as well as in combination with traditional prescription antibiotics as regards to antimicrobial properties. Resveratrol demonstrates the action of antimicrobials against a remarkable bacterial diversity, viruses, and fungus. This report explains resveratrol as an all-natural antimicrobial representative. It may modify the bacterial virulence qualities resulting in decreased toxic substance production, biofilm inhibition, motility reduction, and quorum sensing disturbance. Moreover, in conjunction with standard antibiotics, resveratrol improves aminoglycoside efficacy versus Staphylococcus aureus, while it antagonizes the deadly function of fluoroquinolones against S. aureus and also Escherichia coli. The present study aimed to thoroughly review and study the antimicrobial potency of resveratrol, expected to help researchers pave the way for solving antimicrobial resistance.

5.
Health Promot Perspect ; 11(2): 171-178, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273805

ABSTRACT

Background: To end the COVID-19 pandemic, a large part of the world must be immune to the virus by vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to gauge intent to be vaccinated against COVID-19 among ordinary people and to identify attitudes towards vaccines and barriers for vaccine acceptance. Methods: The study population comprises 1880 people residing in different countries that answer a prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire topics are demographics, historical issues, participants' attitudes and beliefs regarding vaccines, concerns, and vaccine hesitancy. Results: Attitudes and beliefs relating to vaccines in general, and the COVID-19 vaccine, were ascertained. Overall, 66.81% of the contributors would like to be vaccinated against COVID-19, while %33.19 did not intend to be vaccinated. Reasons for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy included concern regarding vaccine side effects, fear of getting sick from the uptake of the vaccine, and the absence of accurate vaccine promotion news. Individuals with higher education believe that India (68.6%) produces the best vaccine (P <0.001), while healthcare workers think the Chinese vaccine (44.2%) is the best (P =0.020). Individuals with higher education have not been vaccinated, not be healthcare workers, and females were the most contributors to effective of the vaccine in reducing mortality from COVID-19 disease. Conclusion: Given the degree of hesitancy against COVID-19 vaccination, a multifaceted approach to facilitate vaccine uptake that includes vaccine education, behavioral change strategies, and health promotion, is paramount.

6.
Health Promot Perspect ; 11(1): 5-11, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129923

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) dissemination occurred from December 2019 and quickly spread to all countries. Infected patients with COVID-19 have had a wide range of symptoms, ranging from mild to severe illness. The most mortality was observed in patients with underlying disease and over 45 years. World statistics have shown that the COVID-19 outbreak is most expanded in Middle Eastern, West Asian, European, North, and South American countries, and is least expanded in African countries. Therefore, the aim of the paper was the evaluation of six African countries including Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Guinea, Togo, and Djibouti to find why this disease is least expanded in African countries. Study was conducted by Questioner for countries health organizers to define their different aspect exposure and fight with COVID-19 including epidemiology, clinical aspects of the disease, case definitions, diagnosis laboratory confirmation, and referral of cases by the portal of entry, case management, and disease prevention in these countries. According to this opinion review, due to the low international flights and low domestic travel, the spread, and prevalence of COVID-19 was low and the return of the immigrants of these countries has caused the spread of COVID-19 among these countries. Experience, preparation, and impact of previous infections epidemic such as the Ebola virus epidemic would have beneficial, which have promoted certain reflexes among people that cause low dissemination in these countries.

7.
Microb Pathog ; 149: 104556, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813781

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease, which started in Wuhan, Chin, has now become a public health challenge in most countries around the world. Proper preventive measures are necessary to prevent the spread of the virus to help control the pandemic. Because, SARS-CoV-2 is new, its transmission route has not been fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the sweat secretion of COVID-19 patients. Sweat specimens of 25 COVID- 19 patients were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method. After RNA extraction and cDNA amplification, all samples were examined for the presence of ORF-1ab and N genes related to COVID-19. Results annotated by Realtime PCR machines software based on Dynamic algorithm. The results of this study showed the absence of SARS-CoV-2 in the sweat samples taken from the foreheads of infected people. Therefore, it can be concluded that the sweat of patients with COVID- 19 cannot transmit SARS-CoV-2. However they can be easily contaminated with other body liquids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sweat/virology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Software , Young Adult
8.
Infez Med ; 28(2): 185-191, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-51040

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, reports from China of the incidence of pneumonia with unknown etiology were sent to the World Health Organization (WHO). Shortly afterwards, the cause of this disease was identified as the novel beta-coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and its genetic sequence was published on January 12, 2020. Human-to-human transmission via respiratory droplets and contact with aerosol infected surfaces are the major ways of transmitting this virus. Here we attempted to collect information on virus stability in the air and on surfaces and ways of preventing of SARS-CoV-2 spreading.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Disinfection/methods , Environmental Microbiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Infez Med ; 28(2): 153-165, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-49876

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19), spreading from Wuhan, China, is one of the causes of respiratory infections that can spread to other people through respiratory particles, and can cause symptoms such as fever, dry cough, shortness of breath, anorexia, fatigue and sore throat in infected patients. This review summarizes current strategies on the diagnosis. Additionally, treatments, infection prevention and control of the SARS-CoV-2 are addressed. In addition to the respiratory system, this virus can infect the digestive system, the urinary system and the haematological system, which causes to observe the virus in the stool, urine and blood samples in addition to throat sample. The SARS-CoV-2 causes changes in blood cells and factors and makes lung abnormalities in patients, which can be detected by serological, molecular, and radiological techniques by detecting these changes and injuries. Radiological and serological methods are the most preferred among the other methods and the radiological method is the most preferred one which can diagnose the infection quickly and accurately with fewer false-negatives, that can be effective in protecting the patient's life by initiating treatment and preventing the transmission of infection to other people.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
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