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1.
Ther Adv Vaccines Immunother ; 10: 25151355221115009, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993307

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 infections among severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-vaccinated individuals are of clinical concern, especially in those requiring hospitalization. Such real-world data on ChAdOx1 nCoV-19- and BBV152-vaccinated individuals are scarce. Hence, there is an urgent need to understand their clinical profile and outcomes. Methods: A 1:1 pair-matched study was performed among vaccinated and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients admitted between March 2021 and June 2021 at a tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India. The vaccinated group (received at least one dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BBV152) was prospectively followed till discharge or death and matched [for age (±10 years), sex, baseline disease severity and comorbidities] with a retrospective group of unvaccinated patients admitted during the study period. Paired analysis was done to look for clinical outcomes between the two groups. Results: The study included a total of 210 patients, with 105 in each of the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. In the vaccinated group, 47 (44.8%) and 58 (55.2%) patients had received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and BBV152, respectively. However, 73 patients had received one dose and 32 had received two doses of the vaccine. Disease severity was mild in 36.2%, moderate in 31.4% and severe in 32.4%. Two mortalities were reported out of 19 fully vaccinated individuals. All-cause mortality in the vaccinated group was 8.6% (9/105), which was significantly lower than the matched unvaccinated group mortality of 21.9% (23/105), p = 0.007. Vaccination increased the chances of survival (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.42-10.18) compared to the unvaccinated group. Conclusion: In the second wave of the pandemic predominated by delta variant of SARS CoV-2, vaccination reduced all-cause mortality among hospitalized patients, although the results are only preliminary.

2.
Microorganisms ; 10(6)2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911472

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: During the second wave of COVID-19, India faced a rapid and sudden surge of not only COVID19-delta variant cases but also mucormycosis, making the infection even more fatal. We conducted a study to determine factors associated with the occurrence of mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19. (2) Methods: This case-control study comprised 121 patients; 61 cases (mucormycosis with COVID-19) and 60 controls. Patients were included from April 10, 2021 onwards. Follow-up was conducted after about 90 days and health status was recorded based on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). (3) Results: Mucormycosis with COVID-19 cases had a median (IQR) age of 49 (43-59) years with 65.6% males and were older (95% CI 1.015-1.075; p = 0.002) than in the control group with median (IQR) 38 (29-55.5) years and 66.6% males. Baseline raised serum creatinine (OR = 4.963; 95% CI 1.456-16.911; p = 0.010) and D-dimer (OR = 1.000; 95% CI 1.000-1.001; p = 0.028) were independently associated with the occurrence of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients. Additionally, diabetes mellitus (OR = 26.919; 95% CI 1.666-434.892; p = 0.020) was associated with poor outcomes and increased mortality in patients with mucormycosis with COVID-19 as per the multivariable analysis. A total of 30/61 mucormycosis patients had intracranial involvement. (4) Conclusions: The study observed elevated levels of baseline raised creatinine and D-dimer in mucormycosis pa-tients with COVID-19 as compared to the control group. However, future studies may be conducted to establish this cause-effect relationship.

3.
Telemed Rep ; 2(1): 88-96, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901063

ABSTRACT

Background: Teleneurology consultations can be highly advantageous since neurological diseases and disabilities often limit patient's access to health care, particularly in a setting where they need to travel long distances for specialty consults. Patient satisfaction is an important outcome assessing success of a telemedicine program. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine satisfaction and perception of patients toward an audio call based teleneurology follow-up initiated during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Primary outcomes were satisfaction to tele-consult, and proportion of patients preferring telemedicine for future follow-up. Results: A total of 261 patients who received tele-consult were enrolled. Satisfaction was highest for domain technological quality, followed by patient-physician dialogue (PPD) and least to quality of care (QoC). Median (interquartile range) patient satisfaction on a 5-point Likert scale was 4 (3-5). Eighty-five (32.6%; 95% confidence interval 26.9-38.6%) patients preferred telemedicine for future follow-up. Higher overall satisfaction was associated with health condition being stable/better, change in treatment advised on tele-consult, diagnosis not requiring follow-up examination, higher scores on domains QoC and PPD (p < 0.05). Future preference for telemedicine was associated with patient him-/herself consulting with doctor, less duration of follow-up, higher overall satisfaction, and higher scores on domain QoC (p < 0.05). On thematic analysis, telemedicine was found convenient, reduced expenditure, and had better physician attention; in-person visits were comprehensive, had better patient-physician relationship, and better communication. Discussion: Patient satisfaction was lower in our study than what has been observed earlier, which may be explained by the primitive nature of our platform. Several variables related to the patients' disease process have an effect on patient satisfaction. Conclusion: Development of robust, structured platforms is necessary to fully utilize the potential of telemedicine in developing countries.

4.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(2): 218-223, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879551

ABSTRACT

Objective: Neurological emergencies saw a paradigm shift in approach during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with the challenge to manage patients with and without COVID-19. We aimed to compare the various neurological disorders and 3 months outcome in patients with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: In an ambispective cohort study design, we enrolled patients with and without SARS CoV-2 infection coming to a medical emergency with neurological disorders between April 2020 and September 2020. Demographic, clinical, biochemical, and treatment details of these patients were collected and compared. Their outcomes, both in-hospital and at 3 months were assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results: Two thirty-five patients (235) were enrolled from emergency services with neurological disorders. Of them, 81 (34.5%) were COVID-19 positive. The mean (SD) age was 49.5 (17.3) years, and the majority of the patients were male (63.0%). The commonest neurological diagnosis was acute ischemic stroke (AIS) (43.0%). The in-hospital mortality was higher in the patients who were COVID-19 positive (COVID-19 positive: 29 (35.8%) versus COVID-19 negative: 12 (7.8%), P value: <0.001). The 3 months telephonic follow-up could be completed in 73.2% of the patients (142/194). Four (12.1%) deaths occurred on follow-up in the COVID-19 positive versus fifteen (13.8%) in the COVID-19 negative patients (P value: 1.00). The 3-month mRS was worse in the COVID-19 positive group (P value <0.001). However, this was driven by higher in-hospital morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 positive patients. Conclusion: Patients with neurological disorders presenting with COVID-19 infection had worse outcomes, including in-hospital and 3 months disability.

5.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 45(4): 574-577, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794593

ABSTRACT

A middle-aged woman presented with symptomatic complete heart block and underwent an uneventful dual chamber pacemaker implantation. Three weeks post procedure, she developed left arm pain and weakness, with neurological localization to the lower trunk of left brachial plexus. Possibilities of traumatic compression by the device/leads or postoperative idiopathic brachial plexopathy were considered. After ruling out traumatic causes, she was started on oral steroids, to which she responded remarkably. This case highlights the importance of recognizing this rare cause of brachial plexopathy following pacemaker implantation, because not only does an expedited diagnosis and medical treatment lead to prompt recovery with minimal neurological deficits, but it also circumvents an unnecessary surgical re-exploration.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus Neuropathies , Brachial Plexus , Pacemaker, Artificial , Brachial Plexus Neuropathies/diagnosis , Brachial Plexus Neuropathies/etiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects
6.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(1): 76-81, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726289

ABSTRACT

Background: Governments have imposed lockdowns in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospitals have restricted outpatient clinics and elective services meant for non-COVID illnesses. This has led to patients facing unprecedented challenges and uncertainties. This study was carried out to assess patients' concerns and apprehensions about the effect of the lockdown on their treatments. Materials and Methods: An ambispective, observational cross-sectional single centre study was conducted. Patients were contacted telephonically and requested to answer a structured questionnaire. Their responses were documented and summarized as frequency and proportions. Results: A total of 727 patients were interviewed. Epilepsy (32%) was the most common neurological illness in our cohort followed by stroke (18%). About half the patients and/or their caregivers reported health-related concerns during the lockdown. The primary concern was how to connect with their treating neurologist if need arose. Forty-seven patients (6.4%) had drug default. Among patients on immunomodulatory treatments, only eight patients had drug default. High compliance rates were also observed in the stroke and epilepsy cohorts. Of the 71 patients who required emergency care during the lockdown, 24 could reach our hospital emergency. Fourteen patients either had a delay or could not seek emergency care. Two-thirds of our patients found the telemedicine experience satisfactory. Conclusion: The ongoing pandemic will continue to pose challenges to both physicians and patients. Patients in follow-up may need to be contacted regularly and counselled regarding the importance of maintaining drug compliance. Telemedicine can be used to strengthen the healthcare delivery to patients with non-COVID illnesses.

7.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 122(6): 1601-1602, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641029
8.
Neurology ; 97(23): e2269-e2281, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: One year after the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we aimed to summarize the frequency of neurologic manifestations reported in patients with COVID-19 and to investigate the association of these manifestations with disease severity and mortality. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and EMBASE for studies from December 31, 2019, to December 15, 2020, enrolling consecutive patients with COVID-19 presenting with neurologic manifestations. Risk of bias was examined with the Joanna Briggs Institute scale. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed, and pooled prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for neurologic manifestations. Odds ratio (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated to determine the association of neurologic manifestations with disease severity and mortality. Presence of heterogeneity was assessed with I 2, meta-regression, and subgroup analyses. Statistical analyses were conducted in R version 3.6.2. RESULTS: Of 2,455 citations, 350 studies were included in this review, providing data on 145,721 patients with COVID-19, 89% of whom were hospitalized. Forty-one neurologic manifestations (24 symptoms and 17 diagnoses) were identified. Pooled prevalence of the most common neurologic symptoms included fatigue (32%), myalgia (20%), taste impairment (21%), smell impairment (19%), and headache (13%). A low risk of bias was observed in 85% of studies; studies with higher risk of bias yielded higher prevalence estimates. Stroke was the most common neurologic diagnosis (pooled prevalence 2%). In patients with COVID-19 ≥60 years of age, the pooled prevalence of acute confusion/delirium was 34%, and the presence of any neurologic manifestations in this age group was associated with mortality (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.11-2.91). DISCUSSION: Up to one-third of patients with COVID-19 analyzed in this review experienced at least 1 neurologic manifestation. One in 50 patients experienced stroke. In those >60 years of age, more than one-third had acute confusion/delirium; the presence of neurologic manifestations in this group was associated with nearly a doubling of mortality. Results must be interpreted with the limitations of observational studies and associated bias in mind. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020181867.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delirium/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Delirium/complications , Delirium/mortality , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/complications
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462937

ABSTRACT

Wunderlich syndrome is a rare condition characterised by acute spontaneous non-traumatic renal haemorrhage into the subcapsular and perirenal spaces. Our case of anti-GAD65-associated autoimmune encephalitis (AE), aged 30 years, developed this complication following use of enoxaparin and was managed by selective glue embolisation of subsegmental branches of right renal cortical arteries. Our case had opsoclonus as one of the clinical manifestations, which has till now been described in only two patients of this AE. This patient received all forms of induction therapies (steroids, plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab) following which she had good improvement in her clinical condition. The good response to immunotherapy is also a point of discussion as this has been rarely associated with anti-GAD65 AE.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis , Limbic Encephalitis , Ocular Motility Disorders , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Rare Diseases
11.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 23(3): 261-264, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent respiratory infection including SARS-CoV-2 is an independent risk factor for acute cerebrovascular disease. PURPOSE: There have been reports linking haemorrhagic strokes to SARS-CoV-2 infection during this pandemic, which lead us to evaluate if SARS-CoV-2 infection could be associated with increased risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: A retrospective observational study evaluating all stroke cases admitted in our centre in the past one month. RESULTS: More than half (56%) had ICH, compared to 22% last year. Two patients with ICH were SARS-CoV-2 positive and they had no or mild respiratory symptoms and had higher occurrence of renal dysfunction. CONCLUSION: There could be possible association between ICH and SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, a prospective study with larger sample size is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis.

12.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 24(1): 11-14, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150828

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated a global health crisis. Non-COVID diseases across specialties have been significantly compromised. The greatest challenge has been to continue providing care to non-COVID cases with minimum transmission risk to health care workers, patients, and caregivers. In this specter, better described as a medical holocaust, we present our experiences of dealing with acute neurological patients who could access our facility. We attempted to work on three key areas - initial screening using a more inclusive, dynamic checklist for COVID suspicion over and above the emergency triage, a mandatory initial holding on a separate floor of our inpatient service equipped with infection control strategies similar to a COVID-designated area, and daily screening of health care workers and caregivers for symptoms and possible exposures. It was a steep learning curve, a couple of close shaves, and many more lessons that went into the development of an algorithm that seems to be working well.

13.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(2): 391-394, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011669

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to formulate a methodological approach for resuming eye bank services during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Eye bank operations were temporarily halted in March after the government-mandated "Lockdown" in response to COVID-19 pandemic. Before restarting eye bank operations in May, we studied sources of exposure, performed risk assessment, instituted additional process validations and redefined the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) in consultation with the guidelines published by the Eye bank Association of India and All India Ophthalmological Society. The eye bank staff were rigorously trained before and after operations were restarted. We conducted a survey at the end of July to gauge staff attitude and reaction. RESULTS: Eye banks services resumed on 20th May 2020. Since reopening till the end of July total 41 keratoplasties have been done. 91.75% of all keratoplasties done were therapeutic surgeries and 17% of the surgeries were done using glycerine preserved tissues. No staff had COVID-19 symptoms when the operations restarted and none developed symptoms up to the end of July. All eye bank staff were aware of COVID-19 pandemic and 86% said they felt safe working at the eye bank. 86% of the staff said that they received adequate training and 66% of the staff expressed that they always received proper PPE and kits. Overall, 93% of the staff expressed that the measures taken by the eye bank ensured their safety. CONCLUSION: Based on our experience we suggest the following activities for planned resumption of eye bank services during the pandemic: Exposure Risk Analysis, Personal Protective Equipment usage training, SOP Revision and staff training on modified SOPs. Criteria based selection of donor sources, participatory planning involving the staff and double-checking at critical process junctions helped us in managing a smooth transition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Eye Banks/statistics & numerical data , Eye Diseases/surgery , Pandemics , Comorbidity , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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