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Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(12)2022 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281595


Rhino-orbital cerebral mucor mycosis is a rare disease entity, where retinal involvement is described in the literature mostly as CRAO. However, pathological studies have shown mucor invading the choroid and retina with a neutrophilic reaction. So, it is pertinent that retinal inflammation secondary to invading mucor has some role in microstructural changes seen in the vitreous and retina of these patients. This novel study aims to describe the vitreal and retinal features of patients with vision-threatening rhino-orbital cerebral mucor mycosis and how they evolve on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). This study shall also provide insight into the pathophysiology of these vitreoretinal manifestations by in vitro analysis of the exenterated orbital content. Fifteen eyes of fifteen patients with vision-threatening ROCM treated with standard care were enrolled in this study and underwent complete ophthalmic examination, serial colour fundus photography, and SD-OCT for both qualitative and quantitative analysis, at baseline and follow-up visits. SD-OCT on serial follow-up revealed thickening and increased inner-retinal reflectivity at presentation followed by thinning of both, other features such as the loss of the inner-retinal organized layer structure, external limiting membrane (ELM) disruption, necrotic spaces in the outer retina, and hyperreflective foci. Vitreous cells with vitreous haze were also seen. There was a significant reduction in CMT, inner and outer retinal thickness, total retinal thickness (all p < 0.05) with time, the quantum of reduction concentrated primarily to the inner retina. In summary, in vivo and in vitro analysis revealed that early microstructural changes were primarily a result of retinal infarctions secondary to thrombotic angioinvasion. With the late microstructural changes, there was possible sequelae of retinal infarction with some contribution from the inflammation, resulting from mucor invading the choroid and retina.

Indian J Public Health ; 66(4): 494-497, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229280


Postsecond wave of COVID-19 pandemic in the year 2021, rhino-orbital mucormycosis (ROM) was seen as an epidemic in the Indian community. Severe ROM disease has poor prognosis and requires a multidisciplinary approach for treatment. Hence, its prevention is better than cure. Studies done during the epidemic assessed predisposing factors, but this was a novel study which focused on assessing risk factors for severe disease of ROM. Ninety-four consecutive patients of ROM admitted at our designated nodal tertiary hospital of North India were enrolled, and data were collected and analyzed. Facial edema was the most common presenting complaint. Subclinical and mild COVID-19 infection was associated with severe ROM. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and prophylactic zinc supplementation were other significant risk factors for severe ROM. Public awareness among the general population for the above risk factors can prevent a debilitating disease like severe ROM.

COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Humans , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , India/epidemiology , Risk Factors
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 312, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090890


Introduction: Rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis (ROCM) is the most common form of mucormycosis observed during the second wave of COVID-19 where a steep rise in the number of cases was seen. The orbital form is almost always associated with fungal sinusitis. Among the various treatment modalities available, the role of retrobulbar Amphotericin-B injections is under-reported. This study is conducted to determine the role of transcutaneous retrobulbar amphotericin-B (TRAMB) in the management of COVID-19 associated ROCM. Methods: a retrospective analysis of 61 patients of COVID-19 associated ROCM was done, who met the inclusion criteria and presented to a tertiary care center, between May to August 2021. These patients were administered TRAMB (deoxycholate/emulsion form) along-with systemic amphotericin B. All the patients were evaluated for clinical improvement. Results: out of 61 patients, 58 (95.08%) showed overall improvement. 40 patients (65.57%) stabilized or improved clinically and 3 patients succumbed to the illness due to advanced systemic mucormycosis and acute kidney failure. Sixteen out of 58 patients underwent orbital exenteration. Out of remaining 43 patients, 35 showed complete recovery of orbital and ocular disease and the disease stabilized in eight patients. Seven patients demonstrated TRAMB associated ocular complications which however completely resolved in six patients. Conclusion: to the best of the author´s knowledge, regression of orbital mucormycosis with improvement in ptosis, proptosis, ocular motility and stabilization of visual acuity are scarcely reported in literature. Further TRAMB as a globe non-deforming treatment modality is an option available for ROCM.

COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Humans , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Amphotericin B , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Nose