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1.
Metabolites ; 12(7)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928611

ABSTRACT

Systemic iron homeostasis needs to be tightly controlled, as both deficiency and excess iron cause major global health concerns, such as iron deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis, etc. In mammals, sufficient dietary acquisition is critical for fulfilling the systemic iron requirement. New questions are emerging about whether and how cellular iron transport pathways integrate with the iron storage mechanism. Ferritin is the intracellular iron storage protein that stores surplus iron after all the cellular needs are fulfilled and releases it in the face of an acute demand. Currently, there is a surge in interest in ferritin research after the discovery of novel pathways like ferritinophagy and ferroptosis. This review emphasizes the most recent ferritin-related discoveries and their impact on systemic iron regulation.

2.
Lung India ; 39(3): 247-253, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810866

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypoxia in patients with COVID-19 is one of the strongest predictors of mortality. Silent hypoxia is characterised by the presence of hypoxia without dyspnoea. Silent hypoxia has been shown to affect the outcome in previous studies. Methods: This was a retrospective study of a cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who were hypoxic at presentation. Clinical, laboratory and treatment parameters in patients with silent hypoxia and dyspnoeic hypoxia were compared. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify the factors predicting mortality. Results: Among 2080 patients with COVID-19 admitted to our hospital, 811 patients were hypoxic with SpO2 <94% at the time of presentation. Among them, 174 (21.45%) did not have dyspnoea since the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Further, 5.2% of patients were completely asymptomatic for COVID-19 and were found to be hypoxic only on pulse oximetry. The case fatality rate in patients with silent hypoxia was 45.4% as compared to 40.03% in dyspnoeic hypoxic patients (P = 0.202). The odds ratio of death was 1.1 (95% CI: 0.41-2.97) in the patients with silent hypoxia after adjusting for baseline characteristics, laboratory parameters, treatment and in-hospital complications, which did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.851). Conclusion: Silent hypoxia may be the only presenting feature of COVID-19. As the case fatality rate is comparable between silent and dyspnoeic hypoxia, it should be recognised early and treated as aggressively. Because home isolation is recommended in patients with COVID-19, it is essential to use pulse oximetry in the home setting to identify these patients.

3.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295883

ABSTRACT

Background Due to the unprecedented speed of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development, their efficacy trials and issuance of emergency use approvals and marketing authorizations, additional scientific questions remain that need to be answered regarding vaccine effectiveness, vaccination regimens and the need for booster doses. While long-term studies on the correlates of protection, vaccine effectiveness, and enhanced surveillance are awaited, studies on breakthrough infections help us understand the nature and course of this illness among vaccinated individuals and guide in public health preparedness. Methods This observational cohort study aimed at comparing the differences in clinical, biochemical parameters and the hospitalization outcomes of 53 fully vaccinated individuals with those of unvaccinated (1,464) and partially vaccinated (231) individuals, among a cohort of 2,080 individuals hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results Completing the course of vaccination protected individuals from developing severe COVID-19 as evidence by lower proportions of those with hypoxia, abnormal levels of inflammatory markers, requiring ventilatory support and death compared to unvaccinated and partially vaccinated individuals. There were no differences in these outcomes among patients who received either vaccine type approved in India. Conclusion With a current rate of only 9.5% of the Indian population being fully vaccinated, efforts should be made to improve the vaccination rates as a timely measure to prepare for the upcoming waves of this highly transmissible pandemic. Vaccination rates of the communities may also guide in the planning of the health needs and appropriate use of medical resources. Research in context Evidence before this study The Government of India started vaccinating its citizens from the 16 th of January 2021, after emergency use authorization had been received for the use of two vaccines, BBV152, a COVID-19 vaccine based on the whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strain NIV-2020-770, (Covaxin) and the recombinant replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vector encoding the spike protein ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Corona Virus Vaccine (Covishield). These have been approved by the Indian regulatory authority based on randomized controlled studies. In these studies, was found that the vaccines led to more than 90% reduction in symptomatic COVID-19 disease. However, there is scarce evidence of the efficacy of these vaccines in real-world scenarios. A few studies have looked at vaccinated cohorts such as health care workers in whom the vaccines had an efficacy similar to the RCTs. In a study of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, it was found that mortality in fully vaccinated patients was 12.5% as compared to 31.5% in the unvaccinated cohort. Added-value of this study This cohort of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection was studied during the peak of the second wave of COVID-19 in India during which the delta variant of concern was the predominant infecting strain and had 26% patients who were partially vaccinated and 71.4% who were unvaccinated. Only 3% of the patients were fully vaccinated and developed a breakthrough infection. At the time of presentation, 13% of the individuals with breakthrough infection and 48·5% in the non-vaccinated group were hypoxic. Inflammatory markers were significantly lower in the completely vaccinated patients with breakthrough infection. The need for use of steroids and anti-viral agents such as remdesivir was also significantly low in the breakthrough infection group. A significantly less proportion of the individuals with breakthrough infection required oxygen supplementation or ventilatory support. Very few deteriorated or progressed to critical illness during their hospital stay. Only 3 individuals (5.7%) out of the 53 who developed breakthrough infection succumbed to illness while case fatality rates were significantly higher in the unvaccinated (22.8%) and pa tially vaccinated (19.5%) groups. Propensity score weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed lower odds of developing hypoxia, critical illness or death in those who were completely vaccinated. Implications of all the available evidence The real-world effectiveness of the vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 seems to be similar to the randomized controlled trials. The vaccines are very effective in reducing the incidence of severe COVID-19, hypoxia, critical illness and death. The reduced need for oxygen supplementation, mechanical ventilation and the requirement of corticosteroids or other expensive medications such as anti-viral drugs could go a long way in redistributing scarce health care resources. All nations must move forward and vaccinate the citizens, as the current evidence suggests that ‘prevention is better than cure’.

4.
The Indian Economic Journal ; : 0019466220981824, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1109740

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has traumatised the whole world in every aspect ranging from normal day-to-day activities to complete halt of the economies. This piece of work attempted to examine the response of the stock markets to the outbreak of COVID-9 by considering stock indices of five leading countries and comparing the risk with other periods of crisis viz. global financial crisis of 2007-2008 and stock market fluctuation in 1992. Both negative and positive fluctuation are examined, however special emphasis is placed on downside risk. The risk is measured using Value-at-Risk models with different distributional assumptions. The main observation of the study points towards gravity of this deadly virus as the volatility in the stock markets of all the countries is higher even compared to the global crisis of 2008 except China which is quite absurd. On the other hand, global markets are found to be highly correlated in the COVID-19 period. However, investors are also found to be reacting positively when favourable news is transmitted. The findings of this paper will help the investors in understanding the short-run dynamics of the stock markets and use such information in future for investment in similar circumstances.

5.
J Public Aff ; : e2590, 2020 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986362

ABSTRACT

The study has attempted to study the impact of COVID-19 on downside stock market risk in the G-20 nations using Vaue-at-Risk models. The findings of the study suggest that all the G-20 nations have experienced very high level of risk during Global Financial Crisis and COVID-19 as all the countries' stock markets are critical during these two periods, but the magnitude of risk is found to be highest during COVID-19 period compared to other regimes in most of the countries. However, one shocking revelation is that China is found to be on safe zone having very less market risk, whereas all other countries are found to be critical.

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