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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1726, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773977

ABSTRACT

Immunization is expected to confer protection against infection and severe disease for vaccines while reducing risks to unimmunized populations by inhibiting transmission. Here, based on serial serological studies of an observational cohort of healthcare workers, we show that during a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome -Coronavirus 2 Delta-variant outbreak in Delhi, 25.3% (95% Confidence Interval 16.9-35.2) of previously uninfected, ChAdOx1-nCoV19 double vaccinated, healthcare workers were infected within less than two months, based on serology. Induction of anti-spike response was similar between groups with breakthrough infection (541 U/ml, Inter Quartile Range 374) and without (342 U/ml, Inter Quartile Range 497), as was the induction of neutralization activity to wildtype. This was not vaccine failure since vaccine effectiveness estimate based on infection rates in an unvaccinated cohort were about 70% and most infections were asymptomatic. We find that while ChAdOx1-nCoV19 vaccination remains effective in preventing severe infections, it is unlikely to be completely able to block transmission and provide herd immunity.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunization , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 763169, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753386

ABSTRACT

Vaccine development against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been of primary importance to contain the ongoing global pandemic. However, studies have demonstrated that vaccine effectiveness is reduced and the immune response is evaded by variants of concern (VOCs), which include Alpha, Beta, Delta, and, the most recent, Omicron. Subsequently, several vaccine breakthrough (VBT) infections have been reported among healthcare workers (HCWs) due to their prolonged exposure to viruses at healthcare facilities. We conducted a clinico-genomic study of ChAdOx1 (Covishield) VBT cases in HCWs after complete vaccination. Based on the clinical data analysis, most of the cases were categorized as mild, with minimal healthcare support requirements. These patients were divided into two sub-phenotypes based on symptoms: mild and mild plus. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation of specific clinical parameters with VBT sub-phenotypes. Viral genomic sequence analysis of VBT cases revealed a spectrum of high- and low-frequency mutations. More in-depth analysis revealed the presence of low-frequency mutations within the functionally important regions of SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Emphasizing the potential benefits of surveillance, low-frequency mutations, D144H in the N gene and D138Y in the S gene, were observed to potentially alter the protein secondary structure with possible influence on viral characteristics. Substantiated by the literature, our study highlights the importance of integrative analysis of pathogen genomic and clinical data to offer insights into low-frequency mutations that could be a modulator of VBT infections.

3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264785, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745317

ABSTRACT

The variability of clinical course and prognosis of COVID-19 highlights the necessity of patient sub-group risk stratification based on clinical data. In this study, clinical data from a cohort of Indian COVID-19 hospitalized patients is used to develop risk stratification and mortality prediction models. We analyzed a set of 70 clinical parameters including physiological and hematological for developing machine learning models to identify biomarkers. We also compared the Indian and Wuhan cohort, and analyzed the role of steroids. A bootstrap averaged ensemble of Bayesian networks was also learned to construct an explainable model for discovering actionable influences on mortality and days to outcome. We discovered blood parameters, diabetes, co-morbidity and SpO2 levels as important risk stratification features, whereas mortality prediction is dependent only on blood parameters. XGboost and logistic regression model yielded the best performance on risk stratification and mortality prediction, respectively (AUC score 0.83, AUC score 0.92). Blood coagulation parameters (ferritin, D-Dimer and INR), immune and inflammation parameters IL6, LDH and Neutrophil (%) are common features for both risk and mortality prediction. Compared with Wuhan patients, Indian patients with extreme blood parameters indicated higher survival rate. Analyses of medications suggest that a higher proportion of survivors and mild patients who were administered steroids had extreme neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages. The ensemble averaged Bayesian network structure revealed serum ferritin to be the most important predictor for mortality and Vitamin D to influence severity independent of days to outcome. The findings are important for effective triage during strains on healthcare infrastructure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , Young Adult
4.
IJID Reg ; 3: 44-53, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708321

ABSTRACT

Objective: To gain better insight into the extent of secondary bacterial and fungal infections in hospitalized patients in India, and to assess how these alter the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) so that control measures can be suggested. Methods: In this retrospective, multicentre study, the data of all patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), admitted to hospital between March 2020 and July 2021, were accessed from the electronic health records of a network of 10 hospitals across five states in North India. Results: Of 19,852 patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR and admitted to the study hospitals during the study period, 1940 (9.8%) patients developed secondary infections (SIs). Patients with SIs were, on average, 8 years older than patients without SIs (median age 62.6 vs 54.3 years; P<0.001). The risk of SIs was significantly (P<0.001) associated with age, severity of disease at admission, diabetes, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and ventilator use. The most common site of infection was urine (41.7%), followed by blood (30.8%) and sputum/bronchoalveolar lavage/endotracheal fluid (24.8%); the least common was pus/wound discharge (2.6%). Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) were the most common organisms (63.2%), followed by Gram-positive cocci (GPC) (19.6%) and fungi (17.3%). Most patients with SIs were on multiple antimicrobials. The most commonly used antibiotics against GNB were beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors (76.9%), carbapenems (57.7%), cephalosporins (53.9%), and antibiotics against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (47.1%). Empirical use of antibiotics against GPC was seen in 58.9% of patients with SIs, and empirical use of antifungals was observed in 56.9% of patients with SIs. The average length of hospital stay for patients with SIs was almost twice as long as that of patients without SIs (median 13 vs 7 days). Overall mortality among patients with SIs (40.3%) was more than eight times higher than that among patients without SIs (4.6%). Only 1.2% of patients with SIs with mild COVID-19 at admission died, compared with 17.5% of those with moderate COVID-19 at admission and 58.5% of those with severe COVID-19 at admission (P<0.001). The mortality rate was highest in patients with bloodstream infections (49.8%), followed by those with hospital-acquired pneumonia (47.9%), urinary tract infections (29.4%), and skin and soft tissue infections (29.4%). The mortality rate in patients with diabetes with SIs was 45.2%, compared with 34.3% in those without diabetes (P<0.001). Conclusions: SIs complicate the course of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. These patients tend to have a much longer hospital stay, a higher requirement for oxygen and ICU care, and a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those without SIs. The groups most vulnerable to SIs are patients with more severe COVID-19, elderly patients and patients with diabetes. Judicious empirical use of combination antimicrobials in these groups of vulnerable patients can save lives. It is desirable to have region- or country-specific guidelines for appropriate use of antibiotics and antifungals to prevent their overuse.

5.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296195

ABSTRACT

Immunization is expected to confer protection against infection and severe disease for vaccinees, while reducing risks to unimmunized populations by inhibiting transmission. Here, based on serial serological studies, we show that during a severe SARS-CoV2 Delta-variant outbreak in Delhi, 25.3% (95% CI 16.9 - 35.2) of previously uninfected, ChAdOx1-nCoV19 double vaccinated, healthcare-workers (HCW) were infected within a period of less than two months, based on serology. Induction of anti-spike response was similar between groups with breakthrough infection (541 U/ml, IQR 374) or not (342 U/ml, IQR 497), as was induction of neutralization activity to wildtype. Most infections were unrecognized. The Delta-variant thus causes frequent unrecognized breakthrough infections in adequately immunized subjects, reducing any herd-effect of immunity, and requiring reinstatement of preventive measures such as masking.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 653399, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389208

ABSTRACT

Co-infection with ancillary pathogens is a significant modulator of morbidity and mortality in infectious diseases. There have been limited reports of co-infections accompanying SARS-CoV-2 infections, albeit lacking India specific study. The present study has made an effort toward elucidating the prevalence, diversity and characterization of co-infecting respiratory pathogens in the nasopharyngeal tract of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Two complementary metagenomics based sequencing approaches, Respiratory Virus Oligo Panel (RVOP) and Holo-seq, were utilized for unbiased detection of co-infecting viruses and bacteria. The limited SARS-CoV-2 clade diversity along with differential clinical phenotype seems to be partially explained by the observed spectrum of co-infections. We found a total of 43 bacteria and 29 viruses amongst the patients, with 18 viruses commonly captured by both the approaches. In addition to SARS-CoV-2, Human Mastadenovirus, known to cause respiratory distress, was present in a majority of the samples. We also found significant differences of bacterial reads based on clinical phenotype. Of all the bacterial species identified, ∼60% have been known to be involved in respiratory distress. Among the co-pathogens present in our sample cohort, anaerobic bacteria accounted for a preponderance of bacterial diversity with possible role in respiratory distress. Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus and Halomonas sp. are anaerobes found abundantly across the samples. Our findings highlight the significance of metagenomics based diagnosis and detection of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory co-infections in the current pandemic to enable efficient treatment administration and better clinical management. To our knowledge this is the first study from India with a focus on the role of co-infections in SARS-CoV-2 clinical sub-phenotype.

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