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1.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S924, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190038

ABSTRACT

Background. Vaccination strategies that provide enhanced immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants are needed. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a bivalent omicron containing vaccine, mRNA-1273.214 (50 mug), administered as a second booster dose in adult participants. Methods. In this ongoing phase 2/3 trial, 50 mug of the bivalent vaccine mRNA-1273.214 (25 mug each ancestral Wuhan-Hu-1 and omicron BA.1 spike mRNAs) or 50 mug of the authorized mRNA-1273 were administered as second boosters in adults who previously received a 2 dose (100 mug) primary series and a first booster (50 mug) dose of mRNA-1273 (>= 3 months prior). Primary objectives were safety and reactogenicity and immunogenicity 28 days post-booster dose. Results. In participants with no prior SARS-CoV-2 infection who received booster doses of mRNA-1273.214 (n=334) or mRNA-1273 (n=260), neutralizing antibody (nAb) geometric mean titers (GMTs [95% confidence interval (CI)]) against omicron BA.1 were 2372.4 (2070.6-2718.2) and 1473.5 (1270.8-1708.4), respectively. The model-based GMT ratio (GMR [97.5% CI]) of mRNA-1273.214 compared to mRNA-1273 was 1.75 (1.49-2.04), meeting the pre-specified superiority criterion against omicron BA.1. The pre-specified criterion for non-inferiority against the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain was also met. Additionally, mRNA-1273.214 elicited higher GMTs (727.4 [632.8-836.1]) than mRNA-1273 (492.1 [431.1-561.9]) against omicron subvariants BA.4/BA.5 [GMR (95% CI) 1.69 [1.51-1.90])]. Binding antibody responses against alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and omicron were numerically higher in the mRNA-1273.214 group compared to mRNA-1273. mRNA-1273.214 GMTs were consistently higher across age (18-< 65 and >= 65 years) and pre-booster SARS-CoV-2 infection subgroups (Figure). Safety and reactogenicity were similar for both vaccine groups. Conclusion. The bivalent omicron containing mRNA-1273.214 elicited superior nAb responses against omicron 28 days post-immunization compared to mRNA-1273 regardless of age and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection;no new safety concerns were identified. (Figure Presented).

2.
Nature Machine Intelligence ; 4(12):1174-1184, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186106

ABSTRACT

Medicines based on messenger RNA (mRNA) hold immense potential, as evidenced by their rapid deployment as COVID-19 vaccines. However, worldwide distribution of mRNA molecules has been limited by their thermostability, which is fundamentally limited by the intrinsic instability of RNA molecules to a chemical degradation reaction called in-line hydrolysis. Predicting the degradation of an RNA molecule is a key task in designing more stable RNA-based therapeutics. Here, we describe a crowdsourced machine learning competition ('Stanford OpenVaccine') on Kaggle, involving single-nucleotide resolution measurements on 6,043 diverse 102-130-nucleotide RNA constructs that were themselves solicited through crowdsourcing on the RNA design platform Eterna. The entire experiment was completed in less than 6 months, and 41% of nucleotide-level predictions from the winning model were within experimental error of the ground truth measurement. Furthermore, these models generalized to blindly predicting orthogonal degradation data on much longer mRNA molecules (504-1,588 nucleotides) with improved accuracy compared with previously published models. These results indicate that such models can represent in-line hydrolysis with excellent accuracy, supporting their use for designing stabilized messenger RNAs. The integration of two crowdsourcing platforms, one for dataset creation and another for machine learning, may be fruitful for other urgent problems that demand scientific discovery on rapid timescales.

3.
Cureus ; 14(11):e31352, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2164194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants BA.2.74, BA.2.75, and BA.2.76 have appeared recently in India and have already spread to over 40 countries. They have acquired additional mutations in their spike protein compared to BA.2, branching away on the SARS-CoV-2 phylogenetic tree. These added mutations have raised concerns about the impact on viral pathogenicity, transmissibility, and immune evasion properties of the new variants.

4.
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology ; 15(1):4845-4882, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2124596

ABSTRACT

'Corona', this alarming word comes from the 'Latin' word 'Crown' that protects the virus. On Dec, 19, firstly, this virus was isolated from three patients having pneumonia connected to a cluster of acute illnesses. WHO declared it a 'pandemic' in Jan, 20 but later in Feb, WHO's general director Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus named the virus nCOVID-19. It was first identified in Wuhan, China, as a respiratory illness causing novel diseases (SARS and MERS). CDC informed corona primarily causes mild to moderate upper RTI and, in a few cases, lower RTI (pneumonia, bronchitis). Transmission occurs through direct contact or air droplets of sneezing, coughing, etc. The origin is not clear, but recent studies reported that ACE 2, a membrane exopeptidase receptor, was used to enter the human cell. The primary symptoms are fever above 104 degrees F, shortness of breath, pneumonia, throat soreness, diarrhea, etc. Available approved therapeutics include hydroxychloroquine. This current review updates about the viral transmission and main effect of this virus on children, pregnant women, diabetic, and cancer patients.

5.
Routledge Handbook on the Green New Deal ; : 211-230, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2144397

ABSTRACT

In a post-COVID era many are counting on a large sustainability transition stimulus to be a central part of economic re-build strategies, so that the stimulus helps to “build back better.” But what exactly does this “better” look like, and how might we achieve it? In this chapter we examine the concept of energy democracy (ED) and the lessons this concept holds for our understanding of Green New Deals. Energy democracy challenges the traditional elite and technocratic orientation of energy systems by highlighting the normative value and strategic importance of including citizens and civil society organizations in the design, ownership and operation of energy infrastructure. We argue that GND proposals lacking significant democratization components are unlikely to be deeply transformative and thus more likely to reproduce (or even intensify) existing socio-economic cleavages. © 2023 selection and editorial matter, Kyla Tienhaara and Joanna Robinson;individual chapters, the contributors.

6.
International Journal of Stroke ; 17(3 Supplement):168, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2139011

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: The case fatality rate of acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is high 54% at 1 year, and only 12% to 39% of survivors achieve long term functional independence. The INTEnsive care bundle with blood pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral haemorrhage Trial (INTERACT3) was an international, multicentre, cluster-randomized clinical trial to assess a multifaceted goal-directed care bundle of physiological management in patients with acute ICH. We aimed to study the challenges encountered in recruitment during the pandemics in India. Method(s): Between August 2020 and October 2022, all adult patients presenting with spontaneous ICH within 6 hours from symptom onset were enrolled under the standard of usual care management until they are informed of crossing over to intervention and to be contacted at 6 months follow-up. Result(s): Six out of ten screened centres participated. The pandemic posed many challenges to the recruitment of patients in the trial: The ethics committee meetings were interrupted, preventing us enrolling more sites. Fewer patients presented to hospital due to fear of covid, economic crisis, transportation barriers, delayed presentation beyond 6 hours due to poor triaging, delay in RTPCR testing, slow referrals, unwillingness to followup in outpatient clinic. Solutions: frequent virtual meetings with ethics committees were held by site PIs, RTPCR switched to rapid testing, ER physicians trained to rapidly identify ICH cases and trial strategy was modified at each centre to boost recruitment. Conclusion(s): Alternative approaches for rapid triaging and modified strategies to recruitment are needed to overcome challenges of implementing a stroke trial during a pandemic.

7.
International Journal of Stroke ; 17(3_SUPPL):162-163, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2112270
8.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(11):7486-7497, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2100481

ABSTRACT

"The development of Pico-metallic molecular dust as hair gel is supposed to be an innovative shielding formulation without involving the drugs moiety. The extraction and calcination of herbal parts unto the level of ""Bhasma"", where the extraction leads to inert through a series of processing acts as neutralizing and elimination of microbes, parasites and its toxins from physical intrusion through the hairs. The formulation of hair gel consisting Ketoconazole 1%, Methyl Paraben 1%, Glycerin 3% w/w along with reinforcement of Extracted Au, Ag & Fe Pico molecules. Most innovated here is the recovery of the Pico metallic dust extraction process from the collected micro metallic particular layer. Clinical investigation of the formulation among desirable health care 7 groups volunteers was representing remarkable results in cohort case-control study between its application, linear regression equation of y = 0.26175X-0.38108 and without, linear regression equation of y = 0.93168X-2.217 to estimate the incidence-prevalence ratio assessment. Thus, it exerts the P-Value is.000502. The result is significant at p <.05 r = 0.9628 and P-Value is.000402. The result is significant at p <.05, r = 0.966 respectively. Thus, its proved its clinical efficiency to minimize incidence and prevalence of microbial manifestation. Copyright © 2022, Anka Publishers. All rights reserved."

9.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(11):4879-4888, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2081053

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is having a significant negative impact on the private sector in developing economies, and businesses and individuals in fragile and conflict-affected situations are among the most severely affected. The pandemic has evolved rapidly from a health emergency to a global economic crisis, spreading through the real sector and posing growing risks to financial systems. The present study tries to study the impact of the pandemic on the small scale industries and its impact on small scale industries workers child towards pursuing education of Majuli district. The paper is descriptive in nature and both primary and secondary data is used for the study. The primary data is collected from the filed by using unstructured interview schedule. It is found that the small scale industry of Majuli during the covid period faced many problems but it resists the threats posed by the pandemic. Durability of products, products cost and benefits margins, robust nature of the products makes the small scale industry resistant to the nationwide lockdown. Education is a process of development.Proper education not only enhance the quality of life and life skill but also contributes towards socio economic development. Education plays an important role in the development of human life. COVID-19 pandemic affected the entire world and its influenced educational scenario of the world. Copyright © 2022, Anka Publishers. All rights reserved.

10.
Anti-Infective Agents ; 20(4) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2065291

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is the most emerging angioinvasive fungal infection of filamentous fungi of the Zygomycetes class, which, when neglected, causes severe disseminated infection along with significant chances of morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis and treatment remain challenging for the doctors. It has been observed that people who have been suffering from different diseases, such as hematological malignancies and uncontrolled diabetes, or who have gone through different surgeries, such as hemato-poietic stem cell transplant, and solid transplantation, are the most affected ones. On the other hand, people who have recovered from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) typically show the symptoms of mucormycosis after 1-2 weeks of successful recovery. Standard treatment of mu-cormycosis is traditionally considered an amphotericin B intravenous (IV) drug as initial therapy, alt-hough posaconazole and isavuconazole are also used. The core objective of the review is to typically focus on the area of the sudden cause of mucormycosis in the patients who have already recovered from SARS-CoV-2. Copyright © 2022 Bentham Science Publishers.

11.
Kidney international reports ; 7(9):S469-S470, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2034331
12.
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice ; 22(9):144-155, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026607

ABSTRACT

All over the world, the Covid-19 pandemic has had a big impact on the higher education sector. It has also put a lot of pressure on the Indian system of higher education. As a result, all academic institutions and colleges now teach their students through online platforms, thus forcing the higher education sector of the country to move its base online. The present crisis should be used as an opportunity to devise new ways to improve education that everyone can use and understand. Many new types of learning, new ideas, and recent trends have resulted from the pandemic. As we move forward, the same may happen. © 2022, North American Business Press. All rights reserved.

13.
2nd International Conference on Advances in Electrical, Computing, Communication and Sustainable Technologies, ICAECT 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1961385

ABSTRACT

Online marketing and e-commerce firms were already prospering in Bangladesh during this era of internet technology. Because people are under lockdown due to the COVID-19 epidemic, internet shopping has become the major platform for purchasing because it is the safest option. It sped up the time it took for firms to go online. More online product service providers improve people's lives, but it also raises concerns about product quality and service. As a result, it is simple for new clients to dupe while purchasing online. Our objective is to create a system that uses Natural Language Processing to assess client feedback from online purchasing and deliver a ratio of good and bad comments written in Bangla from past customers (NLP). We gathered approximately 6000 comments and views on the product to conduct the study. As classification approaches, we used sentiment analysis, as well as KNN, Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest, and Logistic Regression. With an accuracy of 94.78 percent, SVM outperformed all other methods. © 2022 IEEE.

14.
Current Nutrition & Food Science ; 18(2):132-143, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1896609

ABSTRACT

The immune system involves both active and passive immunization. The antibodies are developed against the antigens during active immunization and are permanently stored. But, in the case of passive immunization, the antibodies are exposed to the same antigens in every person who is already infected. In order to enhance the immune systems i.e. innate and adaptive immune responses, herbal plants are used as an immune booster. Some of the herbal plants have been proven clinically to enhance immunity that includes Morniga oleifera (Drumstick), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Withania somnifera (Aswagandha), Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Allium sativum (Garlic), Curcuma longa (Turmeric), Emblica officinalis (Amla) etc. Compared to synthetic drugs, herbal drugs have fewer side effects and stimulate the immune system to defend against various foreign pathogens. Even though herbal medicines are usually considered as safe and effective therapy, it is clinically proven that if a drug is effective, it would have some side effects. But, sometimes, the antioxidant property of herbal medicines is helpful in reducing the toxicities produced by any toxic substances or any drugs. This review aims to encourage the study of various herbal constituents and their role in the treatment of different types of viral infections.

16.
Lung India ; 39(SUPPL 1):S19, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1856824

ABSTRACT

Background: Few single centre studies from resourcepoor settings have reported about the epidemiology, clinical feature and outcome of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). However, larger data from multi-centre studies on the same is lacking including from Indian setting. Methods: This retrospective collaborative study constituted of data collected on MIS-C from five tertiary care teaching hospitals from Eastern India. Children ≤15 years of age with MIS-C as per the WHO criteria were included. Primary outcome was death or LAMA (leaving against medical advice). Results: A total of 134 MIS-C cases were included (median age, 84 months;males constituted 66.7%). Fever was a universal finding. Rash was present in 40%, and conjunctivitis in 71% cases. Gastro-intestinal and respiratory symptoms were observed in 68% and 53% cases, respectively. Co-morbidity was present in 23.9% cases. Shock at admission was noted in 35%, and 27.38% required mechanical ventilation. Nearly 13% children met the primary outcome. The coronary abnormalities got normalized during follow-up in all except in one child. Initial choice of immunomodulation had no effect on the outcomes. Presence of underlying co-morbidity, lymphopenia, thrombocytosis, hyponatremia, increased LDH (>300 U/L), and hypoalbuminemia are the factors significantly associated with the occurrence of primary outcome. Conclusions: MIS-C has myriad of manifestations. Underlying co-morbidity, lymphopenia, thrombocytosis, hyponatremia, increased LDH (>300 U/L), and hypoalbuminemia were associated with the occurrence of primary outcome (death or LAMA). No difference in outcome was noted with either steroid or IVIG or both. Coronary artery abnormalities resolved in nearly all cases.

17.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry ; 36(SUPPL 1):S5-S6, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1767698

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is characterised by a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes ranging in acuteness from asymptomatic, symptomatic with mild or moderate manifestation and severe involving pneumonia and respiratory distress. COVID-19 susceptibility, severity and recovery have demonstrated high variability worldwide. Variances in the host genetic architecture may potentially control the inter-individual and population scale differences in COVID-19 presentation. Methods: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) employing the genotyping data from Ancestry DNA COVID-19 host genetic study that included COVID-19 positive patients and healthy individuals who had tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection at the time of recruitment. We restricted our analysis only to the individuals of European descents to avoid genetic structure in the dataset, arising due to the presence of people from different ancestries. Further, we uniquely employed the asymptomatic individuals as controls instead of healthy individuals. Results and Discussion: Our data revealed striking genomic differences between COVID-19 asymptomatic and severely symptomatic individuals. We identified 621 genetic variants that were significantly distinct (Multiple-testing corrected P<0.001) between asymptomatic and acutely symptomatic COVID-19 patients. These variants were found to be associated with pathways governing host immunity, such as innate and adaptive immune system, interferon signaling, interleukin signaling, antigen processing by MHC, cytokine signaling and known COVID-19 comorbidities, such as obesity, cholesterol metabolism and smoking. Variants modulating drug responses including to anti-retroviral agents were also found to vary significantly between asymptomatic and severe patient groups.

18.
18th IEEE India Council International Conference, INDICON 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1752415

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic caused by the outbreak of the coronavirus has turned human life upside down globally. In this study we present a way of detecting and classifying COVID-19, Viral Pneumonia and Normal classes through chest X-Ray images of the patients using deep learning approach. In this work the database used is Covid-19 Radiography database and we have performed multi-class classification on Chest X-ray images using proposed Customized Convolution Neural Network, Residual Network-50(ResNet-50) and using transfer learning on DenseNet-121 models. Evaluation of the models is done through confusion matrix which further computed the test accuracy, sensitivity/ recall, precision and f1-score. The performance of all the models were quite similar but the Custom CNN performs better with test and validation accuracy of 96% in comparison with the ResNet-50 model which had a validation accuracy of 92% and DenseNet-121 model having a validation accuracy of 80.89% after implementing transfer learning. © 2021 IEEE.

19.
2nd IEEE International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics, Signal Processing, and Communication, AESPC 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1746126

ABSTRACT

Healthcare is a human right that must be accessible to all disregarding the social or economic conditions of any human being. The burden on healthcare system has increased immensely in the last few months. The COVID19 pandemic has brought to the fore gaps in the healthcare system world over. The doctors and front-line workers are directly getting exposed to the virus and patients that might need other healthcare services are vulnerable to the exposure. These problems would be catered by the proposed device as it would be operated by the patients and the real time data can be collected by the doctors to assess the vital body parameters through cloud without being physically present in the same environment. The parameters that can be monitored are body temperature, pulse rate, and oxygen saturation level. Hence, the proposed device includes sensors for measuring the body temperature (i.e. LM35) and pulse and oxygen level (i.e. MAX30100). The experimental setup has been built using Android based Blynk Cloud Platform where data is collected from remote places and stored the cloud. It is further available for assessment by the healthcare professionals. © 2021 IEEE.

20.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology ; 39:S61, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1734477

ABSTRACT

Background: The burden of corona virus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) in children is less well studied compared to adults.This study is to provide Clinical Profile of children positive for COVID-19 admitted to a tertiary care hospital with focus on mode of presentation, severity of disease, associated co-morbidities, radiological and biochemical abnormali- ties and outcome. Methods: This retrospective study included 74 children positive for COVID-19 admitted to a tertiary care hospital in eastern India between March 24 and August 31, 2020. Symptomatic screening and testing for SARS -CoV-2 through RT PCR in the hospital was started on 16th March 2020 as per the prevalent national guidelines. Universal screening for COVID 19 of all the newly admitted patients to the hospital started in middle of June 2020. Results: Of the 74 children included in the study 45 (60.8%) were male, and the median age was 5 years (range: 5 days –14 years). 35 patients (47.3 %) had pre-existing comorbidities, 27 patients (36.5 %) were diagnosed incidentally and 47 patients (63.5 %) presented with respiratory symptoms. 8 patients (10.8 %) required supplemental oxygen support. The median length of hospital stay was 8 days (range: 5 days -20 days). Chest X ray was abnormal in 11/32 (34.4%) of chil- dren imaged. 21/73 (27.8 %) patients were from containment zones. In 31/54 (57.4%) patients, at least one family member tested positive. Hydroxychloroquine therapy was used in 10 patients (13.5 %), and azithromycin was used in 34 patients (45.9%). The case fatality rate was 2 (2.7%). Conclusions: In this single centre retrospective study, severe illness in children in terms of Intensive care unit admission and death was far less frequent. However, as the pandemic is still evolving, larger and more extensive studies with fol- low up are required for better understanding of Covid-19 in Children

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