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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238899

ABSTRACT

Differences in oxygen delivery methods to treat hypoxemia have the potential to worsen CO2 retention in chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Oxygen administration using high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has multiple physiological benefits in treating respiratory failure including reductions in PaCO2 in a flow-dependent manner. We hypothesized that patients with COPD would develop worsening hypercapnia if oxygen fraction was increased without increasing flow rate. We evaluated the acute response to HFNC in subjects with severe COPD when flow remained constant and inspired oxygen was increased. In total, 11 subjects with severe COPD (FEV1 < 50%) on supplemental oxygen with baseline normocapnia (PaCO2 < 45 mm Hg; n = 5) and hypercapnia (PaCO2 ≥ 45 mm Hg; n = 6) were studied. Arterial blood gas responses were studied at three timepoints: Baseline, HFNC at a flow rate of 30 L/min at resting oxygen supplementation for 1 h, and FiO2 30% above baseline with the same flow rate for the next hour. The primary endpoint was the change in PaCO2 from baseline. No significant changes in PaCO2 were noted in response to HFNC applied at baseline FiO2 in the normocapnic and hypercapnic group. At HFNC with FiO2 30% above baseline, the normocapnic group did not show a change in PaCO2 (baseline: 38.9 ± 1.8 mm Hg; HFNC at higher FiO2: 38.8 ± 3.1 mm Hg; p = 0.93), but the hypercapnic group demonstrated significant increase in PaCO2 (baseline: 58.2 ± 9.3 mm Hg; HFNC at higher FiO2: 63.3 ± 10.9 mm Hg; p = 0.025). We observed worsening hypercapnia in severe COPD patients and baseline hypercapnia who received increased oxygen fraction when flow remained constant. These data show the need for careful titration of oxygen therapy in COPD patients, particularly those with baseline hypercapnia when flow rate is unchanged.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute and chronic alcohol abuse has adverse impacts on both the innate and adaptive immune response, which may result in reduced resistance to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and promote the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are no large population-based data evaluating potential causal associations between alcohol consumption and COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study using data from UK Biobank to explore the association between alcohol consumption and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and serious clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. A total of 12,937 participants aged 50-83 who tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 16 March to 27 July 2020 (12.1% tested positive) were included in the analysis. The exposure factor was alcohol consumption. Main outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 positivity and death in COVID-19 patients. We generated allele scores using three genetic variants (rs1229984 (Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1B, ADH1B), rs1260326 (Glucokinase Regulator, GCKR), and rs13107325 (Solute Carrier Family 39 Member 8, SLC39A8)) and applied the allele scores as the instrumental variables to assess the effect of alcohol consumption on outcomes. Analyses were conducted separately for white participants with and without obesity. RESULTS: Of the 12,937 participants, 4496 were never or infrequent drinkers and 8441 were frequent drinkers. Both logistic regression and Mendelian randomization analyses found no evidence that alcohol consumption was associated with risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in participants either with or without obesity (All q > 0.10). However, frequent drinking, especially heavy drinking (HR = 2.07, 95%CI 1.24-3.47; q = 0.054), was associated with higher risk of death in patients with obesity and COVID-19, but not in patients without obesity. Notably, the risk of death in frequent drinkers with obesity increased slightly with the average amount of alcohol consumed weekly (All q < 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that alcohol consumption has adverse effects on the progression of COVID-19 in white participants with obesity, but was not associated with susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Alcohol Dehydrogenase/genetics , Alcohol Drinking , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19 , Cation Transport Proteins/genetics , Obesity , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS Virus , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/genetics , Alcohol Drinking/mortality , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Middle Aged , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/mortality , Survival Rate , United Kingdom/epidemiology
3.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955706

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute and chronic alcohol abuse have adverse impacts on both the innate and adaptive immune response, which may result in reduced resistance to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and promote the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are no large population-based data evaluating potential causal associations between alcohol consumption and COVID-19. Method: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study using data from UK Biobank to explore the association between alcohol consumption and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and serious clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. A total of 12,937 participants aged 50-83 who tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 16 March to 27 July 2020 (12.1% tested positive) were included in the analysis. The exposure factor was alcohol consumption. Main outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 positivity and death in COVID-19 patients. We generated weighted and unweighted allele scores using three genetic variants (rs1229984, rs1260326, and rs13107325) and applied the allele scores as the instrumental variables to assess the effect of alcohol consumption on outcomes. Analyses were conducted separately for white participates with and without obesity. Results: Of the 12,937 participants, 4,496 were never or infrequent drinkers and 8,441 were frequent drinkers. (including 1,156 light drinkers, 3,795 moderate drinkers, and 3,490 heavy drinkers). Both logistic regression and Mendelian randomization analyses found no evidence that alcohol consumption was associated with risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in participants either with (OR=0.963, 95%CI 0.800-1.159; q =1.000) or without obesity (OR=0.891, 95%CI 0.755-1.053; q =.319). However, frequent drinking (HR=1.565, 95%CI 1.012-2.419; q =.079), especially heavy drinking (HR=2.071, 95%CI 1.235-3.472; q =.054), was associated with higher risk of death in patients with obesity and COVID-19, but not in patients without obesity. Notably, the risk of death in frequent drinkers with obesity increased slightly with the average amount of alcohol consumed weekly (HR=1.480, 95%CI 1.059-2.069; q =.099). Conclusions: Our findings suggested alcohol consumption may had adverse effects on the progression of COVID-19 in white participants with obesity, but was not associate with susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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