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1.
Iran J Pharm Res ; 21(1): e123947, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847596

ABSTRACT

More than a year after the onset of the coronavirus disease pandemic in 2019, the disease remains a major global health issue. During this time, health organizations worldwide have tried to provide integrated treatment guidelines to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at different levels. However, due to the novel nature of the disease and the emergence of new variants, medical teams' updating medical information and drug prescribing guidelines should be given special attention. This version is an updated instruction of the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD) in collaboration with a group of specialists from Masih Daneshvari Hospital in Tehran, Iran, which is provided to update the information of caring clinicians for the treatment and care of COVID-19 hospitalized patients.

2.
Tanaffos ; 19(4): 291-299, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mediators are an important component in the pathophysiology of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to assess the effects of reducing inflammatory mediators using hemoperfusion (HP) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on the mortality of patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. All patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Patients were divided into three groups, namely, HP, CRRT and HP+CRRT. The primary outcome was mortality and the secondary outcomes were oxygenation and reduction in inflammatory mediators at the end of the study. RESULTS: Patients were not different at baseline in demographics, inflammatory cytokine levels, and the level of acute phase reactants. Half of the patients (3 out of 6) in the HP+CRRT group survived along with the survival of one patient (1 out of 2) in the HP group. All four patients in the CRRT group died. Serum creatinine (SCr), Interleukin-1 (IL1), Interleukin-6 (IL6), Interleukin-8 (IL8), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), O2 saturation (O2 sat), and hemodynamic parameters improved over time in HP+CRRT and CRRT groups, but no significant difference was observed in the HP group (All Ps > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Combined HP and CRRT demonstrated the best result in terms of mortality, reduction of inflammatory mediators and oxygenation. Further investigations are needed to explore the role of HP+CRRT in COVID-19 patients.

3.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp ; 96: 100658, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute, sometimes severe respiratory illness caused by a novel coronavirus has led to a vast pandemic with an astonishing spread rate. Its treatment is unknown, its mortality is significant, and its socioeconomic complications are uncontrollable. Although there is still little known about the pathogenesis of the disease, severe cases of COVID-19 are usually associated with cytokine release syndrome and high serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, which are believed to be a major cause of mortality in these patients. Different pathways cause inflammation and the release of cytokines. One of these pathways is the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) pathway, which is essential for the production of several anti-inflammatory cytokines. Theoretically, the inhibition of BTK signaling can reduce cytokine levels and subsequent anti-inflammatory effects. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to investigate the role of the BTK pathway in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and the possible effects of its inhibition in the treatment of this disease. METHODS: This narrative review provides information regarding the use of BTK inhibitors in patients with COVID-19 and discusses whether clinicians should consider these medications while managing their patients based on the literature. Data were gathered using the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. RESULTS: Some data support the use of BTK inhibitors for treating COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended that patients continue their medications in this class if they develop COVID-19 and were receiving these agents before the disease developed. The use of BTK inhibitors might enable patients to experience less severe immune responses to the COVID-19. Well-designed studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of BTKis in the management of COVID-19. (Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2022; 82:XXX-XXX) © 2022 Elsevier HS Journals.

4.
Iran J Pharm Res ; 20(4): 1-8, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579471

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease -19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has gradually spread worldwide, becoming a major public health event. This situation requires designing a novel antiviral agent against the SARS-CoV-2; however, this is time-consuming and the use of repurposed medicines may be promising. One such medicine is favipiravir, primarily introduced as an anti-influenza agent in east world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of favipiravir in comparison with lopinavir-ritonavir in SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this randomized clinical trial, 62 patients were recruited. These patients had bilateral pulmonary infiltration with peripheral oxygen saturation lower than 93%. The median time from symptoms onset to intervention initiation was seven days. Favipiravir was not available in the Iranian pharmaceutical market, and it was decided to formulate it at the research laboratory of School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. The patients received favipiravir tablet at a dose of 1600 mg orally twice a day for day one and then 600 mg orally twice a day for days 2 to 6. In the second group, the patients received lopinavir-ritonavir combination tablet at a dose of 200/50 mg twice a day for seven days. Fever, cough, and dyspnea were improved significantly in favipiravir group in comparison with lopinavir-ritonavir group on days four and five. Mortality rate and ICU stay in both groups were similar, and there was no significant difference in this regard (P = 0.463 and P = 0.286, respectively). Chest X-ray improvement also was not significantly different between the two groups. Adverse drug reactions occurred in both groups, and impaired liver enzymes were the most frequent adverse effect. In conclusion, early administration of oral favipiravir may reduce the duration of clinical signs and symptoms in patients with COVID-19 and hospitalization period. The mortality rate also should be investigated in future clinical trials.

5.
J Res Med Sci ; 26: 80, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472460
6.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 99: 108043, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, potential therapeutic agents are being evaluated almost every day. Ciclosporin, a calcineurin inhibitor, is characterized by beneficial antiviral and immunomodulatory effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ciclosporin in managing COVID-19. METHODS: This study was a prospective non-controlled clinical trial carried out on 20 patients. Confirmed COVID-19 patients received two doses of ciclosporin (10 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg injections) 24 h apart. Mortality rate and the lengths of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stays were assessed for all 20 patients. RESULTS: The mortality rate and the need for mechanical ventilation were calculated as 50%. The percentage of ICU admission was 70%. The lengths of ICU and hospital stays were 8.13 ± 6.81 and 14.25 ± 8.55 days, respectively. The levels of ferritin and white blood cells were significantly higher after injecting the second dose of ciclosporin. Seven patients (35%) had radiologically improved lungs after ciclosporin therapy. CONCLUSION: It seems that the protocol of two doses of ciclosporin in combination with favipiravir does not have favorable effects among COVID-19 patients that do not respond to dexamethasone. Controlled trials are needed to confirm the results.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Monitoring , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 99: 107998, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322151

ABSTRACT

The healthcare system in Iran, like most around the world, is managing thousands of patients hospitalised with COVID-19. In Iran, in-hospital mortality is in the region of 25%, rising to 50-60% in patients admitted to intensive care. Hyperinflammation, characterised by cytokine storm, appears to be a hallmark of severe COVID-19 and to date only the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone has been shown to reduce mortality in those hospitalised with the disease. There is a sound scientific rationale behind the use of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin in the management of patients with severe COVID-19. It has been used successfully in the management of hyperinflammation in patients with sepsis and has led to improved radiographic scores in patients with severe cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. Recently the successful treatment of a patient with COVID-19 with IgM-enriched immunoglobulin was reported. Here we report the outcome of a further 15 patients hospitalised with COVID-19 treated with IgM-enriched immunoglobulin. Improvements in computed tomography (CT) score were observed in nine patients, indicating that further clinical studies into the use of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin in the treatment of severe COVID-19 are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunoglobulin M/therapeutic use , Humans , Iran , Lung/pathology
8.
Front Artif Intell ; 4: 673527, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305706

ABSTRACT

Background: Early prediction of symptoms and mortality risks for COVID-19 patients would improve healthcare outcomes, allow for the appropriate distribution of healthcare resources, reduce healthcare costs, aid in vaccine prioritization and self-isolation strategies, and thus reduce the prevalence of the disease. Such publicly accessible prediction models are lacking, however. Methods: Based on a comprehensive evaluation of existing machine learning (ML) methods, we created two models based solely on the age, gender, and medical histories of 23,749 hospital-confirmed COVID-19 patients from February to September 2020: a symptom prediction model (SPM) and a mortality prediction model (MPM). The SPM predicts 12 symptom groups for each patient: respiratory distress, consciousness disorders, chest pain, paresis or paralysis, cough, fever or chill, gastrointestinal symptoms, sore throat, headache, vertigo, loss of smell or taste, and muscular pain or fatigue. The MPM predicts the death of COVID-19-positive individuals. Results: The SPM yielded ROC-AUCs of 0.53-0.78 for symptoms. The most accurate prediction was for consciousness disorders at a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 70%. 2,440 deaths were observed in the study population. MPM had a ROC-AUC of 0.79 and could predict mortality with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 70%. About 90% of deaths occurred in the top 21 percentile of risk groups. To allow patients and clinicians to use these models easily, we created a freely accessible online interface at www.aicovid.net. Conclusion: The ML models predict COVID-19-related symptoms and mortality using information that is readily available to patients as well as clinicians. Thus, both can rapidly estimate the severity of the disease, allowing shared and better healthcare decisions with regard to hospitalization, self-isolation strategy, and COVID-19 vaccine prioritization in the coming months.

9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 99: 107961, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, which is a disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has spread around the world since late 2019. Studies have found associations between the rising levels of TNF-α and severe COVID-19 cases. Hence, TNF-α blocking can possibly be a favorable intervention in modifying COVID-19. To this end, in order to manage pneumonia caused by COVID-19, adalimumab may potentially be considered as a potential therapeutic agent. The present study aimed to investigate the potential therapeutic role of adalimumab in treating COVID-19 cases in combination therapy with remdesivir and dexamethasone. METHODS: Among the 68 patients who were included in the current randomized controlled trial, 34 were assigned to the adalimumab group and the remaining 34 were assigned to the control group. Adalimumab at a dose of 40 mg, subcutaneous for once, was used for the intervention group. Both the intervention and control groups received remdesivir, dexamethasone, and supportive care. The data gathered to make comparisons of the groups included demographic information, the rate of mortality, mechanical ventilation requirement, length of stay in hospital and Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and imaging findings. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two groups in the terms of mortality rate (P-value = 1) and mechanical ventilation requirement (P-value = 1). The length of hospital and ICU stay as well as radiologic changes were not affected either (P-value = 1, 0.27, and 0.53, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings did not support the use of adalimumab in combination with remdesivir and dexamethasone in the treatment of severe COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
Adalimumab/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Respiration, Artificial
10.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 897: 173947, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188517

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of dexamethasone administration in patients with mild to moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The study included 50 patients who were randomly assigned to the dexamethasone group or control group. Dexamethasone was administered at a dose of 20 mg/day from day 1-5 and then at 10 mg/day from day 6-10. The need for invasive mechanical ventilation, death rate, duration of clinical improvement, length of hospital stay, and radiological changes in the computed tomography scan were assessed. The results revealed that 92% and 96% of patients in the dexamethasone and control groups, respectively, required noninvasive ventilation (P = 0.500). Among them, 52% and 44% of patients in the dexamethasone and control groups, respectively, required invasive mechanical ventilation (P = 0.389). At the end of the study, 64% of patients in the dexamethasone group and 60% of patients in the control group died (P = 0.500); the remaining patients were discharged from the hospital during the 28-day follow-up period. The median length of hospital stay was 11 days in the dexamethasone group and 6 days in the control group (P = 0.036) and the median length of hospital stay was 7 days in the dexamethasone group and 3 days in the control group (P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the other outcomes. This study showed that corticosteroid administration had no clinical benefit in patients with COVID-19-induced mild to moderate ARDS.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Negative Results , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Failure
11.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 17(5): 499-511, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171671

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Currently published papers and clinical guidelines regarding the effects of tocilizumab in severe and critical COVID-19 are contradictory. The aim of this meta-analysis was to combine the results of clinical studies of different designs to investigate the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in severely-to-critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials.gov, Scopus, and preprint servers up to 26 December 2020. Since a substantial heterogeneity was expected, a random-effects model was applied to calculate the pooled effect size (ES) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each study outcome. RESULTS: Forty-five comparative studies involving 13,189 patients and 28 single-arm studies involving 1,770 patients were analyzed. The risk of mortality (RR of 0.76 [95%CI 0.65 to 0.89], P < 0.01) and intubation (RR of 0.48 [95%CI 0.24 to 0.97], P = 0.04) were lower in tocilizumab patients compared with controls. We did not find any significant difference in secondary infections, length of hospital stay, hospital discharge before day 14, and ICU admission between groups. CONCLUSION: Tocilizumab can improve clinical outcomes and reduce mortality rates in severe to critical COVID-19 patients. Large-scale randomized controlled trials are still required to improve the statistical power of meta-analysis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Humans
12.
J Investig Med ; 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bromhexine is a potent inhibitor of transmembrane serine protease 2 and appears to have an antiviral effect in controlling influenza and parainfluenza infection; however, its efficacy in COVID-19 is controversial. METHODS: A group of hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia were randomized using 1:1 allocation to either standard treatment lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta-1a or bromhexine 8 mg four times a day in addition to standard therapy. The primary outcome was clinical improvement within 28 days, and the secondary outcome measures were time to hospital discharge, all-cause mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, the temporal trend in 2019-nCoV reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction positivity and the frequency of adverse drug events within 28 days from the start of medication. RESULTS: A total of 111 patients were enrolled in this randomized clinical trial and data from 100 patients (48 patients in the treatment arm and 52 patients in the control arm) were analyzed. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome of this study, which was clinical improvement. There was no significant difference in the average time to hospital discharge between the two arms. There were also no differences observed in the mean intensive care unit stay, frequency of intermittent mandatory ventilation, duration of supplemental oxygenation or risk of death by day 28 noted between the two arms. CONCLUSION: Bromhexine is not an effective treatment for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The potential prevention benefits of bromhexine in asymptomatic postexposure or with mild infection managed in the community remain to be determined.

13.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 90: 107205, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The newly discovered coronavirus has turned into coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and it rages at an unprecedented rate. Considering the findings of previous studies on the use of Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg) for treating severe H1N1 infection and the satisfying results for reducing viral load and mortality, this study aimed to investigate the potential usefulness of IVIg for the management of severe cases. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 84 patients were included: 52 in the IVIg group and 32 in the control group. The intervention group received IVIg at a dose of 400 mg/kg, IV, daily for three days. Both groups received hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir and supportive care. The demographic data, mortality rate, the need for mechanical ventilation, length of stay in hospital and in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and imaging findings were recorded and compared in terms of the mentioned factors. RESULTS: The mean time from admission to IVIg initiation was 3.84 ± 3.35 days. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mortality rate (P-value = 0.8) and the need for mechanical ventilation (P-value = 0.39). The length of hospital stay was significantly lower for the control group than that of the intervention group (P-value = 0.003). There was a significant positive relationship between the time from hospital admission to IVIg initiation and the length of stay in the hospital and ICU among the survivors (P-value < 0.001 and =0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings did not support the use of IVIg in combination with hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir in treatment of severe COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Length of Stay , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 92: 107329, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014566

ABSTRACT

Interferon Beta-1a (IFN-ß1-a), an immunomodulatory mediator with antiviral effects, has shown in vivo and in vitro activities especially on coronavirus including SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 defined as the disease caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2. The virus has been illustrated inhibits the production of IFN-ß1-a from inflammatory cells. We conducted a retrospective study of all adult confirmed COVID-19 hospitalized patients who received combination of three doses of 12 million international units of IFN-ß1-a and Lopinavir 400 mg and Ritonavir 100 mg every 12 h (case group) for 14 days besides standard care and age- and sex- matched COVID-19 patients with receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (control group) at Masih Daneshvari Hospital as a designated hospital for COVID-19 between Feb 19 and Apr 30, 2020. Multivariate analysis was done to determine the impact of IFN-ß1-a on outcome and all-cause mortality. 152 cases in IFN-ß1-a group and 304 cases as control group were included. IFN-ß1-a group stayed at hospital longer and required noninvasive ventilation more than control group (13 vs. 6 days, p = 0.001) and (34% vs. 24%, p = 0.04), respectively. During treatment, 57 (12.5%) patients died. The death rate in case and control groups was 11% and 13% respectively. In multivariate analysis, not receiving IFN-ß1-a (HR 5.12, 95% CI: 2.77-9.45), comorbidity (HR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.13-4.60) and noninvasive ventilation (HR 2.77, 95% CI: 1.56-4.93) remained significantly associated with all-cause mortality. In this study, risk of death decreased by using IFN-ß1-a in COVID-19 patients. More clinical study will be necessary to measure efficacy of IFN-ß1-a in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Interferon-beta/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Young Adult
16.
Iran J Pharm Res ; 19(3): 258-281, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994888

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) inducing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was identified in Hubei province of China in December 2019 and rapidly spread worldwide as pandemic and became a public health concern. COVID-19 disease is caused by a new virus known as SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2), which has recently offered many challenges and efforts to identify effective drugs for its prevention and treatment. Currently, there is no proven effective approach and medication against this virus. Quickly expanding clinical trials and studies on Coronavirus disease 2019 increase our knowledge regarding SARS-CoV-2 virus and introduce several potential drugs targeting virus moiety or host cell elements. Overall, 3 stages were suggested for SARS-CoV-2 infection according to the disease severity, clinical manifestations, and treatment outcomes, including mild, moderate, and severe. This review aimed to classify and summarize several medications and potential therapies according to the disease 3 stages; however, it is worth noting that no medication and therapy has been effective so far.

17.
Tanaffos ; 19(2): 112-121, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-964199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak quickly has spread and became a pandemic. However, no approved therapeutics or effective treatment is available for the treatment of these patients. The present study was done to retrospectively assess the treatment strategies (e.g., pharmaceutical care services) for COVID-19 patients in selected hospitals and highlight the importance of such services in the management of a pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from a series of COVID-19 patients (978 patients; 658 males [66.9%] and 324 females [33.1%]) admitted to the selected hospitals in Tehran from 20 February to 19 March 2020 were retrieved retrospectively from the Health Information System (HIS) of the hospitals. The statistical tests were used for analyzing the effect and correlation of the variables (drugs) with the average length of stay (ALOS) in the hospital. RESULTS: Diverse medication classes and old drugs with or without strong evidence of therapeutic effects against the novel coronavirus, some previously tried as a treatment for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, were mostly used for the treatment of patients in the hospitals. Many medications (broad-spectrum antibiotics and antivirals) or combination therapies are used without evidence of their therapeutic effects during pandemics. CONCLUSION: Therefore, guidelines should be provided for the off-label use of these drugs by policymakers and stakeholders during a pandemic emergency due to high demands. Also, monitoring of the HIS data can play an important role in improving public health response to emerging diseases.

18.
Tanaffos ; 19(2): 122-128, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-964064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the recent epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, a novel betacoronavirus was isolated from two patients in Iran on February 19, 2020. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical manifestations and outcomes of the first confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection (n=127). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on all COVID-19-suspected cases, admitted to Masih Daneshvari Hospital (a designated hospital for COVID-19), Tehran, Iran, since February 19, 2020. All patients were tested for COVID-19, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Data of confirmed cases, including demographic characteristics, clinical features, and outcomes, were collected and compared between three groups of patients, requiring different types of admission (requiring ICU admission, admission to the general ward, and transfer to ICU). RESULTS: Of 412 suspected cases, with the mean age of 54.1 years (SD=13.4), 127 (31%) were positive for COVID-19. Following the patients' first visit to the clinic, 115 cases were admitted to the general ward, while ten patients required ICU admission. Due to clinical deterioration in the condition of 25 patients (out of 115 patients), ICU admission was essential. Based on the results, the baseline characteristics of the groups were similar. Patients requiring ICU admission were more likely to have multiorgan involvement (liver involvement, P<0.001; renal involvement, P<0.001; and cardiac involvement, P=0.02), low O2 saturation (P<0.001), and lymphopenia (P=0.05). During hospital admission, 21 (16.5%) patients died, while the rest (83.5%) were discharged and followed-up until March 26, 2020. Also, the survival rate of patients, who received immunoglobulin, was higher than other patients (60.87% vs. 39.13%). CONCLUSION: The mortality rate of COVID-19 patients was considerable in our study. Based on the present results, this infection can cause multiorgan damage. Therefore, intensive monitoring of these patients needs to be considered.

20.
Iran J Pharm Res ; 19(1): 31-36, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-869432

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is currently causing concern in the medical community as the virus is spreading around the world. It has a heavy global burden, particularly in low-income countries. The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 pneumonia ranges from mild to critically ill cases and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. An expert panel was held and an internal protocol was developed to manage the COVID-19 induced ARDS according to WHO recommendations and NIH guidelines. Different therapeutic regimens were employed on this protocol based on the ARDS severity and the patients' special characteristics. The mortality rate, the rate of survivors, and non-survivors were reported. Of the 231 suspected cases of COVID-19 admitted to the hospital during two weeks, 72 patients were admitted to ICU with diagnosis confirmed by RT-PCR. In total, mortality in the ICU was 25% (n = 18) among ARDS patients over two weeks. COVID-19 induced ARDS is a major concern. The rapid progression of ARDS needs specific protocol based on patients' characteristics and rapid action.

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