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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e051506, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to explore differences in COVID-19 outcomes between male and female cases in the Apulian District of Foggia, Italy. DESIGN AND SETTING: We performed a retrospective epidemiological study among all COVID-19 confirmed cases that occurred in the Apulian District of Foggia from 29 February to 30 June 2020. The surveillance data from a regional registry (GIAVA-COVID) were used. MAIN OUTCOMES: The main outcome measures were the proportion of hospitalisations, virus clearance and the case fatality rate. RESULTS: A total of 1175 cases (50.7% female; median age: 55 years) were identified among 55 131 tests performed. The proportion of hospitalisation with COVID-19 diagnosis was 45.4% in men versus 37.9% in women (p<0.01), while the average length of stay in hospitals was 31.3±14.6 days in women versus 26.8±14.4 days in men (p<0.01). The proportion of cases who achieved virus clearance was higher in women (84.2%; days to clearance: 28.0±12.1) than in men (79.3%; days to clearance: 29.4±12.9; p<0.05). Men were associated with a significantly higher risk of dying from COVID-19 than women (case fatality rate 16.1% vs 10.4%; p<0.01). The mean time, from diagnosis to death, was 14.5±14.4 days in women compared with 10.6±10.7 days in men (p<0.01). The male sex, age ≥55 years and presence of at least one underlying comorbidity significantly raised the risk of hospitalisation, persistent infection and death (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that more attention should be paid to sex as a variable for the interpretation of COVID-19 data. Sex-disaggregated data will help clinicians to make appropriate patient-tailored medical decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
2.
J Clin Med ; 10(2)2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The highly variable manifestation of the COVID-19 disease, from completely asymptomatic to fatal, is both a clinical and a public health issue. The criteria for discharge of hospitalized patients have been based so far on the negative result of Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) tests, but the persistence of viral fragments may exceed that of the integral virus by weeks. The aim of our study was to verify the clearance of the virus at viral culture in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 that have clinically recovered but are still positive on nasopharyngeal swab. METHODS: The study was conducted in hospitalized patients with positive RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swab. Patients included were from asymptomatic to severe cases and performed nasopharyngeal control swabbing on day 14 for asymptomatic patient or at least three days after remission of symptoms. RT-PCR positive specimens were sent to a biosafety level 3 laboratory for viral culture. RESULTS: We performed a combined analysis of RT-PCR and a highly sensitive in vitro culture from 84 samples of hospitalized patients. The average age was 46 ± 20.29, and 40.5% of the subjects had radiologically confirmed pneumonia, with average PaO2 of 72.35 ± 12.12and P/F ratio of 315 ± 83.15. Ct values for the N gene were lower in the first swab than in the control one (p < 0.001). The samples from 83 patients were negative at viral culture, and RT-PCR on the respective supernatants always confirmed the absence of viral growth. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary results demonstrate that patients clinically recovered for at least three days show the viral clearance at viral culture, and presumably they continued to not be contagious.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(24)2020 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970982

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the first coronavirus that has caused a pandemic. Assessing the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare worker groups offers a unique opportunity to study the correlation between seroconversion and immunization because of their occupational exposure and a higher risk of contagion. The study enrolled 3242 asymptomatic employees of "Policlinico Riuniti", Foggia. After the first screening, we collected sequential serum samples for up to 23 weeks from the same subjects. In order to perform a longitudinal follow-up study and get information about the titration of IgG levels, we analyzed data from subjects (33) with at least two consecutive serological IgG-positive tests; 62 (1.9%; 95% CI: 1.4-2.3) tested positive for at least one anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody. The seroprevalence was lower in the high-risk group 1.4% (6/428; 95% CI: 0.5-2.6) vs. the intermediate-risk group 2.0% (55/2736; 95% CI: 1.5-2.5). Overall, within eight weeks, we detected a mean reduction of -17% in IgG levels. Our data suggest a reduction of about 9.27 AU/mL every week (R2 = 0.35, p = 0.0003). This study revealed the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among Foggia's hospital healthcare staff (1.9%). Moreover, the IgG level reduction suggests that the serological response fades fast in asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Delivery of Health Care , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged
4.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(5): 1191-1196, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968287

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic affected large part of Italy since February 2020; we, therefore, aimed to assess the impact of 2020 SARS-CoV-2 outbreak on telemedicine management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Italy. We analyzed data from three telemedicine dispatch centers, one located in Genoa, serving private clients (pharmacies, general practitioners), one in Brescia, serving pharmacies, and one in Bari, serving regional public STEMI network and emergency medical service in Apulia (4 million inhabitants). Demographic data and principal electrocardiogram diagnosis were collected and analyzed. Records from the time interval March 1, 2020 and April 1, 2020 were compared with the corresponding period in 2019. The comparative analysis of data shows a 54% reduction of telemedicine electrocardiogram transmission in Genoa telemedicine center (from 364 to 166), 68% in Brescia (from 5.745 to 1.905), 24% in Bari (from 15.825 to 11.716); relative reduction according to electrocardiogram diagnosis was 38% for acute coronary syndrome, 40% for other acute CVD in Genoa center, 24% for acute coronary syndrome, and 38% for other acute CVD in Bari. Male/female ratio remained substantially unchanged. A dramatic reduction of telemedicine access for CVD was observed during Covid-19 outbreak in March 2020 in Italy. The reduction was substantially consistent for all electrocardiogram findings, ACS, other acute CVD and normal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Cardiovascular Diseases/psychology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Professional-Patient Relations , Telemedicine/standards , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data
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