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1.
Data Brief ; 43: 108415, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906939

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic opens up the curiosity of understanding the coronavirus. This demand for the development of the regent, which can be used for academic and therapeutic applications. The present data provide the biochemical characterization of synthetically developed monoclonal antibodies for the SARS-CoV-2 proteins. The antibodies from phage-displayed antibody libraries were selected with the SARS-CoV-2 proteins immobilized in microwell plates. The clones which bind to the antigen in Fab-phage ELISA were selected, and a two-point competitive phage ELISA was performed. Antibodies binding kinetic of IgGs for SARS-CoV2 proteins further carried with B.L.I. Systematic analysis of binding with different control proteins and purified SARS-CoV-2 ensured the robustness of the antibodies.

2.
J Mol Biol ; 434(10): 167583, 2022 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778319

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection has impacted the world economy and healthcare infrastructure. Key reagents with high specificity to SARS-CoV-2 proteins are currently lacking, which limits our ability to understand the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infections. To address this need, we initiated a series of studies to generate and develop highly specific antibodies against proteins from SARS-CoV-2 using an antibody engineering platform. These efforts resulted in 18 monoclonal antibodies against nine SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Here we report the characterization of several antibodies, including those that recognize Nsp1, Nsp8, Nsp12, and Orf3b viral proteins. Our validation studies included evaluation for use of antibodies in ELISA, western blots, and immunofluorescence assays (IFA). We expect that availability of these antibodies will enhance our ability to further characterize host-viral interactions, including specific roles played by viral proteins during infection, to acquire a better understanding of the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Surface Display Techniques , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/analysis , Viral Proteins/analysis
3.
Eur J Med Chem ; 226: 113862, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433178

ABSTRACT

We report here the synthesis, purification, and characterization of mono- and di-fatty acyl conjugates of remdesivir (RDV) and their in vitro antiviral activity against SAR-CoV-2, an Ebola virus transcription- and replication-competent virus-like particle (trVLP) system, and infectious Ebola virus. The most potent monofatty acyl conjugate was 4b, containing a 4-oxatetradecanolyl at the 3' position. Monofatty acyl conjugates, 3'-O-tetradecanoyl (4a) (IC50(VeroE6) = 2.3 µM; IC50(Calu3) = 0.24 µM), 3'-O-4-oxatetradodecanoyl (4b) (IC50(VeroE6) = 2.0 µM; IC50(Calu3) = 0.18 µM), and 3'-O-(12-ethylthiododecanoyl) (4e) (IC50(VeroE6) = 2.4 µM; IC50(Calu3) = 0.25 µM) derivatives exhibited less activity than RDV (IC50(VeroE6) = 0.85 µM; IC50(Calu3) = 0.06 µM) in both VeroE6 and Calu3 cells. Difatty acylation led to a significant reduction in the antiviral activity of RDV (as shown in conjugates 5a and 5b) against SARS-CoV-2 when compared with monofatty acylation (3a-e and 4a-e). About 77.9% of 4c remained intact after 4 h incubation with human plasma while only 47% of parent RDV was observed at the 2 h time point. The results clearly indicate the effectiveness of fatty acylation to improve the half-life of RDV. The antiviral activities of a number of monofatty acyl conjugates of RDV, such as 3b, 3e, and 4b, were comparable with RDV against the Ebola trVLP system. Meanwhile, the corresponding physical mixtures of RDV and fatty acids 6a and 6b showed 1.6 to 2.2 times less antiviral activity than the corresponding conjugates, 4a and 4c, respectively, against SARS-CoV-2 in VeroE6 cells. A significant reduction in viral RNA synthesis was observed for selected compounds 3a and 4b consistent with the IC50 results. These studies indicate the potential of these compounds as long-acting antiviral agents or prodrugs of RDV.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Ebolavirus/drug effects , Fatty Acids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemical synthesis , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/chemical synthesis , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(19)2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205472

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need to quickly and reliably prioritize clinically approved compounds for their potential effectiveness for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Here, we deployed algorithms relying on artificial intelligence, network diffusion, and network proximity, tasking each of them to rank 6,340 drugs for their expected efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. To test the predictions, we used as ground truth 918 drugs experimentally screened in VeroE6 cells, as well as the list of drugs in clinical trials that capture the medical community's assessment of drugs with potential COVID-19 efficacy. We find that no single predictive algorithm offers consistently reliable outcomes across all datasets and metrics. This outcome prompted us to develop a multimodal technology that fuses the predictions of all algorithms, finding that a consensus among the different predictive methods consistently exceeds the performance of the best individual pipelines. We screened in human cells the top-ranked drugs, obtaining a 62% success rate, in contrast to the 0.8% hit rate of nonguided screenings. Of the six drugs that reduced viral infection, four could be directly repurposed to treat COVID-19, proposing novel treatments for COVID-19. We also found that 76 of the 77 drugs that successfully reduced viral infection do not bind the proteins targeted by SARS-CoV-2, indicating that these network drugs rely on network-based mechanisms that cannot be identified using docking-based strategies. These advances offer a methodological pathway to identify repurposable drugs for future pathogens and neglected diseases underserved by the costs and extended timeline of de novo drug development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Systems Biology/methods , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chlorocebus aethiops , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Protein Binding , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/metabolism
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(17)2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172591

ABSTRACT

In order to understand the transmission and virulence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), it is necessary to understand the functions of each of the gene products encoded in the viral genome. One feature of the SARS-CoV-2 genome that is not present in related, common coronaviruses is ORF10, a putative 38-amino acid protein-coding gene. Proteomic studies found that ORF10 binds to an E3 ubiquitin ligase containing Cullin-2, Rbx1, Elongin B, Elongin C, and ZYG11B (CRL2ZYG11B). Since CRL2ZYG11B mediates protein degradation, one possible role for ORF10 is to "hijack" CRL2ZYG11B in order to target cellular, antiviral proteins for ubiquitylation and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Here, we investigated whether ORF10 hijacks CRL2ZYG11B or functions in other ways, for example, as an inhibitor or substrate of CRL2ZYG11B While we confirm the ORF10-ZYG11B interaction and show that the N terminus of ORF10 is critical for it, we find no evidence that ORF10 is functioning to inhibit or hijack CRL2ZYG11B Furthermore, ZYG11B and its paralog ZER1 are dispensable for SARS-CoV-2 infection in cultured cells. We conclude that the interaction between ORF10 and CRL2ZYG11B is not relevant for SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Cullin Proteins/metabolism , Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism , Open Reading Frames , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Cullin Proteins/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Multiprotein Complexes/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
6.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(4): 310, 2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149708

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the ongoing world-wide pandemic which has already taken more than two million lives. Effective treatments are urgently needed. The enzymatic activity of the HECT-E3 ligase family members has been implicated in the cell egression phase of deadly RNA viruses such as Ebola through direct interaction of its VP40 Protein. Here we report that HECT-E3 ligase family members such as NEDD4 and WWP1 interact with and ubiquitylate the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. Furthermore, we find that HECT family members are overexpressed in primary samples derived from COVID-19 infected patients and COVID-19 mouse models. Importantly, rare germline activating variants in the NEDD4 and WWP1 genes are associated with severe COVID-19 cases. Critically, I3C, a natural NEDD4 and WWP1 inhibitor from Brassicaceae, displays potent antiviral effects and inhibits viral egression. In conclusion, we identify the HECT family members of E3 ligases as likely novel biomarkers for COVID-19, as well as new potential targets of therapeutic strategy easily testable in clinical trials in view of the established well-tolerated nature of the Brassicaceae natural compounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/antagonists & inhibitors , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport/metabolism , Female , Humans , Indoles/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle Aged , Nedd4 Ubiquitin Protein Ligases/genetics , Nedd4 Ubiquitin Protein Ligases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Ubiquitination , Vero Cells
7.
iScience ; 24(2): 102021, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009596

ABSTRACT

The unparalleled global effort to combat the continuing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic over the last year has resulted in promising prophylactic measures. However, a need still exists for cheap, effective therapeutics, and targeting multiple points in the viral life cycle could help tackle the current, as well as future, coronaviruses. Here, we leverage our recently developed, ultra-large-scale in silico screening platform, VirtualFlow, to search for inhibitors that target SARS-CoV-2. In this unprecedented structure-based virtual campaign, we screened roughly 1 billion molecules against each of 40 different target sites on 17 different potential viral and host targets. In addition to targeting the active sites of viral enzymes, we also targeted critical auxiliary sites such as functionally important protein-protein interactions.

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