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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 299, 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To ensure the success of COVID-19 vaccination, public authorities need to have the support of the entire population and build vaccine confidence. Identifying and understanding the determinants of vaccine acceptance is essential for conducting vaccine strategy. The aim was to estimate vaccine hesitancy among healthcare students in France and to investigate the associated factors. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a large French University in greater Paris area, among 4927 healthcare students from the different training courses such as medicine studies, midwifery studies, physiotherapy studies, nurse studies and others health studies. The study was conducted between January 21 and February 8, 2021 based on a questionnaire including 25 single or multiple-choice questions, made using the free software Limesurvey. The link of the questionnaire was distributed to the students by the teachers and the student associations. The SAGE group definition of vaccine hesitancy was used. All estimates were weighted using the gender and training courses category of all healthcare students registered for the 2020-2021 year. Crude and adjusted weighted odds ratio (wOR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1465 healthcare students answered. A proportion of 44.5% (95%CI = [41.7-47.3]) of them were considered as hesitant. Women were more hesitant (50.9, 95%CI = [48.0-53.9]) than men (21.6, 95%CI = [15.2-28.0]). Vaccine hesitancy was significantly associated with gender (wOR = 0.27, 95%CI = [0.18-0.39]) and training courses: medical students were less likely to be hesitant than students in the common and first year of several health studies (wOR = 0.48, 95%CI = [0.33-0.70]) while nursing students were more than 5 times more likely to be hesitant (wOR = 5.20, 95%CI = [3.71-7.28]). Students who did an internship during the epidemic (wOR = 0.53, 95%CI = [0.41-0.69]) and who downloaded the mobile contact-tracing mobile app "TousAntiCovid" (wOR = 0.34, 95%CI = [0.26-0.44]) were significantly less likely to be hesitant. CONCLUSIONS: Overall vaccine hesitancy among healthcare students was high, substantial differences were found between training courses. To reduce these disparities, interdisciplinary lectures on vaccines for all healthcare students may be implemented and evaluated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Vaccination
3.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(2)2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709312

ABSTRACT

We develop a population pharmacokinetic model for hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and three of its metabolites (desethylhydroxychloroquine, Des HCQ; desethylchloroquine, DesCQ; and didesethylchloroquine, didesCQ) in COVID-19 patients in order to determine whether a pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) relationship was present. The population PK of HCQ was described using non-linear mixed effects modelling. The duration of hospitalization, the number of deaths, and poor clinical outcomes (death, transfer to ICU, or hospitalization ≥ 10 d) were evaluated as PD parameters. From 100 hospitalized patients (age = 60.7 ± 16 y), 333 BHCQ and M were available for analysis. The data for BHCQ were best described by a four-compartment model with a first-order input (KA) and a first-order output. For M, the better model of the data used one compartment for each metabolite with a first-order input from HCQ and a first-order output. The fraction of HCQ converted to the metabolites was 75%. A significant relationship was observed between the duration of hospitalization and BHCQ at 48 h (r2 = 0.12; p = 0.0052) or 72 h (r2 = 0.16; p = 0.0012). At 48 h or 72 h, 87% or 91% of patients vs. 63% or 62% had a duration < 25 d with a BHCQ higher or below 200 µg/L, respectively. Clinical outcome was significantly related to BHCQ at 48 h (good outcome 369 +/- 181 µg/L vs. poor 285 +/- 144 µg/L; p = 0.0441) but not at 72 h (407 +/- 207 µg/L vs. 311 +/- 174 µg/L; p = 0.0502). The number of deaths was not significantly different according to the trough concentration (p = 0.972 and 0.836 for 48 h and 72 h, respectively).

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310315

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a significant public health concern with higher morbidity. Obesity patients are at risk of severe COVID-19 infection and obesity is a higher risk factor for intensive Care Unit admission in COVID-19 infection. Obesity status affects lung volumes, cardiac structure and hemodynamics. Obesity is associated with a low inflammation state, endothelial dysfunction, hyperinsulinaemia and metabolic disorders. The authors review cardio-respiratory pathophysiological aspects involved in obesity and propose clinical management in obese patients infected by COVD-19.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310314

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging infectious disease with currently a pandemic state. Cardiac function can be involved, affecting prognosis, in addition with lung feature severity, particularly in patients with comorbidities. Since the renin angiotensin aldosterone (RAA) system may interact with SARS-Cov-2, researches are still ongoing to assess the prognostic value of RAA blockers in cardiology.

6.
Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses Formation ; 1(1):24-33, 2022.
Article in French | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1679130

ABSTRACT

Au décours d'un épisode aigu de COVID-19 symptomatique, plus de 30 % des patients adultes ont encore des symptômes à 1-2 mois et 10 à 15 % à 6-8 mois. Il peut s'agir de symptômes persistants ou de nouveaux symptômes. Si les plus fréquents sont une fatigue sévère, une dyspnée et des signes neurocognitifs, de nombreux autres organes peuvent être atteints. Ces symptômes évoluent en général de façon fluctuante et sont souvent majorés par l'effort physique ou intellectuel. Avec le temps, ils évoluent de façon lente vers l'amélioration. L'absence de documentation virologique de l’épisode aïgu (la PCR n'ayant pu être faite et/ou la sérologie étant négative) n'exclut pas ce diagnostic. L'origine de ces symptômes n'est pas encore élucidée et certaines hypothèses sont en cours d'exploration, comme par exemple une persistance virale qui a été démontrée dans certains cas, une réponse inflammatoire notamment mastocytaire excessive, ou bien un défaut de l'immunité innée ou adaptative. Des facteurs génétiques et hormonaux sont possiblement associés. La prise en charge des patients doit être initiée dès le premier recours aux soins. Suite à une analyse approfondie des symptômes, des diagnostics seront portés et feront l'objet d'une prise en charge multidisciplinaire où les traitements symptomatiques et la rééducation tiennent une place importante. Si le recours à l'hospitalisation est rare, ces formes prolongées, maintenant appelées « COVID long », vont avoir un impact sociétal majeur nécessitant la mise en place de politiques publiques adaptées.

7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(2): 492-493, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650372

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
M�decine et Maladies Infectieuses Formation ; 2022.
Article in French | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1637234

ABSTRACT

Résumé Au décours d'un épisode aigu de COVID-19 symptomatique, plus de 30 % des patients adultes ont encore des symptômes à 1-2 mois et 10 à 15 % à 6-8 mois. Il peut s'agir de symptômes persistants ou de nouveaux symptômes. Si les plus fréquents sont une fatigue sévère, une dyspnée et des signes neurocognitifs, de nombreux autres organes peuvent être atteints. Ces symptômes évoluent en général de façon fluctuante et sont souvent majorés par l'effort physique ou intellectuel. Avec le temps, ils évoluent de façon lente vers l'amélioration. L'absence de documentation virologique de l’épisode aïgu (la PCR n'ayant pu être faite et/ou la sérologie étant négative) n'exclut pas ce diagnostic. L'origine de ces symptômes n'est pas encore élucidée et certaines hypothèses sont en cours d'exploration, comme par exemple une persistance virale qui a été démontrée dans certains cas, une réponse inflammatoire notamment mastocytaire excessive, ou bien un défaut de l'immunité innée ou adaptative. Des facteurs génétiques et hormonaux sont possiblement associés. La prise en charge des patients doit être initiée dès le premier recours aux soins. Suite à une analyse approfondie des symptômes, des diagnostics seront portés et feront l'objet d'une prise en charge multidisciplinaire où les traitements symptomatiques et la rééducation tiennent une place importante. Si le recours à l'hospitalisation est rare, ces formes prolongées, maintenant appelées « COVID long », vont avoir un impact sociétal majeur nécessitant la mise en place de politiques publiques adaptées. As a result of an acute symptomatic COVID-19 episode, more than 30% of adult patients still have symptoms at 1-2 months and 10-15% at 6-8 months. These may be persistent symptoms or new symptoms. If the most common are severe fatigue, dyspnea and neurocognitive signs, many other organs may be affected. These symptoms generally evolve in a fluctuating manner and are often aggravated by physical or intellectual effort. Over time they evolve slowly towards improvement. The lack of virological documentation (PCR could not be made at the initial episode and/or serology is negative) does not exclude this diagnosis. The origin of these symptoms is not yet clear: a viral persistence has been demonstrated in some cases, an inflammatory response including excessive mastocyte activation, a defect of innate or adaptive immunity are hypotheses being explored. Genetic and hormonal factors may be associated. Patient management must be initiated at the first point of care. Based on a thorough analysis of the symptoms, diagnoses will be made which leads to a multidisciplinary management where symptomatic treatments and rehabilitation are important. While hospitalization is rare, these protracted forms, now known as” long COVID”, will have a major societal impact requiring the implementation of appropriate public policies.

12.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 3(9): 1848-1857, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270571

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a significant public health concern associated with high morbidity. Obese patients are at risk of severe COVID-19 infection, and obesity is a high-risk factor for admission to the intensive care unit. We aimed to write a narrative review of cardiac and pulmonary pathophysiological aspects of obese patients in the context of COVID-19 infection. Obesity affects lung volume, with a decrease in expiratory reserve volume, which is associated with a decrease in lung and chest wall compliance, an increase in airway resistance, and an increase in work of breathing. Obesity affects cardiac structure and hemodynamics. Obesity is a risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. Moreover, obesity is associated with a low-grade inflammatory state, endothelial dysfunction, hyperinsulinemia, and metabolic disorders. Obesity is associated with severe COVID-19 and invasive mechanical ventilation. These previous cardiopulmonary pathological aspects may explain the clinical severity in obese patients with COVID-19. Obese patients are at risk of severe COVID-19 infection. Understanding cardiorespiratory pathophysiological aspects may help physicians manage patients in hospitals.

15.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(4): 106129, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121213

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The effect of anti-infective agents in COVID-19 is unclear. The impact of changes in practice on prognosis over time has not been evaluated. METHODS: Single center, retrospective study in adults hospitalized in a medicine ward for COVID-19 from March 5th to April 25th 2020. Patient characteristics were compared between two periods (before/after March 19th) considering French guidelines. The aim of the study was to evaluate how medical care impacted unfavorable outcome, namely admission to intensive care unit (ICU) and/or death. RESULTS: A total of 132 patients were admitted: mean age 59.0±16.3 years; mean C-reactive protein (CRP) level 84.0±71.1 mg/L; 46% had a lymphocyte count <1000/mm3. Prescribed anti-infective agents were lopinavir-ritonavir (n=12), azithromycin (AZI) (n=28) and AZI combined with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) (n=52). There was a significant decrease in ICU admission, from 43% to 12%, between the two periods (P<0.0001). Delays until transfer to ICU were similar between periods (P=0.86). Pulmonary computerized tomography (CT)-scans were performed significantly more often with time (from 50% to 90%, P<0.0001), and oxygen-dependency (53% vs 80%, P=0.001) and prescription of AZI±HCQ (from 25% to 76%, P<0.0001) were also greater over time. Multivariate analyses showed a reduction of unfavorable outcome in patients receiving AZI±HCQ (hazard ratio [HR]=0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI: 0.21-0.97], P=0.04), particularly among an identified category of individuals (lymphocyte ≥1000/mm3 or CRP ≥100 mg/L). CONCLUSION: The present study showed a significant decrease in admission to ICU over time, which was probably related to multiple factors, including a better indication of pulmonary CT-scan, oxygen therapy, and a suitable prescription of anti-infective agents.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
16.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(3): 495-496, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111523

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 172-179, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085544

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Understanding how hospital staff members (HSMs), including healthcare workers, acquired severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the first wave can guide the control measures in the current second wave in Europe. METHODS: From March 5 to May 10, 2020, the Raymond-Poincaré Hospital held a weekday consultation for HSMs for PCR testing. HSMs were requested to complete a questionnaire on their potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Of 200 HSMs screened, 70 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Ninety-nine HSMs completed the questionnaire of whom 28 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. In the multivariable analysis, age of ≥44 years (aOR = 5.2, 95% CI [1.4-22.5]) and not systematically using a facemask when caring for a patient (aOR = 13.9, 95% CI [1.8-293.0]) were significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Working in a COVID-19-dedicated ward (aOR = 0.7, 95% CI [0.2-3.2]) was not significantly associated with infection. Community-related exposure in and outside the hospital, hospital meetings without facemasks (aOR = 21.3, 95% CI [4.5-143.9]) and private gatherings (aOR = 10, 95% CI [1.3-91.0]) were significantly associated with infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the effectiveness of barrier precautions and highlight in-hospital infections not related to patient care and infections related to exposure in the community. Protecting HSMs against COVID-19 is crucial in fighting the second wave of the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paris/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital , Risk Factors
20.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 77(3): 389-397, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for lopinavir boosted by ritonavir in coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) patients. METHODS: Concentrations of lopinavir/ritonavir were assayed by an accredited LC-MS/MS method. The population pharmacokinetics of lopinavir was described using non-linear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM version 7.4). After determination of the base model that better described the data set, the influence of covariates (age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), gender, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), C reactive protein (CRP), and trough ritonavir concentrations) was tested on the model. RESULTS: From 13 hospitalized patients (4 females, 9 males, age = 64 ± 16 years), 70 lopinavir/ritonavir plasma concentrations were available for analysis. The data were best described by a one-compartment model with a first-order input (KA). Among the covariates tested on the PK parameters, only the ritonavir trough concentrations had a significant effect on CL/F and improved the fit. Model-based simulations with the final parameter estimates under a regimen lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg b.i.d. showed a high variability with median concentration between 20 and 30 mg/L (Cmin/Cmax) and the 90% prediction intervals within the range 1-100 mg/L. CONCLUSION: According to the estimated 50% effective concentration of lopinavir against SARS-CoV-2 virus in Vero E6 cells (16.7 mg/L), our model showed that at steady state, a dose of 400 mg b.i.d. led to 40% of patients below the minimum effective concentration while a dose of 1200 mg b.i.d. will reduce this proportion to 22%.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Lopinavir/pharmacokinetics , Ritonavir/pharmacokinetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Computer Simulation , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Population , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Tissue Distribution , Vero Cells
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