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2.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(10): 1257-1259, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541092

ABSTRACT

We performed a prospective study of 501 patients, regardless of symptoms, admitted to the hospital, to estimate the predictive value of a negative nasopharyngeal swab for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At a positivity rate of 10.2%, the estimated negative predictive value (NPV) was 97.2% and the NPV rose as prevalence decreased during the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Blood ; 136(Supplement 1):33-34, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1339052

ABSTRACT

IntroductionThromboembolic outcomes have emerged as an important issue in sick hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Multiple pathogenetic mechanisms for thrombosis have been implicated, including endothelial dysfunction, increased von Willebrand factor (vWF), interleukin-6 release, and activation of/interaction between macrophages, monocytes, endothelial cells, platelets and lymphocytes. The actual rate of arterial and venous thromboembolic events (ATE and VTE) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially in the immediate post-hospital discharge period, has not been fully elucidated, with most of the data derived from retrospective studies with small sample sizes.MethodsAgainst this background, we have designed and implemented an ongoing prospective registry (CORE-19) consisting of 11,249 consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from March 1st 2020 through May 31st 2020 using data derived from the Northwell Health System and the COVID-19 Research Consortium to study through 90-days post-discharge the rate of VTE and ATE, major bleeding, all-cause mortality, and other complications. We are capturing data of interest including demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, relevant medications, hospital setting, in-hospital treatment, thromboprophylaxis usage, key laboratory parameters, and 90-day thromboembolic and other key outcomes. A unified data repository (datamart) of hospitalized COVID-19 patients across multiple datasets from electronic health records, health informatics exchange, a dedicated radiology database, and a standardized data collection tool in REDCap, that includes telephonic calls up to 90 days post-discharge, is being implemented. A common data model (CDM) is utilized to ensure semantic interoperability between data originating from disparate sources. Northwell Health protocols stipulate the use of post-discharge low-molecular weight heparin, direct oral anticoagulants, or baby aspirin in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with high thrombotic risk features.ResultsOur cohort as of August 7, 2020 consists of complete follow up in 4,100 patients with a mean age of 61.0 years (SD: 17.0) with 54.7% males (Table 1). Preliminary data show an all-cause mortality rate of 4.29%, an overall thromboembolic rate of 3.51% (2.41% VTE and 1.10% ATE), a major bleeding rate of 1.61%, and a rehospitalization rate of 12.85%. Of patients with either DVT or PE post-discharge, 13.43% (9/67) died. The full dataset, including risk factors, comorbidities, key in-hospital and post-discharge medications including anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents, will be available at the time of presentation to the ASH congress.ConclusionOur ongoing registry is a large prospective study evaluating the rate of overall thromboembolic complications and all-cause mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients through 90 days post discharge. Current rates of thromboembolic events signify the importance of post-discharge surveillance and, potentially, post-discharge extended thromboprophylaxis, in this acutely ill medical population.

5.
JAMA ; 325(14): 1436-1442, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323838

ABSTRACT

Importance: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that performs an important role in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism and also affects many other cellular regulatory functions outside the skeletal system. Vitamin D requirements may vary by individual; thus, no one serum vitamin D level cutpoint defines deficiency, and no consensus exists regarding the precise serum levels of vitamin D that represent optimal health or sufficiency. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on screening for vitamin D deficiency, including the benefits and harms of screening and early treatment. Population: Community-dwelling, nonpregnant adults who have no signs or symptoms of vitamin D deficiency or conditions for which vitamin D treatment is recommended. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes that the overall evidence on the benefits of screening for vitamin D deficiency is lacking. Therefore, the balance of benefits and harms of screening for vitamin D deficiency in asymptomatic adults cannot be determined. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for vitamin D deficiency in asymptomatic adults. (I statement).


Subject(s)
Mass Screening , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , Humans , Mass Screening/adverse effects , Mass Screening/methods , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
6.
Blood ; 137(20): 2838-2847, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236540

ABSTRACT

Thromboembolic events, including venous thromboembolism (VTE) and arterial thromboembolism (ATE), and mortality from subclinical thrombotic events occur frequently in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) inpatients. Whether the risk extends postdischarge has been controversial. Our prospective registry included consecutive patients with COVID-19 hospitalized within our multihospital system from 1 March to 31 May 2020. We captured demographics, comorbidities, laboratory parameters, medications, postdischarge thromboprophylaxis, and 90-day outcomes. Data from electronic health records, health informatics exchange, radiology database, and telephonic follow-up were merged. Primary outcome was a composite of adjudicated VTE, ATE, and all-cause mortality (ACM). Principal safety outcome was major bleeding (MB). Among 4906 patients (53.7% male), mean age was 61.7 years. Comorbidities included hypertension (38.6%), diabetes (25.1%), obesity (18.9%), and cancer history (13.1%). Postdischarge thromboprophylaxis was prescribed in 13.2%. VTE rate was 1.55%; ATE, 1.71%; ΑCM, 4.83%; and MB, 1.73%. Composite primary outcome rate was 7.13% and significantly associated with advanced age (odds ratio [OR], 3.66; 95% CI, 2.84-4.71), prior VTE (OR, 2.99; 95% CI, 2.00-4.47), intensive care unit (ICU) stay (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.78-2.93), chronic kidney disease (CKD; OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.47-3.0), peripheral arterial disease (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.10-3.80), carotid occlusive disease (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.30-3.14), IMPROVE-DD VTE score ≥4 (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.06-2.14), and coronary artery disease (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.04-2.17). Postdischarge anticoagulation was significantly associated with reduction in primary outcome (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.47-0.81). Postdischarge VTE, ATE, and ACM occurred frequently after COVID-19 hospitalization. Advanced age, cardiovascular risk factors, CKD, IMPROVE-DD VTE score ≥4, and ICU stay increased risk. Postdischarge anticoagulation reduced risk by 46%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/prevention & control
8.
Blood ; 137(20): 2838-2847, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172063

ABSTRACT

Thromboembolic events, including venous thromboembolism (VTE) and arterial thromboembolism (ATE), and mortality from subclinical thrombotic events occur frequently in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) inpatients. Whether the risk extends postdischarge has been controversial. Our prospective registry included consecutive patients with COVID-19 hospitalized within our multihospital system from 1 March to 31 May 2020. We captured demographics, comorbidities, laboratory parameters, medications, postdischarge thromboprophylaxis, and 90-day outcomes. Data from electronic health records, health informatics exchange, radiology database, and telephonic follow-up were merged. Primary outcome was a composite of adjudicated VTE, ATE, and all-cause mortality (ACM). Principal safety outcome was major bleeding (MB). Among 4906 patients (53.7% male), mean age was 61.7 years. Comorbidities included hypertension (38.6%), diabetes (25.1%), obesity (18.9%), and cancer history (13.1%). Postdischarge thromboprophylaxis was prescribed in 13.2%. VTE rate was 1.55%; ATE, 1.71%; ΑCM, 4.83%; and MB, 1.73%. Composite primary outcome rate was 7.13% and significantly associated with advanced age (odds ratio [OR], 3.66; 95% CI, 2.84-4.71), prior VTE (OR, 2.99; 95% CI, 2.00-4.47), intensive care unit (ICU) stay (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.78-2.93), chronic kidney disease (CKD; OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.47-3.0), peripheral arterial disease (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.10-3.80), carotid occlusive disease (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.30-3.14), IMPROVE-DD VTE score ≥4 (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.06-2.14), and coronary artery disease (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.04-2.17). Postdischarge anticoagulation was significantly associated with reduction in primary outcome (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.47-0.81). Postdischarge VTE, ATE, and ACM occurred frequently after COVID-19 hospitalization. Advanced age, cardiovascular risk factors, CKD, IMPROVE-DD VTE score ≥4, and ICU stay increased risk. Postdischarge anticoagulation reduced risk by 46%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/prevention & control
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124806

ABSTRACT

Background: Health care systems in the United States are continuously expanding and contracting spaces to treat patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in intensive care units (ICUs). As a result, hospitals must effectively decontaminate and contain severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in constructed and deconstructed ICUs that care for patients with COVID-19. We assessed decontamination of a COVID-19 ICU and examined the containment efficacy of combined contact and droplet precautions in creating and maintaining a SARS-CoV-2-negative ICU "antechamber". Methods: To examine the efficacy of chemical decontamination, we used high-density, semi-quantitative environmental sampling to detect SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces in a COVID-19 ICU and COVID-19 ICU antechamber. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure viral RNA on surfaces. Viral location mapping revealed the distribution of viral RNA in the COVID-19 ICU and COVID-19 ICU antechamber. Results were further assessed using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Results: We collected 224 surface samples pre-decontamination and 193 samples post-decontamination from a COVID-19 ICU and adjoining COVID-19 ICU antechamber. We found that 46% of antechamber objects were positive for SARS-CoV-2 pre-decontamination despite the construction of a swinging door barrier system, implementation of contact precautions, and installation of high-efficiency particulate air filters. The object positivity rate reduced to 32.1% and viral particle rate reduced by 95.4% following decontamination. Matched items had an average of 432.2 ± 2729 viral copies/cm2 pre-decontamination and 19.2 ± 118 viral copies/cm2 post-decontamination, demonstrating significantly reduced viral surface distribution (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Environmental sampling is an effective method for evaluating decontamination protocols and validating measures used to contain SARS-CoV-2 viral particles. While chemical decontamination effectively removes detectable viral RNA from surfaces, our approach to droplet/contact containment with an antechamber was not highly effective. These data suggest that hospitals should plan for the potential of aerosolized virions when creating strategies to contain SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Decontamination , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e042965, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072759

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern of hydroxychloroquine use and examine the association between hydroxychloroquine use and clinical outcomes arising from changes in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s recommendation during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We included hospitalised adult patients at Northwell Health hospitals with confirmed COVID-19 infections between 1 March 2020 and 11 May 2020. We categorised changes in the FDA's recommendation as pre-FDA approval (1 March 2020-27 March 2020), FDA approval (28 March 2020-23 April 2020), and FDA warning (24 April 2020-11 May 2020). The hydroxychloroquine-treated group received at least one dose within 48 hours of hospital admission. PRIMARY OUTCOME: A composite of intubation and inpatient death. RESULTS: The percentages of patients who were treated with hydroxychloroquine were 192/2202 (8.7%) pre-FDA approval, 2902/6741 (43.0%) FDA approval, and 176/1066 (16.5%) FDA warning period (p<0.001). Using propensity score matching, there was a higher rate of the composite outcome among patients treated with hydroxychloroquine (49/192, 25.5%) compared with no hydroxychloroquine (66/384, 17.2%) in the pre-FDA approval period (p=0.03) but not in the FDA approval period (25.5% vs 22.6%, p=0.08) or the FDA warning (21.0% vs 15.1%, p=0.11) periods. Coincidently, there was an increase in number of patients with COVID-19 and disease severity during the FDA approval period (24.1% during FDA approval vs 21.4% during pre-FDA approval period had the composite outcome). Hydroxychloroquine use was associated with increased odds of the composite outcome during the pre-FDA approval period (OR=1.65 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.51)) but not during the FDA approval (OR=1.17 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.39)) and FDA warning (OR=1.50 (95% CI 0.94 to 2.39)) periods. CONCLUSIONS: Hydroxychloroquine use was associated with adverse clinical outcomes only during the pre-FDA approval period but not during the FDA approval and warning periods, even after adjusting for concurrent changes in the percentage of patients with COVID-19 treated with hydroxychloroquine and the number (and disease severity) of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , United States Food and Drug Administration , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Male , Medicare , Middle Aged , New York , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , United States , Young Adult
11.
JAMA ; 324(22): 2328, 2020 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1017825
12.
medRxiv ; 2020 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chinese studies reported predictors of severe disease and mortality associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A generalizable and simple survival calculator based on data from US patients hospitalized with COVID-19 has not yet been introduced. OBJECTIVE: Develop and validate a clinical tool to predict 7-day survival in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective and prospective cohort study. SETTING: Thirteen acute care hospitals in the New York City area. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients hospitalized with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. The development and internal validation cohort included patients hospitalized between March 1 and May 6, 2020. The external validation cohort included patients hospitalized between March 1 and May 5, 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Demographic, laboratory, clinical, and outcome data were extracted from the electronic health record. Optimal predictors and performance were identified using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression with receiver operating characteristic curves and measurements of area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: The development and internal validation cohort included 11 095 patients with a median age of 65 years [interquartile range (IQR) 54-77]. Overall 7-day survival was 89%. Serum blood urea nitrogen, age, absolute neutrophil count, red cell distribution width, oxygen saturation, and serum sodium were identified as the 6 optimal of 42 possible predictors of survival. These factors constitute the NOCOS (Northwell COVID-19 Survival) Calculator. Performance in the internal validation, prospective validation, and external validation were marked by AUCs of 0.86, 0.82, and 0.82, respectively. LIMITATIONS: All participants were hospitalized within the New York City area. CONCLUSIONS: The NOCOS Calculator uses 6 factors routinely available at hospital admission to predict 7-day survival for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The calculator is publicly available at https://feinstein.northwell.edu/NOCOS.

13.
J Pediatr ; 224: 141-145, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727666

ABSTRACT

We report on the presentation and course of 33 children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Hemodynamic instability and cardiac dysfunction were prominent findings, with most patients exhibiting rapid resolution following anti-inflammatory therapy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronary Aneurysm , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Fever , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , New York City , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/complications , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications
15.
Am J Transplant ; 20(7): 1819-1825, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-642184

ABSTRACT

There is minimal information on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in immunocompromised individuals. We have studied 10 patients treated at 12 adult care hospitals. Ten kidney transplant recipients tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by polymerase chain reaction, and 9 were admitted. The median age was 57 (interquartile range [IQR] 47-67), 60% were male, 40% Caucasian, and 30% Black/African American. Median time from transplant to COVID-19 testing was 2822 days (IQR 1272-4592). The most common symptom was fever, followed by cough, myalgia, chills, and fatigue. The most common chest X-ray and computed tomography abnormality was multifocal patchy opacities. Three patients had no abnormal findings. Leukopenia was seen in 20% of patients, and allograft function was stable in 50% of patients. Nine patients were on tacrolimus and a mycophenolic antimetabolite, and 70% were on prednisone. Hospitalized patients had their antimetabolite agent stopped. All hospitalized patients received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. Three patients died (30%), and 5 (50%) developed acute kidney injury. Kidney transplant recipients infected with COVID-19 should be monitored closely in the setting of lowered immunosuppression. Most individuals required hospitalization and presenting symptoms were similar to those of nontransplant individuals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Transplant Recipients , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Care , Electronic Health Records , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(12): 3204-3213, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the greater New York metropolitan area became an epicenter for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The initial evolution of case incidence has not been well characterized. METHODS: Northwell Health Laboratories tested 46 793 persons for SARS-CoV-2 from 4 March through 10 April. The primary outcome measure was a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test for SARS-CoV-2. The secondary outcomes included patient age, sex, and race, if stated; dates the specimen was obtained and the test result; clinical practice site sources; geolocation of patient residence; and hospitalization. RESULTS: From 8 March through 10 April, a total of 26 735 of 46 793 persons (57.1%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Males of each race were disproportionally more affected than females above age 25, with a progressive male predominance as age increased. Of the positive persons, 7292 were hospitalized directly upon presentation; an additional 882 persons tested positive in an ambulatory setting before subsequent hospitalization, a median of 4.8 days later. Total hospitalization rate was thus 8174 persons (30.6% of positive persons). There was a broad range (>10-fold) in the cumulative number of positive cases across individual zip codes following documented first caseincidence. Test positivity was greater for persons living in zip codes with lower annual household income. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reveal that SARS-CoV-2 incidence emerged rapidly and almost simultaneously across a broad demographic population in the region. These findings support the premise that SARS-CoV-2 infection was widely distributed prior to virus testing availability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , New York
17.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487320928175, 2020 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459463
18.
JAMA ; 323(20): 2052-2059, 2020 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-101977

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is limited information describing the presenting characteristics and outcomes of US patients requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in a US health care system. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of patients with COVID-19 admitted to 12 hospitals in New York City, Long Island, and Westchester County, New York, within the Northwell Health system. The study included all sequentially hospitalized patients between March 1, 2020, and April 4, 2020, inclusive of these dates. Exposures: Confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by positive result on polymerase chain reaction testing of a nasopharyngeal sample among patients requiring admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical outcomes during hospitalization, such as invasive mechanical ventilation, kidney replacement therapy, and death. Demographics, baseline comorbidities, presenting vital signs, and test results were also collected. Results: A total of 5700 patients were included (median age, 63 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 52-75; range, 0-107 years]; 39.7% female). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (3026; 56.6%), obesity (1737; 41.7%), and diabetes (1808; 33.8%). At triage, 30.7% of patients were febrile, 17.3% had a respiratory rate greater than 24 breaths/min, and 27.8% received supplemental oxygen. The rate of respiratory virus co-infection was 2.1%. Outcomes were assessed for 2634 patients who were discharged or had died at the study end point. During hospitalization, 373 patients (14.2%) (median age, 68 years [IQR, 56-78]; 33.5% female) were treated in the intensive care unit care, 320 (12.2%) received invasive mechanical ventilation, 81 (3.2%) were treated with kidney replacement therapy, and 553 (21%) died. As of April 4, 2020, for patients requiring mechanical ventilation (n = 1151, 20.2%), 38 (3.3%) were discharged alive, 282 (24.5%) died, and 831 (72.2%) remained in hospital. The median postdischarge follow-up time was 4.4 days (IQR, 2.2-9.3). A total of 45 patients (2.2%) were readmitted during the study period. The median time to readmission was 3 days (IQR, 1.0-4.5) for readmitted patients. Among the 3066 patients who remained hospitalized at the final study follow-up date (median age, 65 years [IQR, 54-75]), the median follow-up at time of censoring was 4.5 days (IQR, 2.4-8.1). Conclusions and Relevance: This case series provides characteristics and early outcomes of sequentially hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the New York City area.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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