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Circulation ; 147(5): 364-374, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2223896


BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial injury in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a poor prognosis. Its associations and pathogenesis are unclear. Our aim was to assess the presence, nature, and extent of myocardial damage in hospitalized patients with troponin elevation. METHODS: Across 25 hospitals in the United Kingdom, 342 patients with COVID-19 and an elevated troponin level (COVID+/troponin+) were enrolled between June 2020 and March 2021 and had a magnetic resonance imaging scan within 28 days of discharge. Two prospective control groups were recruited, comprising 64 patients with COVID-19 and normal troponin levels (COVID+/troponin-) and 113 patients without COVID-19 or elevated troponin level matched by age and cardiovascular comorbidities (COVID-/comorbidity+). Regression modeling was performed to identify predictors of major adverse cardiovascular events at 12 months. RESULTS: Of the 519 included patients, 356 (69%) were men, with a median (interquartile range) age of 61.0 years (53.8, 68.8). The frequency of any heart abnormality, defined as left or right ventricular impairment, scar, or pericardial disease, was 2-fold greater in cases (61% [207/342]) compared with controls (36% [COVID+/troponin-] versus 31% [COVID-/comorbidity+]; P<0.001 for both). More cases than controls had ventricular impairment (17.2% versus 3.1% and 7.1%) or scar (42% versus 7% and 23%; P<0.001 for both). The myocardial injury pattern was different, with cases more likely than controls to have infarction (13% versus 2% and 7%; P<0.01) or microinfarction (9% versus 0% and 1%; P<0.001), but there was no difference in nonischemic scar (13% versus 5% and 14%; P=0.10). Using the Lake Louise magnetic resonance imaging criteria, the prevalence of probable recent myocarditis was 6.7% (23/342) in cases compared with 1.7% (2/113) in controls without COVID-19 (P=0.045). During follow-up, 4 patients died and 34 experienced a subsequent major adverse cardiovascular event (10.2%), which was similar to controls (6.1%; P=0.70). Myocardial scar, but not previous COVID-19 infection or troponin, was an independent predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (odds ratio, 2.25 [95% CI, 1.12-4.57]; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with contemporary controls, patients with COVID-19 and elevated cardiac troponin level have more ventricular impairment and myocardial scar in early convalescence. However, the proportion with myocarditis was low and scar pathogenesis was diverse, including a newly described pattern of microinfarction. REGISTRATION: URL:; Unique identifier: 58667920.

COVID-19 , Heart Injuries , Myocarditis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cicatrix , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Troponin , Aged
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 14(11): 2155-2166, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225278


OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to detect cardiovascular changes after mild severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection. BACKGROUND: Concern exists that mild coronavirus disease 2019 may cause myocardial and vascular disease. METHODS: Participants were recruited from COVIDsortium, a 3-hospital prospective study of 731 health care workers who underwent first-wave weekly symptom, polymerase chain reaction, and serology assessment over 4 months, with seroconversion in 21.5% (n = 157). At 6 months post-infection, 74 seropositive and 75 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched seronegative control subjects were recruited for cardiovascular phenotyping (comprehensive phantom-calibrated cardiovascular magnetic resonance and blood biomarkers). Analysis was blinded, using objective artificial intelligence analytics where available. RESULTS: A total of 149 subjects (mean age 37 years, range 18 to 63 years, 58% women) were recruited. Seropositive infections had been mild with case definition, noncase definition, and asymptomatic disease in 45 (61%), 18 (24%), and 11 (15%), respectively, with 1 person hospitalized (for 2 days). Between seropositive and seronegative groups, there were no differences in cardiac structure (left ventricular volumes, mass, atrial area), function (ejection fraction, global longitudinal shortening, aortic distensibility), tissue characterization (T1, T2, extracellular volume fraction mapping, late gadolinium enhancement) or biomarkers (troponin, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide). With abnormal defined by the 75 seronegatives (2 SDs from mean, e.g., ejection fraction <54%, septal T1 >1,072 ms, septal T2 >52.4 ms), individuals had abnormalities including reduced ejection fraction (n = 2, minimum 50%), T1 elevation (n = 6), T2 elevation (n = 9), late gadolinium enhancement (n = 13, median 1%, max 5% of myocardium), biomarker elevation (borderline troponin elevation in 4; all N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide normal). These were distributed equally between seropositive and seronegative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular abnormalities are no more common in seropositive versus seronegative otherwise healthy, workforce representative individuals 6 months post-mild severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection.

COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Abnormalities , Adolescent , Adult , Artificial Intelligence , Case-Control Studies , Contrast Media , Female , Gadolinium , Health Personnel , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Function, Left , Young Adult
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 179, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068028


Background: Most biomedical research has focused on sampling COVID-19 patients presenting to hospital with advanced disease, with less focus on the asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic. We established a bioresource with serial sampling of health care workers (HCWs) designed to obtain samples before and during mainly mild disease, with follow-up sampling to evaluate the quality and duration of immune memory. Methods: We conducted a prospective study on HCWs from three hospital sites in London, initially at a single centre (recruited just prior to first peak community transmission in London), but then extended to multiple sites 3 weeks later (recruitment still ongoing, target n=1,000). Asymptomatic participants attending work complete a health questionnaire, and provide a nasal swab (for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR tests) and blood samples (mononuclear cells, serum, plasma, RNA and DNA are biobanked) at 16 weekly study visits, and at 6 and 12 months. Results: Preliminary baseline results for the first 731 HCWs (400 single-centre, 331 multicentre extension) are presented. Mean age was 38±11 years; 67% are female, 31% nurses, 20% doctors, and 19% work in intensive care units. COVID-19-associated risk factors were: 37% black, Asian or minority ethnicities; 18% smokers; 13% obesity; 11% asthma; 7% hypertension and 2% diabetes mellitus. At baseline, 41% reported symptoms in the preceding 2 weeks. Preliminary test results from the initial cohort (n=400) are available: PCR at baseline for SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 28 of 396 (7.1%, 95% CI 4.9-10.0%) and 15 of 385 (3.9%, 2.4-6.3%) had circulating IgG antibodies. Conclusions: This COVID-19 bioresource established just before the peak of infections in the UK will provide longitudinal assessments of incident infection and immune responses in HCWs through the natural time course of disease and convalescence. The samples and data from this bioresource are available to academic collaborators by application