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1.
Wildlife Society bulletin ; 46(2), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970383

ABSTRACT

Spring wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) hunting is a foundational activity for many hunters across North America. Managing turkey hunters and turkey hunting is, therefore, a priority for state and provincial fish and wildlife management agencies. Early stages of the current SARS‐CoV‐2 (COVID‐19) pandemic in the United States coincided with 2020 spring turkey hunting seasons across the U.S. Potential effects of increases in peoples' time available for hunting on effort and turkey populations could have been substantial. We surveyed the primary wildlife biologist tasked with wild turkey management for each state and provincial jurisdiction with a huntable wild turkey population to determine turkey hunter and hunting dynamics before and during the spring 2020 turkey season. Biologists in 47 states responded to the survey. Results varied among states but hunting license sales, the number of hunters afield, harvest, total hunter‐days afield, and the number of days individual hunters were afield were greater in 2020 than the mean from the previous 3 years (2017–2019) in many states. Although hunting effort and total reported harvest increased in most states in 2020 from the previous 3‐year average, take‐per‐unit‐effort (i.e., harvest per hunter day) decreased in 93% of jurisdictions from which data were available, supporting the finding that increases in turkey harvest in spring 2020 were a result of a COVID‐related increase in participation and effort and not increases in turkey abundance. We recommend using these reference data for turkey population and turkey hunter monitoring pre‐ and post‐pandemic. Monitoring efforts should include wildlife population and habitat evaluations and study of hunter dynamics in a social science framework. We evaluated turkey hunter and hunting dynamics before and during the spring 2020 turkey season corresponding with the outbreak of the 2020 COVID‐19 pandemic. Hunting license sales, the number of hunters afield, harvest, total hunter‐days afield, and the number of days individual hunters were afield increased in 2020. Although hunting effort and total reported harvest increased in most states, take‐per‐unit‐effort decreased in 93% of jurisdictions, supporting the finding that increases in turkey harvest in spring 2020 were a result of a COVID‐related increase in participation and effort and not increases in turkey abundance.

2.
Wildlife Society Bulletin ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1838277

ABSTRACT

Spring wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) hunting is a foundational activity for many hunters across North America. Managing turkey hunters and turkey hunting is, therefore, a priority for state and provincial fish and wildlife management agencies. Early stages of the current SARS‐CoV‐2 (COVID‐19) pandemic in the United States coincided with 2020 spring turkey hunting seasons across the U.S. Potential effects of increases in peoples' time available for hunting on effort and turkey populations could have been substantial. We surveyed the primary wildlife biologist tasked with wild turkey management for each state and provincial jurisdiction with a huntable wild turkey population to determine turkey hunter and hunting dynamics before and during the spring 2020 turkey season. Biologists in 47 states responded to the survey. Results varied among states but hunting license sales, the number of hunters afield, harvest, total hunter‐days afield, and the number of days individual hunters were afield were greater in 2020 than the mean from the previous 3 years (2017–2019) in many states. Although hunting effort and total reported harvest increased in most states in 2020 from the previous 3‐year average, take‐per‐unit‐effort (i.e., harvest per hunter day) decreased in 93% of jurisdictions from which data were available, supporting the finding that increases in turkey harvest in spring 2020 were a result of a COVID‐related increase in participation and effort and not increases in turkey abundance. We recommend using these reference data for turkey population and turkey hunter monitoring pre‐ and post‐pandemic. Monitoring efforts should include wildlife population and habitat evaluations and study of hunter dynamics in a social science framework. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Wildlife Society Bulletin is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 34, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current Coronavirus disease pandemic reveals political and structural inequities of the world's poorest people who have little or no access to health care and yet the largest burdens of poor health. This is in parallel to a more persistent but silent global health crisis, antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We explore the fundamental challenges of health care in humans and animals in relation to AMR in Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted 57 individual interviews and focus groups with providers and patients in high, middle and lower tier health care facilities and communities across three regions of Tanzania between April 2019 and February 2020. We covered topics from health infrastructure and prescribing practices to health communication and patient experiences. RESULTS: Three interconnected themes emerged about systemic issues impacting health. First, there are challenges around infrastructure and availability of vital resources such as healthcare staff and supplies. Second, health outcomes are predicated on patient and provider access to services as well as social determinants of health. Third, health communication is critical in defining trusted sources of information, and narratives of blame emerge around health outcomes with the onus of responsibility for action falling on individuals. CONCLUSION: Entanglements between infrastructure, access and communication exist while constraints in the health system lead to poor health outcomes even in 'normal' circumstances. These are likely to be relevant across the globe and highly topical for addressing pressing global health challenges. Redressing structural health inequities can better equip countries and their citizens to not only face pandemics but also day-to-day health challenges.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility/standards , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/standards , Social Determinants of Health/standards , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health/standards , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health/economics , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Tanzania/epidemiology
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291273

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus disease pandemic reveals political and structural inequities of the world’s poorest people who have little or no access to health care and with the largest burdens of poor health. This is in parallel to a more persistent but global health crisis, antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We explore the fundamental challenges of health care in humans and animals in relation to AMR in Tanzania. Methods: We conducted 57 individual interviews and focus groups with providers and patients in high, middle and lower tier health care facilities and communities across three regions of Tanzania between April 2019 and February 2020. We covered topics from health infrastructure and prescribing practices to health communication and patient experiences. Findings: Three interconnected themes emerged about systemic issues impacting health. First, there are challenges around infrastructure and availability of vital resources such as healthcare staff and supplies. Second, health outcomes are predicated on patient and provider access to services as well as social determinants of health. Third, health communication is critical in defining trusted sources of information, and narratives of blame emerge around health outcomes with the onus of responsibility for action falling on individuals. Interpretation: Entanglements between infrastructure, access and communication exist while constraints in the health system lead to poor health outcomes even in ‘normal’ circumstances. These are likely to be relevant across the globe and highly topical for addressing pressing global health challenges. Redressing structural health inequities can better equip countries and their citizens to not only face pandemics but also day-to-day health challenges. Funding Statement: This research was funded by the Antimicrobial Resistance Cross-Council Initiative through a grant from the Medical Research Council, a Council of UK Research and Innovation and the National Institute for Health Research (MRC/AMR/ MR/S004815/1). Hilton’s time was also funded by a core grant for the Medical Research Council/Chief Scientist Office (MRC/CSO) Social and Public Health Sciences Unit (MC_UU_12017/14;SPHSU14;MC_UU_12017/15;SPHSU15). This publication was supported by the University of Edinburgh and the University of Glasgow Jointly Funded PhD studentships (Loosli).Declaration of Interests: There are no conflicts of interests between the authors and/or institutions.Ethics Approval Statement: The study received approval from the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College Ethics Review committee with certificate n. 2408 and the Catholic University Health and Allied Sciences committee with certificate n. CREC/318/2018;National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Tanzania, with Reference Number NIMR/HQ/R.8a/Vol. IX/3017;Tanzanian Commission for Science and Technology (Davis, permit n. 2020-335-NA-2019-205;Lembo, permit n. 2020-333-NA-2019-205;Laurie, permit n. 2020-332-NA-2019-205;Mutua, permit n. 2020-334-NA-2019-205;Nthambi, permit n. 2020-336-NA-2019-205;Matthews, permit n. 2019-482-NA-2019-205;and Hilton, permit n.2019-476-NA-2019-205);and College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences ethics committee at the University of Glasgow (project application number 200180046). Permission for research in communities was obtained from relevant local and district authorities. All participants were explained study objectives and written and/or verbal informed consent was obtained. Verbal consent was utilised instead of written consent with participants who were unable to write. Informed consent forms and participant information sheets were approved by all ethics panels.

5.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology ; 14(1-2):202-205, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1240730

ABSTRACT

Race-specific trauma is long established and persistent in the workplace, but its implications are especially important to acknowledge in the context of COVID-19. [...]as I-O psychologists, we have a responsibility to be particularly aware and intentional about diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) work during this unique period of working during a pandemic, specifically regarding racial dynamics. [...]knowledge is constructed, reconstructed, distributed, and reproduced by Whites, shutting out voices of color (Baffoe etal., 2014). According to 2020 censuses, Fortune 100 C-Suite positions consist of 84% White employees (Larcker & Tayan, 2020), and studies show that women and people of color often get less prestigious work assignments that lack potential for advancement (Williams, & Multhaup, 2018). A reason for this could be SIOP’s requirement of a Ph.D. or master’s degree to be a member or associate. Because doctorate degrees are so normalized in the field, people of color are disadvantaged due to significant racial disparities in higher education.

6.
Mol Ther ; 29(7): 2219-2226, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228174

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in humans. Despite several emerging vaccines, there remains no verifiable therapeutic targeted specifically to the virus. Here we present a highly effective small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapeutic against SARS-CoV-2 infection using a novel lipid nanoparticle (LNP) delivery system. Multiple siRNAs targeting highly conserved regions of the SARS-CoV-2 virus were screened, and three candidate siRNAs emerged that effectively inhibit the virus by greater than 90% either alone or in combination with one another. We simultaneously developed and screened two novel LNP formulations for the delivery of these candidate siRNA therapeutics to the lungs, an organ that incurs immense damage during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Encapsulation of siRNAs in these LNPs followed by in vivo injection demonstrated robust repression of virus in the lungs and a pronounced survival advantage to the treated mice. Our LNP-siRNA approaches are scalable and can be administered upon the first sign of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. We suggest that an siRNA-LNP therapeutic approach could prove highly useful in treating COVID-19 disease as an adjunctive therapy to current vaccine strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Double-Stranded/administration & dosage , RNA, Small Interfering/administration & dosage , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Administration, Intravenous , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , Gene Silencing , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , RNA, Double-Stranded/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Transcriptome/drug effects , Treatment Outcome
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