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1.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 47(7): 509-520, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: High-quality longitudinal evidence exploring the mental health risk associated with low-quality employment trajectories is scarce. We therefore aimed to investigate the risk of being diagnosed with common mental disorders, substance use disorders, or suicide attempt according to low-quality employment trajectories. METHODS: A longitudinal register-study based on the working population of Sweden (N=2 743 764). Employment trajectories (2005-2009) characterized by employment quality and pattern (constancy, fluctuation, mobility) were created. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models for first incidence (2010-2017) diagnosis of common mental disorders, substance use disorders and suicide attempt as dependent on employment trajectories. RESULTS: We identified 21 employment trajectories, 10 of which were low quality (21%). With the exception of constant solo self-employment, there was an increased risk of common mental disorders (HR 1.07-1.62) and substance use disorders (HR 1.05-2.19) for all low-quality trajectories. Constant solo self-employment increased the risk for substance use disorders among women, while it reduced the risk of both disorders for men. Half of the low-quality trajectories were associated with a risk increase of suicide attempt (HR 1.08-1.76). CONCLUSIONS: Low-quality employment trajectories represent risk factors for mental disorders and suicide attempt in Sweden, and there might be differential effects according to sex - especially in terms of self-employment. Policies ensuring and maintaining high-quality employment characteristics over time are imperative. Similar prospective studies are needed, also in other contexts, which cover the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic as well as the mechanisms linking employment trajectories with mental health.


Subject(s)
Employment/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Incidence , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/etiology , Sweden/epidemiology
2.
Int J Health Serv ; 51(2): 226-228, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067025

ABSTRACT

The world of work is facing an ongoing pandemic and an economic downturn with severe effects worldwide. Workers trapped in precarious employment (PE), both formal and informal, are among those most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Here we call attention to at least 5 critical ways that the consequences of the crisis among workers in PE will be felt globally: (a) PE will increase, (b) workers in PE will become more precarious, (c) workers in PE will face unemployment without being officially laid off, (d) workers in PE will be exposed to serious stressors and dramatic life changes that may lead to a rise in diseases of despair, and (e) PE might be a factor in deterring the control of or in generating new COVID-19 outbreaks. We conclude that what we really need is a new social contract, where the work of all workers is recognized and protected with adequate job contracts, employment security, and social protection in a new economy, both during and after the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Employment , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , United States
3.
Am J Ind Med ; 64(4): 238-244, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exposure to COVID-19 is more likely among certain occupations compared with others. This descriptive study seeks to explore occupational differences in mortality due to COVID-19 among workers in Massachusetts. METHODS: Death certificates of those who died from COVID-19 in Massachusetts between March 1 and July 31, 2020 were collected. Occupational information was coded and age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated according to occupation. RESULTS: There were 555 deaths among MA residents of age 16-64, with usable occupation information, resulting in an age-adjusted mortality rate of 16.4 per 100,000 workers. Workers in 11 occupational groups including healthcare support and transportation and material moving had mortality rates higher than that for workers overall. Hispanic and Black workers had age-adjusted mortality rates more than four times higher than that for White workers overall and also had higher rates than Whites within high-risk occupation groups. CONCLUSION: Efforts should be made to protect workers in high-risk occupations identified in this report from COVID-19 exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Occupational Diseases/mortality , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Registries , Risk Factors , Young Adult
4.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(11): 995-1006, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898062

ABSTRACT

The United States (US) has been among those nations most severely affected by the first-and subsequent-phases of the pandemic of COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. With only 4% of the worldwide population, the US has seen about 22% of COVID-19 deaths. Despite formidable advantages in resources and expertise, presently the per capita mortality rate is over 585/million, respectively 2.4 and 5 times higher compared to Canada and Germany. As we enter Fall 2020, the US is enduring ongoing outbreaks across large regions of the country. Moreover, within the US, an early and persistent feature of the pandemic has been the disproportionate impact on populations already made vulnerable by racism and dangerous jobs, inadequate wages, and unaffordable housing, and this is true for both the headline public health threat and the additional disastrous economic impacts. In this article we assess the impact of missteps by the Federal Government in three specific areas: the introduction of the virus to the US and the establishment of community transmission; the lack of national COVID-19 workplace standards and enforcement, and lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) for workplaces as represented by complaints to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) which we find are correlated with deaths 16 days later (ρ = 0.83); and the total excess deaths in 2020 to date already total more than 230,000, while COVID-19 mortality rates exhibit severe-and rising-inequities in race/ethnicity, including among working age adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Federal Government , Social Responsibility , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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