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1.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(6)2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903453

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and public health response to the pandemic has caused huge setbacks in the management of other infectious diseases. In the present study, we aimed to (i) assess the trends in numbers of samples from patients with influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory syndrome tested for influenza and the number and proportion of cases detected from 2015-2021 and (ii) examine if there were changes during the COVID-19 period (2020-2021) compared to the pre-COVID-19 period (2015-2019) in three states of India. The median (IQR) number of samples tested per month during the pre-COVID-19 period was 653 (395-1245), compared to 27 (11-98) during the COVID-19 period (p value < 0.001). The median (IQR) number of influenza cases detected per month during the pre-COVID-19 period was 190 (113-372), compared to 29 (27-30) during the COVID-19 period (p value < 0.001). Interrupted time series analysis (adjusting for seasonality and testing charges) confirmed a significant reduction in the total number of samples tested and influenza cases detected during the COVID-19 period. However, there was no change in the influenza positivity rate between pre-COVID-19 (29%) and COVID-19 (30%) period. These findings suggest that COVID-19-related disruptions, poor health-seeking behavior, and overburdened health systems might have led to a reduction in reported influenza cases rather than a true reduction in disease transmission.

2.
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease ; 7(6):110, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894025

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and public health response to the pandemic has caused huge setbacks in the management of other infectious diseases. In the present study, we aimed to (i) assess the trends in numbers of samples from patients with influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory syndrome tested for influenza and the number and proportion of cases detected from 2015–2021 and (ii) examine if there were changes during the COVID-19 period (2020–2021) compared to the pre-COVID-19 period (2015–2019) in three states of India. The median (IQR) number of samples tested per month during the pre-COVID-19 period was 653 (395–1245), compared to 27 (11–98) during the COVID-19 period (p value < 0.001). The median (IQR) number of influenza cases detected per month during the pre-COVID-19 period was 190 (113–372), compared to 29 (27–30) during the COVID-19 period (p value < 0.001). Interrupted time series analysis (adjusting for seasonality and testing charges) confirmed a significant reduction in the total number of samples tested and influenza cases detected during the COVID-19 period. However, there was no change in the influenza positivity rate between pre-COVID-19 (29%) and COVID-19 (30%) period. These findings suggest that COVID-19-related disruptions, poor health-seeking behavior, and overburdened health systems might have led to a reduction in reported influenza cases rather than a true reduction in disease transmission.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875582

ABSTRACT

There are no previous studies reporting the type and quantity of pesticides for farming from Sierra Leone and the impact of Ebola or COVID-19 on importation. This study reviewed imported farming pesticides by the Sierra Leone, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF), between 2010-2021. It was a descriptive study using routinely collected importation data. We found the MAF imported pesticides for farming only during 2010, 2014 and 2021, in response to growing food insecurity and associated with Ebola and COVID-19 outbreaks. Results showed insecticide importation increased from 6230 L in 2010 to 51,150 L in 2021, and importation of antimicrobial pesticides (including fungicides) increased from 150 kg in 2010 to 23,560 kg in 2021. The hazard class risk classification of imported pesticides decreased over time. Increasing amounts of imported fungicides could increase the risk of future fungal resistance among humans. We found that in responding to escalating food insecurity, the government dramatically increased the amount of pesticide importation to improve crop production. Further support is necessary to decrease the risk of worsening food shortages and the possible threat of emerging antimicrobial resistance. We recommend continued monitoring and surveillance, with further studies on the most appropriate response to these multiple challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fungicides, Industrial , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Pesticides , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Sierra Leone/epidemiology
4.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2402-2413, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718416

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
6.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9.1): 3S-6S, 2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450868

ABSTRACT

The Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT) model has contributed to building research capacity and has produced evidence for improving public health program performance in countries with limited research capacity. The model involves hands-on mentorship and consists of three modules/weeks. It is recognized to be an innovative research capacity building model. In a world changed by COVID-19, where bringing people together is not viable, an innovative, interactive, web-based, knowledge-transfer platform (e-SORT IT) for virtual implementation of SORT IT modules was created. The platform design imitated the residential course as closely as possible with the same lectures, plenary sessions, and breakout rooms. Despite the challenges, the platform performed well and even though participants and mentors were located in eight different time zones, the course was successful; 90% of participants achieved their milestones and 10 manuscripts were successfully completed. Participant evaluation revealed a satisfaction level that was nearly equivalent to the residential module. However, mentor evaluation indicated a number of shortcomings including capacity building, professional networking, communication, engagement, and contribution by participants, as well as overall module success. In conclusion, COVID-19 stimulated the creation of the e-SORT IT platform that provided a functional alternative to the residential version. Despite the limitations of reduced capacity building and networking, the e-SORT IT platform should be considered a success - it delivered the goods. This is an example of innovation and flexibility, two attributes that are sorely needed to maintain activities during the pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance/standards , Research/education , Mentors/psychology , Students/psychology
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