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1.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(6): 989-992, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118020

ABSTRACT

For public health research such as vaccine uptake or effectiveness assessments, self-reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination status may be a more efficient measure than verifying vaccination status from medical records if agreement between sources is high. We assessed agreement between self-reported and medical record-documented COVID-19 vaccination status among pregnant individuals followed in a cohort during August 2020-October 2021. At end of pregnancy, participants completed questionnaires about COVID-19 vaccine receipt during pregnancy; staff verified vaccination status using medical records. Agreement was assessed between self-reported and medical record vaccination status using Cohen's kappa. There was high agreement between self-reported and medical record vaccination status (Kappa coefficient=0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.98), suggesting that self-report may be acceptable for ascertaining COVID-19 vaccination status during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Self Report , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination , Medical Records , Documentation
2.
mSphere ; : e0040022, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116438

ABSTRACT

The reliability of sequence-based inference of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission is not clear. Sequence data from infections among household members can define the expected genomic diversity of a virus along a defined transmission chain. SARS-CoV-2 cases were identified prospectively among 2,369 participants in 706 households. Specimens with a reverse transcription-PCR cycle threshold of ≤30 underwent whole-genome sequencing. Intrahost single-nucleotide variants (iSNV) were identified at a ≥5% frequency. Phylogenetic trees were used to evaluate the relationship of household and community sequences. There were 178 SARS-CoV-2 cases in 706 households. Among 147 specimens sequenced, 106 yielded a whole-genome consensus with coverage suitable for identifying iSNV. Twenty-six households had sequences from multiple cases within 14 days. Consensus sequences were indistinguishable among cases in 15 households, while 11 had ≥1 consensus sequence that differed by 1 to 2 mutations. Sequences from households and the community were often interspersed on phylogenetic trees. Identification of iSNV improved inference in 2 of 15 households with indistinguishable consensus sequences and in 6 of 11 with distinct ones. In multiple-infection households, whole-genome consensus sequences differed by 0 to 1 mutations. Identification of shared iSNV occasionally resolved linkage, but the low genomic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 limits the utility of "sequence-only" transmission inference. IMPORTANCE We performed whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 from prospectively identified cases in three longitudinal household cohorts. In a majority of multi-infection households, SARS-CoV-2 consensus sequences were indistinguishable, and they differed by 1 to 2 mutations in the rest. Importantly, even with modest genomic surveillance of the community (3 to 5% of cases sequenced), it was not uncommon to find community sequences interspersed with household sequences on phylogenetic trees. Identification of shared minority variants only occasionally resolved these ambiguities in transmission linkage. Overall, the low genomic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 limits the utility of "sequence-only" transmission inference. Our work highlights the need to carefully consider both epidemiologic linkage and sequence data to define transmission chains in households, hospitals, and other transmission settings.

3.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(5): 874-877, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107619

ABSTRACT

Influenza testing and case-confirmation rates in pregnant populations have not been reported during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Using electronic medical record data from a cohort of nearly 20,000 pregnancies in the United States, this retrospective cohort study examines the frequency of acute respiratory or febrile illness encounters, influenza testing, and influenza positivity during the 2020-2021 influenza season, which occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, compared with the 2019-2020 influenza season, which largely did not. The ratios of influenza tests to acute respiratory or febrile illness visits were similar in the 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 influenza seasons (approximately 1:8 and 1:9, respectively) but were low and varied by study site. Although influenza testing in pregnant patients continued in the 2020-2021 season, when severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) circulation was widespread in the United States, no cases of influenza were identified in our study cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Pregnancy , Female , United States/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Seasons , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(10): ofac507, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097433

ABSTRACT

Background: Estimates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence in young children and risk factors for seropositivity are scarce. Using data from a prospective cohort study of households during the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine period, we estimated SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence by age and evaluated risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 Epidemiology and Response in Children (SEARCh) study enrolled 175 Maryland households (690 participants) with ≥1 child aged 0-4 years during November 2020-March 2021; individuals vaccinated against COVID-19 were ineligible. At enrollment, participants completed questionnaires about sociodemographic and health status and work, school, and daycare attendance. Participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in sera. Logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations (GEE) to account for correlation within households assessed predictors of individual- and household-level SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. Results: Of 681 (98.7%) participants with enrollment serology results, 55 (8.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.3%-10.4%) participants from 21 (12.0%) households were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. Among seropositive participants, fewer children than adults reported being tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection before enrollment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.23; 95% CI, .06-.73). Seropositivity was similar by age (GEE OR vs 0-4 years: 1.19 for 5-17 years, 1.36 for adults; P = .16) and was significantly higher among adults working outside the home (GEE adjusted OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.4) but not among children attending daycare or school. Conclusions: Before study enrollment, children and adults in this cohort had similar rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection as measured by serology. An adult household member working outside the home increased a household's odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas a child attending daycare or school in person did not.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2227348, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013232

ABSTRACT

Importance: Few studies have prospectively assessed SARS-CoV-2 community infection in children aged 0 to 4 years. Information about SARS-CoV-2 incidence and clinical and virological features in young children could help guide prevention and mitigation strategies. Objective: To assess SARS-CoV-2 incidence, clinical and virological features, and symptoms in a prospective household cohort and to compare viral load by age group, symptoms, and SARS-CoV-2 lineage in young children, older children, and adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study enrolled 690 participants from 175 Maryland households with 1 or more children aged 0 to 4 years between November 24, 2020, and October 15, 2021. For 8 months after enrollment, participants completed weekly symptom questionnaires and submitted self-collected nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 qualitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing, quantitative RT-PCR testing, and viral lineage determination. For the analyses, SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Delta lineages were considered variants of interest or concern. Sera collected at enrollment and at approximately 4 months and 8 months after enrollment were assayed for SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid protein antibodies. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence, clinical and virological characteristics, and symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection by age group and correlations between (1) highest detected viral load and symptom frequency and (2) highest detected viral load and SARS-CoV-2 lineage. Results: Among 690 participants (355 [51.4%] female and 335 [48.6%] male), 256 individuals (37.1%) were children aged 0 to 4 years, 100 (14.5%) were children aged 5 to 17 years, and 334 (48.4%) were adults aged 18 to 74 years. A total of 15 participants (2.2%) were Asian, 24 (3.5%) were Black, 603 (87.4%) were White, 43 (6.2%) were multiracial, and 5 (0.7%) were of other races; 33 participants (4.8%) were Hispanic, and 657 (95.2%) were non-Hispanic. Overall, 54 participants (7.8%) had SARS-CoV-2 infection during the surveillance period, including 22 of 256 children (8.6%) aged 0 to 4 years, 11 of 100 children (11.0%) aged 5 to 17 years, and 21 of 334 adults (6.3%). Incidence rates per 1000 person-weeks were 2.25 (95% CI, 1.28-3.65) infections among children aged 0 to 4 years, 3.48 (95% CI, 1.59-6.61) infections among children aged 5 to 17 years, and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.52-1.98) infections among adults. Children aged 0 to 17 years with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more frequently asymptomatic (11 of 30 individuals [36.7%]) compared with adults (3 of 21 individuals [14.3%]), with children aged 0 to 4 years most frequently asymptomatic (7 of 19 individuals [36.8%]). The highest detected viral load did not differ between asymptomatic vs symptomatic individuals overall (median [IQR], 2.8 [1.5-3.3] log10 copies/mL vs 2.8 [1.8-4.4] log10 copies/mL) or by age group (median [IQR] for ages 0-4 years, 2.7 [2.4-4.4] log10 copies/mL; ages 5-17 years: 2.4 [1.1-4.0] log10 copies/mL; ages 18-74 years: 2.9 [1.9-4.6] log10 copies/mL). The number of symptoms was significantly correlated with viral load among adults (R = 0.69; P < .001) but not children (ages 0-4 years: R = 0.02; P = .91; ages 5-17 years: R = 0.18; P = .58). The highest detected viral load was greater among those with Delta variant infections (median [IQR], 4.4 [3.9-5.1] log10 copies/mL) than those with infections from variants not of interest or concern (median [IQR], 1.9 [1.1-3.6] log10 copies/mL; P = .009) or those with Alpha variant infections (median [IQR], 2.6 [2.3-3.4] log10 copies/mL; P = .006). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, SARS-CoV-2 infections were frequently asymptomatic among children aged 0 to 4 years; the presence and number of symptoms did not correlate with viral load. These findings suggest that symptom screening may be insufficient to prevent outbreaks involving young children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(8): ofac390, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001405

ABSTRACT

Background: Households are common places for spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We investigated factors associated with household transmission and acquisition of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Households with children age <18 years were enrolled into prospective, longitudinal cohorts and followed from August 2020 to August 2021 in Utah, September 2020 to August 2021 in New York City, and November 2020 to October 2021 in Maryland. Participants self-collected nasal swabs weekly and with onset of acute illness. Swabs were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We assessed factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 acquisition using a multilevel logistic regression adjusted for household size and clustering and SARS-CoV-2 transmission using a logistic regression adjusted for household size. Results: Among 2053 people (513 households) enrolled, 180 people (8.8%; in 76 households) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Compared with children age <12 years, the odds of acquiring infection were lower for adults age ≥18 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.34; 95% CI, 0.14-0.87); however, this may reflect vaccination status, which protected against SARS-CoV-2 acquisition (aOR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03-0.91). The odds of onward transmission were similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic primary cases (aOR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.35-2.93) and did not differ by age (12-17 years vs <12 years: aOR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.20-5.62; ≥18 years vs <12 years: aOR, 1.70; 95% CI, 0.52-5.83). Conclusions: Adults had lower odds of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 compared with children, but this association might be influenced by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, which was primarily available for adults and protective against infection. In contrast, all ages, regardless of symptoms and COVID-19 vaccination, had similar odds of transmitting SARS-CoV-2. Our findings underscore the importance of SARS-CoV-2 mitigation measures for persons of all ages.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying SARS-CoV-2 infections during peripartum hospitalizations is important to guide care, implement prevention measures, and understand infection burden. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis used electronic health record data from hospitalizations during which pregnancies ended (peripartum hospitalizations) among a cohort of pregnant persons at 3 U.S. integrated healthcare networks (Sites 1-3). Maternal demographic, medical encounter, SARS-CoV-2 testing, and pregnancy and neonatal outcome information was extracted for persons with estimated delivery and pregnancy end dates during March 2020-February 2021 and ≥1 prenatal care record. Site-stratified multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with testing and compare pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among persons tested. RESULTS: Among 17,858 pregnant persons, 10,863 (60.8%) had peripartum SARS-CoV-2 testing; 222/10,683 (2.0%) had positive results. Testing prevalence varied by site and was lower during March-May 2020. Factors associated with higher peripartum SARS-CoV-2 testing odds were Asian race (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.03-1.79; referent: White) (Site 1), Hispanic or Latina ethnicity (aOR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.08-1.64) (Site 2), peripartum Medicaid coverage (aOR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.06-1.66) (Site 1), and preterm hospitalization (aOR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.19-2.39 [Site 1]; aOR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.03-1.88 [Site 2]). CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight potential disparities in SARS-CoV-2 peripartum testing by demographic and pregnancy characteristics. Testing practice variations should be considered when interpreting studies relying on convenience samples of pregnant persons testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Efforts to address testing differences between groups could improve equitable testing practices and care for pregnant persons with SARS-CoV-2 infections.

8.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1939875

ABSTRACT

Background Pregnant individuals are at increased risk of COVID-19 hospitalization and death, and primary and booster COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for this population. Methods Among a cohort of pregnant individuals who received prenatal care at three healthcare systems in the United States, we estimated the cumulative incidence of hospitalization with symptomatic COVID-19 illness. We also identified factors associated with COVID-19 hospitalization using a multivariable Cox proportional-hazards model with pregnancy weeks as the timescale and a time-varying adjustor that accounted for SARS-CoV-2 circulation;model covariates included site, age, race, ethnicity, insurance status, pre-pregnancy weight status, and selected underlying medical conditions. Data were collected primarily through medical record extraction. Results Among 19,456 pregnant individuals with an estimated due date March 1, 2020-February 28, 2021, 75 (0.4%) were hospitalized with symptomatic COVID-19. Factors associated with hospitalization for symptomatic COVID-19 were Hispanic ethnicity (aHR: 2.7;95% CI: 1.3,5.5), native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander race (aHR: 12;95% CI: 3.2,45.5), age <25 years (aHR: 3.1;95% CI: 1.3,7.6), pre-pregnancy obesity (aHR: 2.1;95% CI: 1.1,3.9), diagnosis of a metabolic disorder (aHR: 2.2;95% CI: 1.2,3.8), lung disease excluding asthma (aHR: 49;95% CI: 28,84) and cardiovascular disease (aHR: 2.6;95% CI: 1.5,4.7). Conclusion Although hospitalization with symptomatic COVID-19 was uncommon, pregnant individuals should be aware of risk factors associated with severe illness when considering COVID-19 vaccination.

9.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0103322, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879118

ABSTRACT

Respiratory specimen collection materials shortages hampers severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing. We compared specimen alternatives and evaluated SARS-CoV-2 RNA stability under simulated shipping conditions. We compared concordance of RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 from flocked midturbinate swabs (MTS) in viral transport media (VTM), foam MTS without VTM, and saliva. Specimens were collected between August 2020 and April 2021 from three prospective cohorts. We compared RT-PCR cycle quantification (Cq) for Spike (S), Nucleocapsid (N), and the Open Reading Frame 1ab (ORF) genes for flocked MTS and saliva specimens tested before and after exposure to a range of storage temperatures (4-30°C) and times (2, 3, and 7 days). Of 1,900 illnesses with ≥2 specimen types tested, 335 (18%) had SARS-CoV-2 detected in ≥1 specimen; 304 (91%) were concordant across specimen types. Among illnesses with SARS-CoV-2 detection, 97% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 94-98%) were positive on flocked MTS, 99% (95% CI: 97-100%) on saliva, and 89% (95% CI: 84-93%) on foam MTS. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in flocked MTS and saliva stored up to 30°C for 7 days. All specimen types provided highly concordant SARS-CoV-2 results. These findings support a range of viable options for specimen types, collection, and transport methods that may facilitate SARS-CoV-2 testing during supply and personnel shortages. IMPORTANCE Findings from this analysis indicate that (1) self-collection of flocked and foam MTS and saliva samples is feasible in both adults and children, (2) foam MTS with VTM and saliva are both viable and reasonable alternatives to traditional flocked MTS in VTM for SARS-CoV-2 detection, and (3) these sample types may be stored and transported at ambient temperatures for up to 7 days without compromising sample quality. These findings support methods of sample collection for SARS-CoV-2 detection that may facilitate widespread community testing in the setting of supply and personnel shortages during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva , Specimen Handling/methods
10.
JCI Insight ; 7(8)2022 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807767

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSARS-CoV-2 infections are frequently milder in children than adults, suggesting that immune responses may vary with age. However, information is limited regarding SARS-CoV-2 immune responses in young children.MethodsWe compared receptor binding domain-binding antibody (RBDAb) titers and SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibody titers, measured by pseudovirus-neutralizing antibody assay in serum specimens obtained from children aged 0-4 years and 5-17 years and in adults aged 18-62 years at the time of enrollment in a prospective longitudinal household study of SARS-CoV-2 infection.ResultsAmong 56 seropositive participants at enrollment, children aged 0-4 years had more than 10-fold higher RBDAb titers than adults (416 vs. 31, P < 0.0001) and the highest RBDAb titers in 11 of 12 households with seropositive children and adults. Children aged 0-4 years had only 2-fold higher neutralizing antibody than adults, resulting in higher binding-to-neutralizing antibody ratios compared with adults (2.36 vs. 0.35 for ID50, P = 0.0004).ConclusionThese findings suggest that young children mount robust antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 following community infections. Additionally, these results support using neutralizing antibody to measure the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in children aged 0-4 years.FundingCDC (award 75D30120C08737).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Prospective Studies
11.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(6): 821-834, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: By August, 2021, South Africa had been affected by three waves of SARS-CoV-2; the second associated with the beta variant and the third with the delta variant. Data on SARS-CoV-2 burden, transmission, and asymptomatic infections from Africa are scarce. We aimed to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 burden and transmission in one rural and one urban community in South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of households in Agincourt, Mpumalanga province (rural site) and Klerksdorp, North West province (urban site) from July, 2020 to August, 2021. We randomly selected households for the rural site from a health and sociodemographic surveillance system and for the urban site using GPS coordinates. Households with more than two members and where at least 75% of members consented to participate were eligible. Midturbinate nasal swabs were collected twice a week from household members irrespective of symptoms and tested for SARS-CoV-2 using real-time RT-PCR (RT-rtPCR). Serum was collected every 2 months and tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Main outcomes were the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, frequency of reinfection, symptomatic fraction (percent of infected individuals with ≥1 symptom), the duration of viral RNA shedding (number of days of SARS-CoV-2 RT-rtPCR positivity), and the household cumulative infection risk (HCIR; number of infected household contacts divided by the number of susceptible household members). FINDINGS: 222 households (114 at the rural site and 108 at the urban site), and 1200 household members (643 at the rural site and 557 at the urban site) were included in the analysis. For 115 759 nasal specimens from 1200 household members (follow-up 92·5%), 1976 (1·7%) were SARS-CoV-2-positive on RT-rtPCR. By RT-rtPCR and serology combined, 749 of 1200 individuals (62·4% [95% CI 58·1-66·4]) had at least one SARS-CoV-2 infection episode, and 87 of 749 (11·6% [9·4-14·2]) were reinfected. The mean infection episode duration was 11·6 days (SD 9·0; range 4-137). Of 662 RT-rtPCR-confirmed episodes (>14 days after the start of follow-up) with available data, 97 (14·7% [11·9-17·9]) were symptomatic with at least one symptom (in individuals aged <19 years, 28 [7·5%] of 373 episodes symptomatic; in individuals aged ≥19 years, 69 [23·9%] of 289 episodes symptomatic). Among 222 households, 200 (90·1% [85·3-93·7]) had at least one SARS-CoV-2-positive individual on RT-rtPCR or serology. HCIR overall was 23·9% (195 of 817 susceptible household members infected [95% CI 19·8-28·4]). HCIR was 23·3% (20 of 86) for symptomatic index cases and 23·9% (175 of 731) for asymptomatic index cases (univariate odds ratio [OR] 1·0 [95% CI 0·5-2·0]). On multivariable analysis, accounting for age and sex, low minimum cycle threshold value (≤30 vs >30) of the index case (OR 5·3 [2·3-12·4]) and beta and delta variant infection (vs Wuhan-Hu-1, OR 3·3 [1·4-8·2] and 10·4 [4·1-26·7], respectively) were associated with increased HCIR. People living with HIV who were not virally supressed (≥400 viral load copies per mL) were more likely to develop symptomatic illness when infected with SAR-CoV-2 (OR 3·3 [1·3-8·4]), and shed SARS-CoV-2 for longer (hazard ratio 0·4 [95% CI 0·3-0·6]) compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. INTERPRETATION: In this study, 565 (85·3%) SARS-CoV-2 infections were asymptomatic and index case symptom status did not affect HCIR, suggesting a limited role for control measures targeting symptomatic individuals. Increased household transmission of beta and delta variants was likely to have contributed to successive waves of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with more than 60% of individuals infected by the end of follow-up. FUNDING: US CDC, South Africa National Institute for Communicable Diseases, and Wellcome Trust.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(12): 2218-2226, 2022 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data about the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among pregnant individuals are needed to inform infection-prevention guidance and counseling for this population. METHODS: We prospectively followed a cohort of pregnant individuals during August 2020-March 2021 at 3 US sites. The 3 primary outcomes were incidence rates of any SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptomatic infection, and asymptomatic infection, during pregnancy during periods of SARS-CoV-2 circulation. Participants self-collected weekly midturbinate nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing, completed weekly illness symptom questionnaires, and submitted additional swabs with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-like symptoms. An overall SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence rate weighted by population counts of women of reproductive age in each state was calculated. RESULTS: Among 1098 pregnant individuals followed for a mean of 10 weeks, 9% (99/1098) had SARS-CoV-2 infections during the study. Population-weighted incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection were 10.0 per 1000 (95% confidence interval, 5.7-14.3) person-weeks for any infection, 5.7 per 1000 (1.7-9.7) for symptomatic infections, and 3.5 per 1000 (0-7.1) for asymptomatic infections. Among 96 participants with SARS-CoV-2 infections and symptom data, the most common symptoms were nasal congestion (72%), cough (64%), headache (59%), and change in taste or smell (54%); 28% had measured or subjective fever. Median symptom duration was 10 (interquartile range, 6-16) days. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant individuals in this study had a 1% risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection per week, underscoring the importance of COVID-19 vaccination and other prevention measures during pregnancy while SARS-CoV-2 is circulating in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Incidence , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
13.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(1): 59-67, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460123

ABSTRACT

Importance: Data about the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children compared with adults are needed to inform COVID-19 risk communication and prevention strategies, including COVID-19 vaccination policies for children. Objective: To compare incidence rates and clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection among adults and children and estimated household infection risks within a prospective household cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: Households with at least 1 child aged 0 to 17 years in selected counties in Utah and New York City, New York, were eligible for enrollment. From September 2020 through April 2021, participants self-collected midturbinate nasal swabs for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing for SARS-CoV-2 and responded to symptom questionnaires each week. Participants also self-collected additional respiratory specimens with onset of COVID-19-like illness. For children unable to self-collect respiratory specimens, an adult caregiver collected the specimens. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was incident cases of any SARS-CoV-2 infection, including asymptomatic and symptomatic infections. Additional measures were the asymptomatic fraction of infection calculated by dividing incidence rates of asymptomatic infection by rates of any infection, clinical characteristics of infection, and household infection risks. Primary outcomes were compared by participant age group. Results: A total of 1236 participants in 310 households participated in surveillance, including 176 participants (14%) who were aged 0 to 4 years, 313 (25%) aged 5 to 11 years, 163 (13%) aged 12 to 17 years, and 584 (47%) 18 years or older. Overall incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection were 3.8 (95% CI, 2.4-5.9) and 7.7 (95% CI, 4.1-14.5) per 1000 person-weeks among the Utah and New York City cohorts, respectively. Site-adjusted incidence rates per 1000 person-weeks were similar by age group: 6.3 (95% CI, 3.6-11.0) for children 0 to 4 years, 4.4 (95% CI, 2.5-7.5) for children 5 to 11 years, 6.0 (95% CI, 3.0-11.7) for children 12 to 17 years, and 5.1 (95% CI, 3.3-7.8) for adults (≥18 years). The asymptomatic fractions of infection by age group were 52%, 50%, 45%, and 12% among individuals aged 0 to 4 years, 5 to 11 years, 12 to 17 years, and 18 years or older, respectively. Among 40 households with 1 or more SARS-CoV-2 infections, the mean risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among all enrolled household members was 52% (range, 11%-100%), with higher risks in New York City compared with Utah (80% [95% CI, 64%-91%] vs 44% [95% CI, 36%-53%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, children had similar incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with adults, but a larger proportion of infections among children were asymptomatic.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Disease Susceptibility , Family Characteristics , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Utah/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Am J Perinatol ; 39(1): 75-83, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate pregnant women's attitudes toward COVID-19 illness and vaccination and identify factors associated with vaccine acceptability. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional survey among pregnant women enrolled in a prospective COVID-19 cohort study in Salt Lake City, UT, Birmingham, AL, and New York, NY, from August 9 to December 10, 2020. Women were eligible if they were 18 to 50 years old and <28 weeks of gestation. Upon enrollment, women completed surveys regarding concerns about COVID-19 illness and likelihood of getting COVID-19 vaccine if one were available during pregnancy. Vaccine acceptability was defined as a response of "very likely" or "somewhat likely" on a 4-point Likert scale. Factors associated with vaccine acceptability were assessed with multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 939 pregnant women eligible for the main cohort study, 915 (97%) consented to participate. Among these 915 women, 39% self-identified as White, 23% Black, 33% Hispanic, and 4% Other. Sixty-two percent received an influenza vaccine last season. Seventy-two percent worried about getting sick with COVID-19. If they were to get sick, 92% worried about harm to their pregnancy and 80% about harm to themselves. Only 41% reported they would get a vaccine. Of women who were unlikely to get vaccinated, the most frequently cited concern was vaccine safety for their pregnancy (82%). Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic women had lower odds of accepting a vaccine compared with non-Hispanic White women (adjusted odds ratios [aOR] 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6 for both). Receipt of influenza vaccine during the previous season was associated with higher odds of vaccine acceptability (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3.0). CONCLUSION: Although most pregnant women worried about COVID-19 illness, <50% were willing to get vaccinated during pregnancy. Racial and ethnic disparities in plans to accept COVID-19 vaccine highlight the need to prioritize strategies to address perceived barriers among groups at high risk for COVID-19. KEY POINTS: · Less than half of pregnant patients stated they would get a COVID-19 vaccine.. · Protecting their baby was the most common reason for acceptance and refusal of the COVID-19 vaccine.. · Patients of minority race/ethnicity and those without prior influenza vaccination were less likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccine..


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
15.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(11): 1255-1262, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684287

ABSTRACT

Background Scant data are available about global patterns of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread and global epidemiology of early confirmed cases of COVID-19 outside mainland China. We describe the global spread of SARS-CoV-2 and characteristics of COVID-19 cases and clusters before the characterisation of COVID-19 as a pandemic. METHODS: Cases of COVID-19 reported between Dec 31, 2019, and March 10, 2020 (ie, the prepandemic period), were identified daily from official websites, press releases, press conference transcripts, and social media feeds of national ministries of health or other government agencies. Case characteristics, travel history, and exposures to other cases were abstracted. Countries with at least one case were classified as affected. Early cases were defined as those among the first 100 cases reported from each country. Later cases were defined as those after the first 100 cases. We analysed reported travel to affected countries among the first case reported from each country outside mainland China, demographic and exposure characteristics among cases with age or sex information, and cluster frequencies and sizes by transmission settings. FINDINGS: Among the first case reported from each of 99 affected countries outside of mainland China, 75 (76%) had recent travel to affected countries; 60 (61%) had travelled to China, Italy, or Iran. Among 1200 cases with age or sex information, 874 (73%) were early cases. Among 762 early cases with age information, the median age was 51 years (IQR 35-63); 25 (3%) of 762 early cases occurred in children younger than 18 years. Overall, 21 (2%) of 1200 cases were in health-care workers and none were in pregnant women. 101 clusters were identified, of which the most commonly identified transmission setting was households (76 [75%]; mean 2·6 cases per cluster [range 2-7]), followed by non-health-care occupational settings (14 [14%]; mean 4·3 cases per cluster [2-14]), and community gatherings (11 [11%]; mean 14·2 cases per cluster [4-36]). INTERPRETATION: Cases with travel links to China, Italy, or Iran accounted for almost two-thirds of the first reported COVID-19 cases from affected countries. Among cases with age information available, most were among adults aged 18 years and older. Although there were many clusters of household transmission among early cases, clusters in occupational or community settings tended to be larger, supporting a possible role for physical distancing to slow the progression of SARS-CoV-2 spread. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Epidemiological Monitoring , Global Health , Internet , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Characteristics , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Young Adult
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