Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
Journal of Emergency Medicine, Trauma and Acute Care ; 2022(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1969689

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by SARSCoV- 2, has spread locally in Wuhan, China, and later on, a worldwide outbreak occurred. Invasive fungal infections can cause complications in critically ill immunocompromised patients of COVID-19, especially those admitted to intensive care units and who required mechanical ventilation. Candida albicans have been the most common pathogenic species, followed by other Candida spp. Mannan is a major component of the Candida cell wall and can be detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in blood and other fluids. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is considered a lifethreatening infection, especially among immunocompromised patients. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis has emerged as an important complication among patients in the intensive care units. Galactomannan (GM) is a major cell-wall component of Aspergillus spp. and can be found in body fluids. Blood GM can be detected by the enzyme immunoassay. The aim of the current study is to assess the frequency of aspergillosis and candidiasis among COVID-19 patients in some hospitals in Baghdad by using GM and mannan biomarkers. Methods: During the period from February 2020 to May 2021, 175 COVID-19 blood samples of patients were collected and a sandwich ELISA test was performed to detect GM Ag of Aspergillus spp. and mannan Ag of Candida spp. Results: Regarding C-reactive protein (CRP), significant differences were seen among Aspergillus/- COVID-19 patients ( p 0.029). Regarding sex and age group, the results indicated that of a total of 175 adult patients with positive COVID-19, more than half of the patients were males. Regarding the distribution of mannan Ag and GM Ag in COVID-19 patients, it was seen that out of the 175 patients, 167 (95.43%) Candida mannan Ag were negative and only 8 (4.57%) were positive, and 170 (79.14%) Aspergillus GM Ag were negative and only 5 (2.86%) were positive. It was also seen that 2 patients (1.14%) who had both Candida mannan and Aspergillus GM were positive and 173 (98.6%) were negative. No statistically significant difference was seen in candidiasis and aspergillosis among patients with COVID-19 regarding age group, sex, underlying chronic diseases (hypertension and diabetes mellitus), and biochemical tests. Conclusion: COVID-19 infections increased with age and were seen more in males than in females. The percentage of infection with C. albicans and Aspergillus spp. among COVID-19 patients was not significant, and this may come from the random collection of samples from patients with different stages of illness. A significant correlation was found between Aspergillus GM Ag in COVID-19 patients and the CRP test.

2.
Advances in Sociology Research ; 36:113-142, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1857106

ABSTRACT

Human cooperation and compassion are fundamental moral values of the human condition to nurture healthy parent-child relationships. Around the world and across generations crises associated with socio-cultural changes and technological advancements test these moral values. By providing a synthesis of the literature on parenting styles across cultures and using a global developmental framework, the evolution of parenting strategies show that there is an adjustment when families face manmade (anthropogenic) and natural disasters. According to the Bioecological Model of Human Development (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006), individuals develop in complex layers of nested systems (micro, meso, exo, macro), which directly and indirectly influence child development. As a result, individual (idiographic) developmental pathways evolve across the lifespan. The current chapter discusses the high influx of mass migration, a natural response to societal dilemmas of the 21st century and explains how this type of relocation has forced a change in the global perspective of social policy. © 2021 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

3.
International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences ; 9(1):27-33, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1614449

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (COVID-19) has turned to be an alarm for the whole world both in terms of health and economics. It is striking the global economy and increasing the unpredictability of the financial market in several ways. Significantly, the pandemic spread stimulated the social distancing which led to the lockdown of the countries’ businesses, financial markets, and daily life events. International oil markets have accommodated the crude oil prices during the early COVID-19 period. However, after the first 50 days, Saudi Arabia has surged the market with oil, which caused a certain decrease in crude oil prices, internationally. Saudi Arabia is one of the biggest oil reserves in the world. International trade is based on oil reservoirs which in turn, have been significantly dislodged by the pandemic. Therefore, it is crucial to study the impact of COVID-19 on the international oil market. The purpose of this study is to investigate the short-term and long-term impact of COVID-19 on the international oil market. The daily crude oil price data is used to analyze the impact of daily price fluctuation over COVID-19 surveillance variables. The correlation between surveillance variables and international crude oil prices is calculated and analyzed. Consequently, the project will help in stabilizing the expected world economic crises and particularly will provide the implications for the policymakers in the oil market. © 2021 The Authors. Published by IASE.

4.
Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med ; 27(4)2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502738

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted mainly by aerosol in particles <10 µm that can remain suspended for hours before being inhaled. Because particulate filtering facepiece respirators ('respirators'; e.g. N95 masks) are more effective than surgical masks against bio-aerosols, many international organisations now recommend that health workers (HWs) wear a respirator when caring for individuals who may have COVID-19. In South Africa (SA), however, surgical masks are still recommended for the routine care of individuals with possible or confirmed COVID-19, with respirators reserved for so-called aerosol-generating procedures. In contrast, SA guidelines do recommend respirators for routine care of individuals with possible or confirmed tuberculosis (TB), which is also transmitted via aerosol. In health facilities in SA, distinguishing between TB and COVID-19 is challenging without examination and investigation, both of which may expose HWs to potentially infectious individuals. Symptom-based triage has limited utility in defining risk. Indeed, significant proportions of individuals with COVID-19 and/or pulmonary TB may not have symptoms and/or test negative. The prevalence of undiagnosed respiratory disease is therefore likely significant in many general clinical areas (e.g. waiting areas). Moreover, a proportion of HWs are HIV-positive and are at increased risk of severe COVID-19 and death. RECOMMENDATIONS: Sustained improvements in infection prevention and control (IPC) require reorganisation of systems to prioritise HW and patient safety. While this will take time, it is unacceptable to leave HWs exposed until such changes are made. We propose that the SA health system adopts a target of 'zero harm', aiming to eliminate transmission of respiratory pathogens to all individuals in every healthcare setting. Accordingly, we recommend: the use of respirators by all staff (clinical and non-clinical) during activities that involve contact or sharing air in indoor spaces with individuals who: (i) have not yet been clinically evaluated; or (ii) are thought or known to have TB and/or COVID-19 or other potentially harmful respiratory infections;the use of respirators that meet national and international manufacturing standards;evaluation of all respirators, at the least, by qualitative fit testing; andthe use of respirators as part of a 'package of care' in line with international IPC recommendations. We recognise that this will be challenging, not least due to global and national shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE). SA national policy around respiratory protective equipment enables a robust framework for manufacture and quality control and has been supported by local manufacturers and the Department of Trade, Industry and Competition. Respirator manufacturers should explore adaptations to improve comfort and reduce barriers to communication. Structural changes are needed urgently to improve the safety of health facilities: persistent advocacy and research around potential systems change remain essential.

5.
S Afr Med J ; 111(10): 934-937, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478412

ABSTRACT

Some clinicians prescribe ivermectin for COVID-19 despite a lack of support from any credible South African professional body. They argue that when faced by clinical urgency, weak signals of efficacy should trigger action if harm is unlikely. Several recent reviews found an apparent mortality benefit by including studies at high risk of bias and with active rather than placebo controls. If these studies are discounted, the pooled mortality effect is no longer statistically significant, and evidence of benefit is very weak. Relying on this evidence could cause clinical harm if used to justify vaccine hesitancy. Clinicians remain responsible for ensuring that guidance they follow is both legitimate and reliable. In the ivermectin debate, evidence-based medicine (EBM) principles have largely been ignored under the guise thatin a pandemic the 'rules are different', probably to the detriment of vulnerable patients and certainly to the detriment of the profession's image. Medical schools and professional interest groups are responsible for transforming EBM from a taught but seldom-used tool into a process of lifelong learning, promoting a consistent call for evidence-based and unconflicted debate integral to clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , /psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Evidence-Based Medicine/standards , Humans , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Research Design , South Africa
6.
Eurosurveillance ; 26(29):10, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1341599

ABSTRACT

Background In South Africa, COVID-19 control measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 spread were initiated on 16 March 2020. Such measures may also impact the spread of other pathogens, including influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) with implications for future annual epidemics and expectations for the subsequent northern hemisphere winter. Methods We assessed the detection of influenza and RSV through facility-based syndromic surveillance of adults and children with mild or severe respiratory illness in South Africa from January to October 2020, and compared this with surveillance data from 2013 to 2019. Results Facility-based surveillance revealed a decline in influenza virus detection during the regular season compared with previous years. This was observed throughout the implementation of COVID-19 control measures. RSV detection decreased soon after the most stringent COVID-19 control measures commenced;however, an increase in RSV detection was observed after the typical season, following the reopening of schools and the easing of measures. Conclusion COVID-19 non-pharmaceutical interventions led to reduced circulation of influenza and RSV in South Africa. This has limited the country's ability to provide influenza virus strains for the selection of the annual influenza vaccine. Delayed increases in RSV case numbers may reflect the easing of COVID-19 control measures. An increase in influenza virus detection was not observed, suggesting that the measures may have impacted the two pathogens differently. The impact that lowered and/or delayed influenza and RSV circulation in 2020 will have on the intensity and severity of subsequent annual epidemics is unknown and warrants close monitoring.

7.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 57: 103-108, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, an outbreak of coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) was detected in the North of Jordan. This retrospective study is the first from Jordan to report the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory, and radiologic characteristics of COVID-19 infected patients. METHODS: All patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection by RT-PCR in the North of Jordan admitted between March 15 and April 2, 2020 were included. The clinical features, radiological, and laboratory findings were reviewed. RESULTS: Of 81 patients affected, 79 (97.5%) shared a common exposure to four recent travelers from endemic areas. The mean age was 40 years. Although about half (44 [54.3%]) were females, symptomatic patients were mostly females (75%). The most common presenting symptoms were nasal congestion, sore throat and dry cough. Less than one-third (31%) had chronic diseases. Although 84% of patients reported receiving Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, more asymptomatic patients had BCG than symptomatic (p = 0.017). Almost all patients (97.5%) had an elevated D-dimer level. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and c-reactive protein were elevated in 50% and 42.7% of patients, respectively. High ESR found to be the predictor of abnormal chest radiograph observed in 13 (16%) patients with OR of 14.26 (95% CI 1.37-147.97, p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: An outbreak of COVID-19 infection in northern Jordan affected more females and relatively young individuals and caused mainly mild illnesses. The strict outbreak response measures applied at early stages probably contributed to the lenient nature of this outbreak, but the contribution of other factors to such variability in COVID-19 presentation is yet to be explained.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL