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1.
Panminerva Med ; 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) is effective for symptom relief and respiratory support in patients with respiratory insufficiency, severe comorbidities and no indication to intubation. Experience with NIV as the ceiling of treatment in severely compromised novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients is lacking. METHODS: We evaluated 159 patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS), 38 of whom with NIV as the ceiling of treatment, admitted to an ordinary ward and treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and respiratory physiotherapy. Treatment failure and death were correlated with clinical and laboratory parameters in the whole cohort and in patients with NIV as the ceiling of treatment. RESULTS: Patients who had NIV as the ceiling of treatment were elderly, with a low BMI and a high burden of comorbidities, showed clinical and laboratory signs of multi-organ insufficiency on admission and of rapidly deteriorating vital signs during the first week of treatment. NIV failure occurred overall in 77 (48%) patients, and 27/38 patients with NIV as the ceiling of treatment died. Congestive heart failure, chronic benign haematological diseases and inability/refusal to receive respiratory physiotherapy were independently associated to NIV failure and mortality. Need for increased positive end-expiratory pressures and low platelets were associated with NIV failure. Death was associated to cerebrovascular disease, need for CPAP cycles longer than 12h and, in the subgroup of patients with NIV as the ceiling of treatment, was heralded by vital sign deterioration within 48 h. CONCLUSIONS: NIV and physiotherapy are a viable treatment option for patients with severe COVID-19 and severe comorbidities.

3.
Panminerva Med ; 64(2): 244-252, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biobanks are imperative infrastructures, particularly during outbreaks, when there is an obligation to acquire and share knowledge as quick as possible to allow for implementation of science-based preventive, diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies. METHODS: We established a COVID-19 biobank with the aim of collecting high-quality and well-annotated human biospecimens, in the effort to understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying COVID-19 and identify therapeutic targets (COVID-BioB, NCT04318366). Here we describe our experience and briefly review the characteristics of the biobanks for COVID-19 that have been so far established. RESULTS: A total of 46,677 samples have been collected from 913 participants (63.3% males, median [IQR] age 62.2 [51.2-74.0] years) since the beginning of the program. Most patients (66.9%) had been admitted to hospital for COVID-19, with a median length of stay of 15.0 (9.0-27.0) days. A minority of patients (13.3% of the total) had been admitted for other reasons and subsequently tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The remainder were managed at home after being seen at the Emergency Department. CONCLUSIONS: Having a solid research infrastructure already in place, along with flexibility and adaptability to new requirements, allowed for the quick building of a COVID-19 biobank that will help expand and share the knowledge of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Biological Specimen Banks , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 10: 1050531, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261899

ABSTRACT

Background: Microvascular lung vessels obstructive thromboinflammatory syndrome has been proposed as a possible mechanism of respiratory failure in COVID-19 patients. However, it has only been observed in post-mortem studies and has never been documented in vivo, probably because of a lack of CT scan sensitivity in small pulmonary arteries. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety, tolerability, and diagnostic value of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the assessment of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia for pulmonary microvascular thromboinflammatory syndrome. Methods: The COVID-OCT trial was a multicenter, open-label, prospective, interventional clinical study. Two cohorts of patients were included in the study and underwent pulmonary OCT evaluation. Cohort A consisted of patients with COVID-19 with a negative CT scan for pulmonary thrombosis and elevated thromboinflammatory markers (D-dimer > 10,000 ng/mL or 5,000 < D-dimer < 10,000 ng/mL and one of: C-reactive Protein > 100 mg/dL, IL-6 > 6 pg/mL, or ferritin > 900 ng/L). Cohort B consisted of patients with COVID-19 and a CT scan positive for pulmonary thrombosis. The primary endpoints of the study were: (i) to evaluate the overall safety of OCT investigation in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, and (ii) to report on the potential value of OCT as a novel diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of microvascular pulmonary thrombosis in COVID-19 patients. Results: A total of 13 patients were enrolled. The mean number of OCT runs performed in each patient was 6.1 ± 2.0, both in ground glass and healthy lung areas, achieving a good evaluation of the distal pulmonary arteries. Overall, OCT runs identified microvascular thrombosis in 8 patients (61.5%): 5 cases of red thrombus, 1 case of white thrombus, and 2 cases of mixed thrombus. In Cohort A, the minimal lumen area was 3.5 ± 4.6 mm2, with stenosis of 60.9 ± 35.9% of the area, and the mean length of thrombus-containing lesions was 5.4 ± 3.0 mm. In Cohort B, the percentage area obstruction was 92.6 ± 2.6, and the mean thrombus-containing lesion length was 14.1 ± 13.9 mm. No peri-procedural complications occurred in any of the 13 patients. Conclusion: OCT appears to be a safe and accurate method of evaluating the distal pulmonary arteries in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Here, it enabled the first in vivo documentation of distal pulmonary arterial thrombosis in patients with elevated thromboinflammatory markers, even when their CT angiogram was negative for pulmonary thrombosis. Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrial.gov, identifier NCT04410549.

5.
Respir Med ; 210: 107178, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251731

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggested that Macklin sign is a predictor of barotrauma in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We performed a systematic review to further characterize the clinical role of Macklin. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register and Embase were searched for studies reporting data on Macklin. Studies without data on chest CT, pediatric studies, non-human and cadaver studies, case reports and series including <5 patients were excluded. The primary objective was to assess the number of patients with Macklin sign and barotrauma. Secondary objectives were: occurrence of Macklin in different populations, clinical use of Macklin, prognostic impact of Macklin. RESULTS: Seven studies enrolling 979 patients were included. Macklin was present in 4-22% of COVID-19 patients. It was associated with barotrauma in 124/138 (89.8%) of cases. Macklin sign preceded barotrauma in 65/69 cases (94.2%) 3-8 days in advance. Four studies used Macklin as pathophysiological explanation for barotrauma, two studies as a predictor of barotrauma and one as a decision-making tool. Two studies suggested that Macklin is a strong predictor of barotrauma in ARDS patients and one study used Macklin sign to candidate high-risk ARDS patients to awake extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A possible correlation between Macklin and worse prognosis was suggested in two studies on COVID-19 and blunt chest trauma. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing evidence suggests that Macklin sign anticipate barotrauma in patients with ARDS and there are initial reports on use of Macklin as a decision-making tool. Further studies investigating the role of Macklin sign in ARDS are justified.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Thoracic Injuries , Wounds, Nonpenetrating , Humans , Child , Thoracic Injuries/complications , COVID-19/complications , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Barotrauma/complications , Barotrauma/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects
6.
Minerva Med ; 2023 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients frequently develop respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Data on long-term survival of patients who had severe COVID-19 are insufficient. We assessed and compared two-year survival, CT imaging, quality of life, and functional recovery of COVID-19 ARDS patients requiring respiratory support with invasive (IMV) versus noninvasive ventilation (NIV). METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted up to May 28th, 2020, who required IMV or NIV, and survived to hospital discharge were enrolled. Patients were contacted two years after discharge to assess vital status, functional, psychological, and cognitive outcomes using validated scales. Patients with persistent respiratory symptoms or high burden of residual lung damage at previous CT scan received a two-year chest CT scan. RESULTS: Out of 61 IMV survivors, 98% were alive at two-year follow-up, and 52 completed the questionnaire. Out of 82 survivors receiving NIV only, 94% were alive at two years, and 47 completed the questionnaire. We found no major differences between invasively and noninvasively ventilated patients, with overall acceptable functional recovery. Among the 99 patients completing the questionnaire, 23 have more than moderate exertional dyspnea. Chest CT scans showed that 4 patients (all received IMV) had fibrotic-like changes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who received mechanical ventilation due to COVID-19 and were discharged from hospital had a 96% survival rate at the two-year follow-up. There was no difference in overall recovery and quality of life between patients who did and did not require IMV, although respiratory morbidity remains high.

7.
Andrology ; 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The identification of biomarkers correlated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes is a relevant need for clinical management. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is characterized by elevated interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, HLA-G, and impaired testosterone production. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at defining the combined impact of sex hormones, interleukin-10, and HLA-G on COVID-19 pathophysiology and their relationship in male patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, electrochemiluminescent assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay circulating total testosterone, 17ß-estradiol (E2 ), IL-10, and -HLAG5 as well as SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 Immunoglobulin G from 292 healthy controls and 111 COVID-19 patients with different disease severity at hospital admission, and in 53 COVID-19 patients at 7-month follow-up. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We found significantly higher levels of IL-10, HLA-G, and E2 in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls and an inverse correlation between IL-10 and testosterone, with IL-10, progressively increasing and testosterone progressively decreasing with disease severity. This correlation was lost at the 7-month follow-up. The risk of death in COVID-19 patients with low testosterone increased in the presence of high IL-10. A negative correlation between SARS-CoV-2 Immunoglobulin G and HLA-G or IL-10 at hospitalization was observed. At the 7-month follow-up, IL-10 and testosterone normalized, and  HLA-G decreased. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that combined evaluation of IL-10 and testosterone predicts the risk of death in men with COVID-19 and support the hypothesis that IL-10 fails to suppress excessive inflammation by promoting viral spreading.

8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(9): ofac454, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051512

ABSTRACT

Background: This study's primary aim was to evaluate the impact of thrombotic complications on the development of secondary infections. The secondary aim was to compare the etiology of secondary infections in patients with and without thrombotic complications. Methods: This was a cohort study (NCT04318366) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients hospitalized at IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital between February 25 and June 30, 2020. Incidence rates (IRs) were calculated by univariable Poisson regression as the number of cases per 1000 person-days of follow-up (PDFU) with 95% confidence intervals. The cumulative incidence functions of secondary infections according to thrombotic complications were compared with Gray's method accounting for competing risk of death. A multivariable Fine-Gray model was applied to assess factors associated with risk of secondary infections. Results: Overall, 109/904 patients had 176 secondary infections (IR, 10.0; 95% CI, 8.8-11.5; per 1000-PDFU). The IRs of secondary infections among patients with or without thrombotic complications were 15.0 (95% CI, 10.7-21.0) and 9.3 (95% CI, 7.9-11.0) per 1000-PDFU, respectively (P = .017). At multivariable analysis, thrombotic complications were associated with the development of secondary infections (subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.788; 95% CI, 1.018-3.140; P = .043). The etiology of secondary infections was similar in patients with and without thrombotic complications. Conclusions: In patients with COVID-19, thrombotic complications were associated with a high risk of secondary infections.

10.
Phys Med ; 100: 142-152, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914322

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To develop and validate an automated segmentation tool for COVID-19 lung CTs. To combine it with densitometry information in identifying Aerated, Intermediate and Consolidated Volumes in admission (CT1) and follow up CT (CT3). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An Atlas was trained on manually segmented CT1 of 250 patients and validated on 10 CT1 of the training group, 10 new CT1 and 10 CT3, by comparing DICE index between automatic (AUTO), automatic-corrected (AUTOMAN) and manual (MAN) contours. A previously developed automatic method was applied on HU lung density histograms to quantify Aerated, Intermediate and Consolidated Volumes. Volumes of subregions in validation CT1 and CT3 were quantified for each method. RESULTS: In validation CT1/CT3, manual correction of automatic contours was not necessary in 40% of cases. Mean DICE values for both lungs were 0.94 for AUTOVsMAN and 0.96 for AUTOMANVsMAN. Differences between Aerated and Intermediate Volumes quantified with AUTOVsMAN contours were always < 6%. Consolidated Volumes showed larger differences (mean: -95 ± 72 cc). If considering AUTOMANVsMAN volumes, differences got further smaller for Aerated and Intermediate, and were drastically reduced for consolidated Volumes (mean: -36 ± 25 cc). The average time for manual correction of automatic lungs contours on CT1 was 5 ± 2 min. CONCLUSIONS: An Atlas for automatic segmentation of lungs in COVID-19 patients was developed and validated. Combined with a previously developed method for lung densitometry characterization, it provides a fast, operator-independent way to extract relevant quantitative parameters with minimal manual intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Densitometry , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung/diagnostic imaging
11.
Minerva Med ; 113(2): 281-290, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of continuous positive airway pressure and respiratory physiotherapy outside the Intensive Care Unit during a pandemic. METHODS: In this cohort study performed in February-May 2020 in a large teaching hospital in Milan, COVID-19 patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome receiving continuous positive airway pressure (positive end-expiratory pressure =10 cm H2O, FiO2=0.6, daily treatment duration: 4×3h-cycles) and respiratory physiotherapy including pronation outside the Intensive Care Unit were followed-up. RESULTS: Of 90 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (45/90, 50% pronated at least once) outside the Intensive Care Unit and with a median (interquartile) follow-up of 37 (11-46) days, 45 (50%) were discharged at home, 28 (31%) were still hospitalized, and 17 (19%) died. Continuous positive airway pressure failure was recorded for 35 (39%) patients. Patient mobilization was associated with reduced failure rates (P=0.033). No safety issues were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous positive airway pressure with patient mobilization (including pronation) was effective and safe in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 managed outside the Intensive Care Unit setting during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pronation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
12.
Panminerva Med ; 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung damage leading to gas-exchange deficit and sepsis leading to systemic hypoperfusion are well-known features of severe pneumonia. Although frequently described in COVID-19, their prognostic impact in COVID-19-related pneumonia vs COVID-19-urelated pneumonia has never been compared. This study assesses fundamental gas-exchange and hemodynamic parameters and explores their prognostic impact in COVID-19 pneumonia and non-COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated arterial pO2/FiO2, alveolar to arterial O2 gradient, shock index, and serum lactate in 126 COVID-19 pneumonia patients, aged 18- 65, presenting to the emergency department with acute, non-hypercapnic respiratory failure. As a control group we identified 1:1 age-, sex-, and pO2/FiO2-matched COVID-19-urelated pneumonia patients. Univariate and multivariable predictors of 30-day survival were identified in both groups. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed lower arterial serum lactate concentration (p<0.001) and shock index (p<0.001) values as compared to non-COVID-19 patients. While we did not observe differences in lactate concentration or in shock index values in deceased vs surviving COVID-19 patients (respectively, p=0.7 and p=0.6), non-COVID-19 deceased patients showed significantly higher lactate and shock index than non-COVID-19 survivors (p<0.001 and p=0.03). The pO2/FiO2 was the most powerful determinant of survival by Cox regression multivariate analysis in COVID-19 patients (p=0.006), while it was lactate in non-COVID-19 patients (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to COVID19-unrelated pneumonia, COVID-19 pneumonia outcome seems more strictly correlated to the extent of lung damage, rather than to the systemic circulatory and metabolic derangements typical of sepsis.

13.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(5): 1354-1363, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with COVID-19 frequently develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Data on long-term survival of these patients are lacking. The authors investigated 1-year survival, quality of life, and functional recovery of patients with COVID-19 ARDS requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Tertiary-care university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All patients with COVID-19 ARDS receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and discharged alive from hospital. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were contacted by phone after 1 year. Functional, cognitive, and psychological outcomes were explored through a questionnaire and assessed using validated scales. Patients were offered the possibility to undergo a follow-up chest computed tomography (CT) scan. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The study included all adult (age ≥18 years) patients with COVID-19-related ARDS admitted to an ICU of the authors' institution between February 25, 2020, and April 27, 2020, who received at least 1 day of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Of 116 patients who received IMV, 61 (52.6%) survived to hospital discharge. These survivors were assessed 1 year after discharge and 56 completed a battery of tests of cognition, activities of daily living, and interaction with family members. They had overall good functional recovery, with >80% reporting good recovery and no difficulties in usual activities. A total of 52 (93%) of patients had no dyspnea at rest. Severe anxiety/depression was reported by 5 (8.9%) patients. Comparing 2-month and 1-year data, the authors observed the most significant improvements in the areas of working status and exertional dyspnea. One-year chest CT scans were available for 36 patients; fibrotic-like changes were present in 4 patients. CONCLUSIONS: All patients who survived the acute phase of COVID-19 and were discharged from the hospital were alive at the 1-year follow up, and the vast majority of them had good overall recovery and quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Activities of Daily Living , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 766486, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518500

ABSTRACT

Severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which may lead to long-lasting pulmonary sequelae in the survivors. COVID-19 shares common molecular signatures with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), including pro-angiogenic and tissue-remodeling mechanisms mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF-R), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF-R), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGF-R). Nintedanib mainly targets these factors and is approved for ILDs. Therefore, we administered nintedanib through compassionate use to three patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring extra-corporeal membrane-oxygenation (ECMO). Here, we describe our experience in an attempt to explore the role of nintedanib in lung recovery in COVID-19. Three obese patients aged between 42 and 52 years were started on nintedanib due to difficulty in obtaining lung function restoration and weaning from ECMO support following the removal of orotracheal intubation (OTI). Soon after the start of the treatment, systemic inflammation and respiratory function rapidly improved and ECMO support was withdrawn. Serial chest CT scans confirmed the progressive lung amelioration, also reflected by functional tests during follow-up. Nintedanib was well-tolerated by all the three patients at the dosage used for ILDs and continued for 2-3 months based on drug availability. Although caution in interpreting events is required; it is tempting to speculate that nintedanib may have contributed to modulate lung inflammation and remodeling and to sustain lung repair. Altogether, nintedanib appears as a promising agent in patients with severe COVID-19 and delayed respiratory function recovery, for whom molecularly targeted therapies are still lacking. Clinical trials are necessary to confirm our observations.

15.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 66(2): 223-231, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome (COVID-19 ARDS) is a disease that often requires invasive ventilation. Little is known about COVID-19 ARDS sequelae. We assessed the mid-term lung status of COVID-19 survivors and investigated factors associated with pulmonary sequelae. METHODS: All adult COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit from 25th February to 27th April 2020 were included. Lung function was evaluated through chest CT scan and pulmonary function tests (PFT). Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of persisting lung alterations. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients (75%) completed lung assessment. Chest CT scan was performed after a median (interquartile range) time of 97 (89-105) days, whilst PFT after 142 (133-160) days. The median age was 58 (52-65) years and most patients were male (90%). The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 11 (6-16) days. Median tidal volume/ideal body weight (TV/IBW) was 6.8 (5.71-7.67) ml/Kg. 59% and 63% of patients showed radiological and functional lung sequelae, respectively. The diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO ) was reduced by 59%, with a median per cent of predicted DLCO of 72.1 (57.9-93.9) %. Mean TV/IBW during invasive ventilation emerged as an independent predictor of persistent CT scan abnormalities, whilst the duration of mechanical ventilation was an independent predictor of both CT and PFT abnormalities. The extension of lung involvement at hospital admission (evaluated through Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema, RALE score) independently predicted the risk of persistent alterations in PFTs. CONCLUSIONS: Both the extent of lung parenchymal involvement and mechanical ventilation protocols predict morphological and functional lung abnormalities months after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
16.
Echocardiography ; 38(10): 1778-1786, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury (MI) can be detected during the acute phase of Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and is associated with a dismal prognosis. Recent imaging studies described the persistence of cardiac abnormalities after the recovery. The aim of the study was to investigate the spectrum of cardiac abnormalities at mid-term follow-up in patients recovered from COVID-19 using clinical assessment, laboratory tests, and imaging evaluation with comprehensive echocardiography. METHODS: This is an observational, cross-sectional study assessing an unselected cohort of consecutive patients recovered from COVID-19. MI was defined by elevated plasma levels of high sensitive troponin T (hsTnT). At the follow-up, a complete examination including echocardiography was performed. RESULTS: The 123 patients included were divided into two groups according to the presence of MI during hospitalization: group A (without MI) and group B (with MI). After a median of 85 days, group B patients were more frequently symptomatic for dyspnea and had significantly higher values of hsTnT and N-Terminal prohormone of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), compared to Group A. No differences between the two groups in left nor right ventricle dimension and ejection fraction were found. However, in group B a significant reduction of mean left ventricle global longitudinal strain was observed (-15.7±.7 vs -18.1± .3 in group A, p < 0.001), together with higher frequency of impaired diastolic function and higher values of pulmonary pressure. CONCLUSIONS: In patients recovered from COVID-19, echocardiography with speckle-tracking analysis may be an useful imaging tool to identify subclinical myocardial dysfunction and potentially guide management strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart/physiopathology , COVID-19/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography , Humans , Myocardium , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Peptide Fragments , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
17.
Front Immunol ; 11: 603428, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389167

ABSTRACT

In this work we present the case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a 1.5-year-old boy affected by severe Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome with previous history of autoinflammatory disease, occurring 5 months after treatment with gene therapy. Before SARS-CoV-2 infection, the patient had obtained engraftment of gene corrected cells, resulting in WASP expression restoration and early immune reconstitution. The patient produced specific immunoglobulins to SARS-CoV-2 at high titer with neutralizing capacity and experienced a mild course of infection, with limited inflammatory complications, despite pre-gene therapy clinical phenotype.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Genetic Therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Infant , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome/blood , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome/immunology , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome/therapy , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein/biosynthesis , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein/immunology
18.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 44(3): 552-556, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358629

ABSTRACT

We present, to our knowledge, the first case of immunosuppressive therapy (IST) application in a 12-year-old child with arrhythmogenic inflammatory cardiomyopathy resulting from the overlap between autoimmune myocarditis and primary arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. Indication to off-lable IST was compelling, because of recurrent drug-refractory ventricular arrhythmias (VAs). We show that IST was feasible, safe, and effective on multiple clinical endpoints, including symptoms, VA recurrences, and T-troponin release. Remarkably, all diagnostic and therapeutic strategies were worked out by a dedicated multidisciplinary team, including specialized pediatric immunologists.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/drug therapy , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/immunology , Immunosuppression Therapy , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Child , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/immunology , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Recurrence , Risk Factors
19.
Clin Nutr ; 41(12): 2965-2972, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sarcopenia, a loss of muscle mass, quality and function, which is particularly evident in respiratory muscles, has been associated with many clinical adverse outcomes. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the role of reduced muscle mass and quality in predicting ventilation weaning, complications, length of intensive care unit (ICU) and of hospital stay and mortality in patients admitted to ICU for SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. METHODS: This was an observational study based on a review of medical records of all adult patients admitted to the ICU of a tertiary hospital in Milan and intubated for SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Muscle mass and quality measurement were retrieved from routine thoracic CT scans, when sections passing through the first, second or third lumbar vertebra were available. RESULTS: A total of 81 patients were enrolled. Muscle mass was associated with successful extubation (OR 1.02, 95% C.I. 1.00-1.03, p = 0.017), shorter ICU stay (OR 0.97, 95% C.I. 0.95-0.99, p = 0.03) and decreased hospital mortality (HR 0.98, 95% C.I. 0.96-0.99, p = 0.02). Muscle density was associated with successful extubation (OR 1.07, 95% C.I. 1.01-1.14; p = 0.02) and had an inverse association with the number of complications in ICU (Β -0.07, 95% C.I. -0.13 - -0.002, p = 0.03), length of hospitalization (Β -1.36, 95% C.I. -2.21 - -0.51, p = 0.002) and in-hospital mortality (HR 0.88, 95% C.I. 0.78-0.99, p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Leveraging routine CT imaging to measure muscle mass and quality might constitute a simple, inexpensive and powerful tool to predict survival and disease course in patients with COVID-19. Preserving muscle mass during hospitalisation might have an adjuvant role in facilitating remission from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventilator Weaning , Adult , Humans , Ventilator Weaning/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Muscles , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Observational Studies as Topic
20.
J Crit Care ; 66: 14-19, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351740

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine whether Macklin effect (a linear collection of air contiguous to the bronchovascular sheath) on baseline CT imaging is an accurate predictor for subsequent pneumomediastinum (PMD)/pneumothorax (PNX) development in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational, case-control study. From a prospectively acquired database, all consecutive invasively ventilated COVID-19 ARDS patients who underwent at least one baseline chest CT scan during the study time period (February 25th, 2020-December 31st, 2020) were identified; those who had tracheal lesion or already had PMD/PNX at the time of the first available chest imaging were excluded. RESULTS: 37/173 (21.4%) patients enrolled had PMD/PNX; specifically, 20 (11.5%) had PMD, 10 (5.8%) PNX, 7 (4%) both. 33/37 patients with subsequent PMD/PNX had Macklin effect on baseline CT (89.2%, true positives) 8.5 days [range, 1-18] before the first actual radiological evidence of PMD/PNX. Conversely, 6/136 patients without PMD/PNX (4.4%, false positives) demonstrated Macklin effect (p < 0.001). Macklin effect yielded a sensitivity of 89.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.6-96.9), a specificity of 95.6% (95% CI: 90.6-98.4), a positive predictive value (PV) of 84.5% (95% CI: 71.3-92.3), a negative PV of 97.1% (95% CI: 74.6-96.9) and an accuracy of 94.2% (95% CI: 89.6-97.2) in predicting PMD/PNX (AUC:0.924). CONCLUSIONS: Macklin effect accurately predicts, 8.5 days in advance, PMD/PNX development in COVID-19 ARDS patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
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