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2.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 119, 2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is often non severe and in the majority of cases does not require long term hospitalization, nevertheless it is burdened with social issues and managing difficulties. To our knowledge there is no literature on telephonic follow up in pediatric patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2 on rhino-pharyngeal swab after discharge. The aim of the study is to describe our experience in a telephonic follow up which can allow early and safe discharge from hospital while keeping the patients under close clinical monitoring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five children were admitted for SARS-CoV-2 infection at Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital COVID Center from 16th March to 3rd July. We monitored through a telephonic follow-up, using a specific survey, the patients discharged still presenting a positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2. We checked if any symptoms occurred at home until recovery, defined as two consecutive negative PCR for SARS-CoV-2 on rhino-pharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: During the follow up 7 patients had mild and self-limited symptoms related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, while 2 patients were re-hospitalized. One patient had Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), the other patient had an increase in troponin and D-dimers. We also monitored the average time of viral shedding, resulting in a median duration of 28 days. CONCLUSION: Our experience describes the daily telephonic follow up as safe in pediatric patients discharged with positive PCR. As a matter of fact it could avoid long term hospitalization and allow to promptly re-hospitalize children with major complications such as MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Continuity of Patient Care , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Telephone , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
4.
Cell Rep ; 34(11): 108852, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135278

ABSTRACT

As the global COVID-19 pandemic progresses, it is paramount to gain knowledge on adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in children to define immune correlates of protection upon immunization or infection. We analyzed anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and their neutralizing activity (PRNT) in 66 COVID-19-infected children at 7 (±2) days after symptom onset. Individuals with specific humoral responses presented faster virus clearance and lower viral load associated with a reduced in vitro infectivity. We demonstrated that the frequencies of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+CD40L+ T cells and Spike-specific B cells were associated with the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and the magnitude of neutralizing activity. The plasma proteome confirmed the association between cellular and humoral SARS-CoV-2 immunity, and PRNT+ patients show higher viral signal transduction molecules (SLAMF1, CD244, CLEC4G). This work sheds lights on cellular and humoral anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses in children, which may drive future vaccination trial endpoints and quarantine measures policies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Proteome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Viral Load/immunology
5.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 576912, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983735

ABSTRACT

Background: In severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) critically ill adults, hyperinflammation plays a key role in disease progression. The clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children are much less severe compared with adult patients and usually associated with a good prognosis. However, hyperinflammation in SARS-CoV-2-infected pediatric patients has been described as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 or as Kawasaki-like disease but is still little known, and optimal management has to be defined. The World Health Organization (WHO) on the 15th of May 2020 has developed a preliminary case definition for multisystem inflammatory disorder in children and adolescents with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and stated for an urgent need to collect data on this condition. Here, we report two adolescent patients affected by COVID-19 presenting with multisystem inflammatory disorder, 3-4 weeks after the first symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, treated with the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra and glucocorticoids with good clinical response. Cases: We report two patients chronically ill appearing, with high fever, severe gastrointestinal involvement, and increased biomarkers of inflammation onset 3-4 weeks after paucisymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. They had no lung involvement, but abdominal ultrasound and CT scan showed thickening of the bowel wall. SARS-CoV-2 PCR was positive on ileum biopsy in both patients, whereas it was negative on other common sampled sites. They have been admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit and have been treated with a combination of anakinra 6-8 mg/kg/day i.v. and a standard dose of methylprednisolone 2 mg/kg/day in addition to lopinavir/ritonavir 400 mg q12h and low molecular weight heparin 100 UI/kg q12h with good clinical response.

6.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 180, 2020 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lately, one of the major clinical and public health issues has been represented by Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) during pregnancy and the risk of transmission of the infection from mother to child. Debate on perinatal management and postnatal care is still ongoing, principally questioning the option of the joint management of mother and child after birth and the safety of breastfeeding. According to the available reports, neonatal COVID-19 appears to have a horizontal transmission and seems to be paucisymptomatic or asymptomatic, compared to older age groups. The aim of this work is to describe a cluster of neonatal COVID-19 and discuss our experience, with reference to current evidence on postnatal care and perinatal management. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational case series of five mother-child dyads, who attended the Labor and Delivery Unit of a first-level hospital in Italy, in March 2020. Descriptive statistics for continuous variables consisted of number of observations, mean and the range of the minimum and maximum values. RESULTS: Five women and four neonates tested positive for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In one case, the mother-child dyad was separated and the neonate remained negative on two consecutive tests. Two positive neonates developed symptoms, with a predominant involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. Blood tests were unremarkable, except for a single patient who developed mild neutropenia. No complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: We agree that the decision on whether or not to separate a positive/suspected mother from her child should be made on an individual basis, taking into account the parent's will, clinical condition, hospital logistics and the local epidemiological situation. In conformity with literature, in our study, affected neonates were asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic. Despite these reassuring findings, a few cases of severe presentation in the neonatal population have been reported. Therefore, we agree on encouraging clinicians to monitor the neonates with a suspected or confirmed infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Mothers , Postnatal Care , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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