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1.
Nutrients ; 15(1):163, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166772

ABSTRACT

Obese patients reported worse outcomes of COVID-19 related to prothrombotic and low-grade inflammation status. During the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, all non-elective surgeries were postponed, including bariatric surgery (BS). This umbrella review wants to underline obesity as a condition provoking low-grade chronic inflammation, and increasing severe COVID-19 risk;to relaunch the prioritization of BS. The literature search was conducted in March 2022 via Pubmed (MEDLINE) and focused on reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses published in peer-reviewed journals. Terms 'bariatric surgery';OR 'obesity surgery';OR 'metabolic surgery';were analyzed with 'COVID-19';OR 'SARS-CoV-2';using the AND modifier. Only 13 studies of the 406 screened met the objective. The procrastination of BS over the past two years determined a delay in obesity treatment and severe consequences. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a huge impact on economic costs. Although BS has high costs, a lifetime cost advantage over conventional weight loss methods was demonstrated. As the pandemic continues, health policies must recognize obesity as a disease-predisposing factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection, considering COVID-19 as a new comorbidity mitigable by BS. Care pathways for obese patients in COVID/post-COVID era should be revitalized and the concept of elective surgery attributed to BS should be reformulated.

2.
Nutrients ; 15(1):110, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166768

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and its effect on health and environmental and socioeconomic sustainability during the COVID-19 pandemic among a sample of the Italian population. Notably, it intended to assess the effect of adherence to the MedDiet on ecological footprints and food expenditure. A survey was conducted from the 5th to the 24th of April 2020 on Google Forms. The MEDAS questionnaire was used to determine the level of adherence to the MedDiet. The carbon footprint (CO2), water footprint (H2O), and food cost were calculated. In total, 3353 participants completed the questionnaire, ranging from 18 to 86 years old. A statistically significant difference was observed in the CO2 and H2O among BMI groups (p < 0.001). The low- and medium-MEDAS groups showed higher CO2 (p < 0.001). The food cost (EUR/week) resulted in statistically significant differences among the MEDAS groups. The CO2 results were significantly lower in organic-market buyers compared to non-organic-market buyers (p < 0.001). Public health must promote awareness of how adhering to a healthy lifestyle and making appropriate food choices can positively impact our health and social and economic well-being.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a crucial stage in a woman's life and can be affected by epigenetic and environmental factors. Diet also plays a key role in gestation. This study aimed to evaluate how a greater or lesser adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) influences specific parameters of mother and newborn. METHODS: After delivery, the women participating in the study answered a questionnaire: demographic information; anthropometric data (pre-pregnancy weight, height, and gestational weight gain); dietary habits information (adherence to MD before and during pregnancy, using the validated Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS), quality of protein intake); pregnancy information (onset of complications, cesarean/vaginal delivery, gestational age at birth, birth weight, birth length); and clinical practitioner for personalized dietary patterns during pregnancy. RESULTS: A total of 501 respondents have been included in the study, and 135 were excluded for complications. Women who followed the advice of clinical nutritionists showed better adherence to MD (p = 0.02), and the baby's birth weight was higher (p = 0.02). Significant differences in gestational weight gain (p < 0.01) between groups with dissimilar diet adherence were demonstrated. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate a significant relationship between adherence to MD and birthweight.


Subject(s)
Diet, Mediterranean , Gestational Weight Gain , Birth Weight , Cesarean Section , Diet , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy
4.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234783

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a huge impact on the population with consequences on lifestyles. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between eating habits, mental and emotional mood. A survey was conducted online during social isolation, from 24 April to 18 May 2020, among the Italian population. A total of 602 interviewees were included in the data analysis. A high percentage of respondents experienced a depressed mood, anxious feelings, hypochondria and insomnia (61.3%, 70.4%, 46.2% and 52.2%). Almost half of the respondents felt anxious due to the fact of their eating habits, consumed comfort food and were inclined to increase food intake to feel better. Age was inversely related to dietary control (OR = 0.971, p = 0.005). Females were more anxious and disposed to comfort food than males (p < 0.001; p < 0.001). A strength of our study was represented by the fact that the survey was conducted quickly during the most critical period of the Italian epidemic lockdown. As the COVID-19 pandemic is still ongoing, our data need to be confirmed and investigated in the future with larger population studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Affect , Age Factors , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Hypochondriasis/epidemiology , Internet , Italy/epidemiology , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 613070, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170085

ABSTRACT

Lack of specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19 has resulted in long hospitalizations and high mortality rate. By harnessing the regulatory effects of adenosine on inflammatory mediators, we have instituted a new therapeutic treatment with inhaled adenosine in COVID-19 patients, with the aim of reducing inflammation, the onset of cytokine storm, and therefore to improve prognosis. The use of inhaled adenosine in COVID19 patients has allowed reduction of length of stay, on average 6 days. This result is strengthened by the decrease in SARS-CoV-2 positive days. In treated patients compared to control, a clear improvement in PaO2/FiO2 was observed together with a reduction in inflammation parameters, such as the decrease of CRP level. Furthermore, the efficacy of inhaled exogenous adenosine led to an improvement of the prognosis indices, NLR and PLR. The treatment seems to be safe and modulates the immune system, allowing an effective response against the viral infection progression, reducing length of stay and inflammation parameters.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Female , Heparin/administration & dosage , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 415, 2020 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916349

ABSTRACT

On December 12, 2019 a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China, triggering a pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome in humans (COVID-19). Today, the scientific community is investing all the resources available to find any therapy and prevention strategies to defeat COVID-19. In this context, immunonutrition can play a pivotal role in improving immune responses against viral infections. Immunonutrition has been based on the concept that malnutrition impairs immune function. Therefore, immunonutrition involves feeding enriched with various pharmaconutrients (Omega 3 Fatty Acids, Vitamin C, Arginine, Glutamine, Selenium, Zinc, Vitamin, E and Vitamin D) to modulate inflammatory responses, acquired immune response and to improve patient outcomes. In literature, significant evidences indicate that obesity, a malnutrition state, negatively impacts on immune system functionality and on host defense, impairing protection from infections. Immunonutrients can promote patient recovery by inhibiting inflammatory responses and regulating immune function. Immune system dysfunction is considered to increase the risk of viral infections, such as SARS-CoV-2, and was observed in different pathological situations. Obese patients develop severe COVID-19 sequelae, due to the high concentrations of TNF-α, MCP-1 and IL-6 produced in the meantime by visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and by innate immunity. Moreover, leptin, released by adipose tissue, helps to increase inflammatory milieu with a dysregulation of the immune response. Additionally, gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the maturation, development and functions of both innate and adaptive immune system, as well as contributing to develop obese phenotype. The gut microbiota has been shown to affect lung health through a vital crosstalk between gut microbiota and lungs, called the "gut-lung axis". This axis communicates through a bi-directional pathway in which endotoxins, or microbial metabolites, may affect the lung through the blood and when inflammation occurs in the lung, this in turn can affect the gut microbiota. Therefore, the modulation of gut microbiota in obese COVID-19 patients can play a key role in immunonutrition therapeutic strategy. This umbrella review seeks to answer the question of whether a nutritional approach can be used to enhance the immune system's response to obesity in obese patients affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immune System/pathology , Immune System/virology , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Obesity/complications , Obesity/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Humans , Microbiota , Obesity/microbiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892454

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients can develop interstitial pneumonia, which, in turn, can evolve into acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This is accompanied by an inflammatory cytokine storm. severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has proteins capable of promoting the cytokine storm, especially in patients with comorbidities, including obesity. Since currently no resolutive therapy for ARDS has been found and given the scientific literature regarding the use of adenosine, its application has been hypothesized. Through its receptors, adenosine is able to inhibit the acute inflammatory process, increase the protection capacity of the epithelial barrier, and reduce the damage due to an overactivation of the immune system, such as that occurring in cytokine storms. These features are known in ischemia/reperfusion models and could also be exploited in acute lung injury with hypoxia. Considering these hypotheses, a COVID-19 patient with unresponsive respiratory failure was treated with adenosine for compassionate use. The results showed a rapid improvement of clinical conditions, with negativity of SARS-CoV2 detection.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239692, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-Cov2 infection may trigger lung inflammation and acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome (ARDS) that requires active ventilation and may have fatal outcome. Considering the severity of the disease and the lack of active treatments, 14 patients with Covid-19 and severe lung inflammation received inhaled adenosine in the attempt to therapeutically compensate for the oxygen-related loss of the endogenous adenosine→A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR)-mediated mitigation of the lung-destructing inflammatory damage. This off label-treatment was based on preclinical studies in mice with LPS-induced ARDS, where inhaled adenosine/A2AR agonists protected oxygenated lungs from the deadly inflammatory damage. The treatment was allowed, considering that adenosine has several clinical applications. PATIENTS AND TREATMENT: Fourteen consecutively enrolled patients with Covid19-related interstitial pneumonitis and PaO2/FiO2 ratio<300 received off-label-treatment with 9 mg inhaled adenosine every 12 hours in the first 24 hours and subsequently, every 24 days for the next 4 days. Fifty-two patients with analogue features and hospitalized between February and April 2020, who did not receive adenosine, were considered as a historical control group. Patients monitoring also included hemodynamic/hematochemical studies, CTscans, and SARS-CoV2-tests. RESULTS: The treatment was well tolerated with no hemodynamic change and one case of moderate bronchospasm. A significant increase (> 30%) in the PaO2/FiO2-ratio was reported in 13 out of 14 patients treated with adenosine compared with that observed in 7 out of52 patients in the control within 15 days. Additionally, we recorded a mean PaO2/FiO2-ratio increase (215 ± 45 vs. 464 ± 136, P = 0.0002) in patients receiving adenosine and no change in the control group (210±75 vs. 250±85 at 120 hours, P>0.05). A radiological response was demonstrated in 7 patients who received adenosine, while SARS-CoV-2 RNA load rapidly decreased in 13 cases within 7 days while no changes were recorded in the control group within 15 days. There was one Covid-19 related death in the experimental group and 11in the control group. CONCLUSION: Our short-term analysis suggests the overall safety and beneficial therapeutic effect of inhaled adenosine in patients with Covid-19-inflammatory lung disease suggesting further investigation in controlled clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2094, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789288

ABSTRACT

The spread of the novel human respiratory coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a global public health emergency. There is no known successful treatment as of this time, and there is a need for medical options to mitigate this current epidemic. SARS-CoV-2 uses the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and is primarily trophic for the lower and upper respiratory tract. A number of current studies on COVID-19 have demonstrated the substantial increase in pro-inflammatory factors in the lungs during infection. The virus is also documented in the central nervous system and, particularly in the brainstem, which plays a key role in respiratory and cardiovascular function. Currently, there are few antiviral approaches, and several alternative drugs are under investigation. Two of these are Idelalisib and Ebastine, already proposed as preventive strategies in airways and allergic diseases. The interesting and evolving potential of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ) inhibitors, together with Ebastine, lies in their ability to suppress the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α, by T cells. This may represent an optional therapeutic choice for COVID-19 to reduce inflammatory reactions and mortality, enabling patients to recover faster. This concise communication aims to provide new potential therapeutic targets capable of mitigating and alleviating SARS-CoV-2 pandemic infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Butyrophenones/pharmacology , Butyrophenones/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/blood , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Piperidines/pharmacology , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Purines/pharmacology , Purines/therapeutic use , Quinazolinones/pharmacology , Quinazolinones/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 299, 2020 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity and steatosis are associated with COVID-19 severe pneumonia. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced immune response are typical of these patients. In particular, adipose tissue is the organ playing the crucial role. So, it is necessary to evaluate fat mass and not simpler body mass index (BMI), because BMI leaves a portion of the obese population unrecognized. The aim is to evaluate the relationship between Percentage of Fat Mass (FM%) and immune-inflammatory response, after 10 days in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). METHODS: Prospective observational study of 22 adult patients, affected by COVID-19 pneumonia and admitted to the ICU and classified in two sets: (10) lean and (12) obese, according to FM% and age (De Lorenzo classification). Patients were analyzed at admission in ICU and at 10th day. RESULTS: Obese have steatosis, impaired hepatic function, compromise immune response and higher inflammation. In addition, they have a reduced prognostic nutritional index (PNI), nutritional survival index for ICU patients. CONCLUSION: This is the first study evaluating FM% in COVID-19 patient. We underlined obese characteristic with likely poorly prognosis and an important misclassification of obesity. A not negligible number of patients with normal BMI could actually have an excess of adipose tissue and therefore have an unfavorable outcome such as an obese. Is fundamental personalized patients nutrition basing on disease phases.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Care/methods , Nutritional Status , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Adipose Tissue/physiopathology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , Male , Nutrition Assessment , Obesity/complications , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Nutrients ; 12(7):2152, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-653787

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a huge impact on the population with consequences on lifestyles. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between eating habits, mental and emotional mood. A survey was conducted online during social isolation, from 24 April to 18 May 2020, among the Italian population. A total of 602 interviewees were included in the data analysis. A high percentage of respondents experienced a depressed mood, anxious feelings, hypochondria and insomnia (61.3%, 70.4%, 46.2% and 52.2%). Almost half of the respondents felt anxious due to the fact of their eating habits, consumed comfort food and were inclined to increase food intake to feel better. Age was inversely related to dietary control (OR = 0.971, p = 0.005). Females were more anxious and disposed to comfort food than males (p <0.001;p <0.001). A strength of our study was represented by the fact that the survey was conducted quickly during the most critical period of the Italian epidemic lockdown. As the COVID-19 pandemic is still ongoing, our data need to be confirmed and investigated in the future with larger population studies.

12.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 229, 2020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On December 12th 2019, a new coronavirus (SARS-Cov2) emerged in Wuhan, China, sparking a pandemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans (COVID-19). On the 24th of April 2020, the number of COVID-19 deaths in the world, according to the COVID-Case Tracker by Johns Hopkins University, was 195,313, and the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases was 2,783,512. The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive impact on human health, causing sudden lifestyle changes, through social distancing and isolation at home, with social and economic consequences. Optimizing public health during this pandemic requires not only knowledge from the medical and biological sciences, but also of all human sciences related to lifestyle, social and behavioural studies, including dietary habits and lifestyle. METHODS: Our study aimed to investigate the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and lifestyle changes among the Italian population aged ≥ 12 years. The study comprised a structured questionnaire packet that inquired demographic information (age, gender, place of residence, current employment); anthropometric data (reported weight and height); dietary habits information (adherence to the Mediterranean diet, daily intake of certain foods, food frequency, and number of meals/day); lifestyle habits information (grocery shopping, habit of smoking, sleep quality and physical activity). The survey was conducted from the 5th to the 24th of April 2020. RESULTS: A total of 3533 respondents have been included in the study, aged between 12 and 86 years (76.1% females). The perception of weight gain was observed in 48.6% of the population; 3.3% of smokers decided to quit smoking; a slight increased physical activity has been reported, especially for bodyweight training, in 38.3% of respondents; the population group aged 18-30 years resulted in having a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet when compared to the younger and the elderly population (p < 0.001; p < 0.001, respectively); 15% of respondents turned to farmers or organic, purchasing fruits and vegetables, especially in the North and Center of Italy, where BMI values were lower. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have provided for the first time data on the Italian population lifestyle, eating habits and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet pattern during the COVID-19 lockdown. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, our data need to be confirmed and investigated in future more extensive population studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Life Style , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Diet, Mediterranean , Drinking , Emergencies , Female , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Smoking , Young Adult
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