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J Dent Res ; 100(12): 1321-1329, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331867


This is the first update of the previously published living systematic review that summarized evidence on the prevalence of oral signs and symptoms in patients with COVID-19. Hitherto, 183 studies were included, reporting data from 64,876 patients with COVID-19 worldwide. The overall prevalence of taste disorders was 38% (95% CI = 22% to 56%, I2 = 98%). Hypogeusia, dysgeusia, and ageusia were also evaluated by a meta-analysis, and the pooled prevalence was 34% for hypogeusia, 33% for dysgeusia, and 26% for ageusia. Taste disorders were associated with a positive COVID-19 test (odds ratio [OR] = 7.54, 95% CI = 5.24 to 10.86, I2 = 93%, P < 0.00001), showing high certainty of evidence. However, the association between taste disorders and mild/moderate severity of COVID-19 (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.33 to 1.99, I2 = 69%, P < 0.0001) and female patients with COVID-19 (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.26 to 2.48, I2 = 79%, P = 0.001) presented low certainty of evidence. Xerostomia was a new feature of this update, and the pooled data demonstrated a prevalence of 43% (95% CI = 36% to 50%, I2 = 71%) in patients with COVID-19. Regarding oral mucosal lesions, the most common clinical pattern was aphthous like, followed by herpes-like lesions, candidiasis, glossitis/depapillation/geographic tongue, parotitis, and angular cheilitis. Oral lesions were more frequent in the tongue, lips, and palate, presenting miscellaneous clinical aspects that are more likely to represent coinfections. Therefore, the reanalysis of current evidence suggests the triad xerostomia, taste dysfunction, and oral mucosal lesions as common manifestations in patients with COVID-19. However, these outcomes are under discussion, and more studies will be necessary to confirm their association with direct SARS-CoV-2 infection in the oral cavity.

Ageusia , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders
J Dent Res ; 100(2): 141-154, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760369


This living systematic review aims to summarize evidence on the prevalence of oral signs and symptoms in patients with COVID-19. The review was reported per the PRISMA checklist, and the literature search was conducted in 6 databases and in gray literature. Studies published in any language mentioning oral symptoms and signs in patients with COVID-19 were included. The risk of bias was assessed by the Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal tools. The certainty of evidence was evaluated through GRADE assessment. After a 2-step selection, 40 studies were included: 33 cross-sectional and 7 case reports. Overall, 10,228 patients (4,288 males, 5,770 females, and 170 unknown) from 19 countries were assessed. Gustatory impairment was the most common oral manifestation, with a prevalence of 45% (95% CI, 34% to 55%; I2 = 99%). The pooled eligible data for different taste disorders were 38% for dysgeusia and 35% for hypogeusia, while ageusia had a prevalence of 24%. Taste disorders were associated with COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR], 12.68; 95% CI, 6.41 to 25.10; I2 = 63%; P < 0.00001), mild/moderate severity (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.25 to 3.49; I2 = 66%; P = 0.005), and female patients (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.17; I2 = 70%; P = 0.0007). Oral mucosal lesions presented multiple clinical aspects, including white and erythematous plaques, irregular ulcers, small blisters, petechiae, and desquamative gingivitis. Tongue, palate, lips, gingiva, and buccal mucosa were affected. In mild cases, oral mucosal lesions developed before or at the same time as the initial respiratory symptoms; however, in those who required medication and hospitalization, the lesions developed approximately 7 to 24 d after onset symptoms. Therefore, taste disorders may be common symptoms in patients with COVID-19 and should be considered in the scope of the disease's onset and progression. Oral mucosal lesions are more likely to present as coinfections and secondary manifestations with multiple clinical aspects (PROSPERO CRD42020184468).

COVID-19/complications , Mouth Diseases/virology , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Taste Disorders/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mouth Diseases/pathology , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Prevalence