Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
Semin Immunopathol ; 44(3): 375-390, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782786

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus ACE-2 receptor utilization for cellular entry and the defined ACE-2 receptor role in cardiovascular medicine hinted at dysregulated endothelial function or even direct viral endotheliitis as the key driver of severe COVID-19 vascular immunopathology including reports of vasculitis. In this article, we critically review COVID-19 immunopathology from the vasculitis perspective and highlight the non-infectious nature of vascular endothelial involvement in severe COVID-19. Whilst COVID-19 lung disease pathological changes included juxta-capillary and vascular macrophage and lymphocytic infiltration typical of vasculitis, we review the evidence reflecting that such "vasculitis" reflects an extension of pneumonic inflammatory pathology to encompass these thin-walled vessels. Definitive, extrapulmonary clinically discernible vasculitis including cutaneous and cardiac vasculitis also emerged- namely a dysregulated interferon expression or "COVID toes" and an ill-defined systemic Kawasaki-like disease. These two latter genuine vasculitis pathologies were not associated with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. This was distinct from cutaneous vasculitis in severe COVID-19 that demonstrated pauci-immune infiltrates and prominent immunothrombosis that appears to represent a novel immunothrombotic vasculitis mimic contributed to by RNAaemia or potentially diffuse pulmonary venous tree thrombosis with systemic embolization with small arteriolar territory occlusion, although the latter remains unproven. Herein, we also performed a systematic literature review of COVID-19 vasculitis and reports of post-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination related vasculitis with respect to the commonly classified pre-COVID vasculitis groupings. Across the vasculitis spectrum, we noted that Goodpasture's syndrome was rarely linked to natural SARS-CoV-2 infection but not vaccines. Both the genuine vasculitis in the COVID-19 era and the proposed vasculitis mimic should advance the understanding of both pulmonary and systemic vascular immunopathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vasculitis , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , COVID-19 Vaccines , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasculitis/etiology , Vasculitis/pathology
2.
RMD Open ; 7(3)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495559

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To update the EULAR 2020 systematic literature review (SLR) on efficacy and safety of immunomodulatory agents in SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: As part of a EULAR taskforce, a systematic literature search update was conducted from 11 December 2020 to 14 July 2021. Two reviewers independently identified eligible studies and extracted data on efficacy and safety of immunomodulatory agents used therapeutically in SARS-CoV-2 infection at any stage of disease. The risk of bias (RoB) was assessed with validated tools. RESULTS: Of the 26 959 records, 520 articles were eligible for inclusion. Studies were mainly at high or unclear RoB. New randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on tocilizumab clarified its benefit in patients with severe and critical COVID-19, mainly if associated with glucocorticoids. There are emergent data on the usefulness of baricitinib and tofacitinib in severe COVID-19. Other therapeutic strategies such as the use of convalescent plasma and anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies showed efficacy in subjects not mounting normal anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. CONCLUSION: This new SLR confirms that some immunomodulators (tocilizumab and JAK inhibitors) have a role for treating severe and critical COVID-19. Although better evidence is available compared with the previous SLR, the need of RCT with combination therapy (glucocorticoids+anti-cytokines) versus monotherapy with glucocorticoids still remains alongside the need for standardisation of inclusion criteria and outcomes to ultimately improve the care and prognosis of affected people. This SLR informed the 2021 update of the EULAR points to consider on the use of immunomodulatory therapies in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunotherapy , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive
3.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(1): 34-40, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To update the EULAR points to consider (PtCs) on the use of immunomodulatory therapies in COVID-19. METHODS: According to the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review up to 14 July 2021 was conducted and followed by a consensus meeting of an international multidisciplinary task force. The new statements were consolidated by formal voting. RESULTS: We updated 2 overarching principles and 12 PtC. Evidence was only available in moderate to severe and critical patients. Glucocorticoids alone or in combination with tocilizumab are beneficial in COVID-19 cases requiring oxygen therapy and in critical COVID-19. Use of Janus kinase inhibitors (baricitinib and tofacitinib) is promising in the same populations of severe and critical COVID-19. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies and convalescent plasma may find application in early phases of the disease and in selected subgroups of immunosuppressed patients. There was insufficient robust evidence for the efficacy of other immunomodulators with further work being needed in relation to biomarker-based stratification for IL-1 therapy CONCLUSIONS: Growing evidence supports incremental efficacy of glucocorticoids alone or combined with tocilizumab/Janus kinase inhibitors in moderate to severe and critical COVID-19. Ongoing studies may unmask the potential application of other therapeutic approaches. Involvement of rheumatologists, as systemic inflammatory diseases experts, should be encouraged in clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapy in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Immunomodulation , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
4.
J Autoimmun ; 121: 102662, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385817

ABSTRACT

Herein, we consider venous immunothrombotic mechanisms in SARS-CoV-2 infection and anti-SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccination. Primary SARS-CoV-2 infection with systemic viral RNA release (RNAaemia) contributes to innate immune coagulation cascade activation, with both pulmonary and systemic immunothrombosis - including venous territory strokes. However, anti-SARS-CoV-2 adenoviral-vectored-DNA vaccines -initially shown for the ChAdOx1 vaccine-may rarely exhibit autoimmunity with autoantibodies to Platelet Factor-4 (PF4) that is termed Vaccine-Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT), an entity pathophysiologically similar to Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT). The PF4 autoantigen is a polyanion molecule capable of independent interactions with negatively charged bacterial cellular wall, heparin and DNA molecules, thus linking intravascular innate immunity to both bacterial cell walls and pathogen-derived DNA. Crucially, negatively charged extracellular DNA is a powerful adjuvant that can break tolerance to positively charged nuclear histone proteins in many experimental autoimmunity settings, including SLE and scleroderma. Analogous to DNA-histone interactons, positively charged PF4-DNA complexes stimulate strong interferon responses via Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 9 engagement. A chain of events following intramuscular adenoviral-vectored-DNA vaccine inoculation including microvascular damage; microbleeding and platelet activation with PF4 release, adenovirus cargo dispersement with DNA-PF4 engagement may rarely break immune tolerance, leading to rare PF4-directed autoimmunity. The VITT cavernous sinus cerebral and intestinal venous territory immunothrombosis proclivity may pertain to venous drainage of shared microbiotal-rich areas of the nose and in intestines that initiates local endovascular venous immunity by PF4/microbiotal engagement with PF4 autoantibody driven immunothrombosis reminiscent of HIT. According to the proposed model, any adenovirus-vectored-DNA vaccine could drive autoimmune VITT in susceptible individuals and alternative mechanism based on molecular mimicry, vaccine protein contaminants, adenovirus vector proteins, EDTA buffers or immunity against the viral spike protein are secondary factors. Hence, electrochemical DNA-PF4 interactions and PF4-heparin interactions, but at different locations, represent the common denominator in HIT and VITT related autoimmune-mediated thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Platelet Activation/immunology , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/pathology , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Thrombosis/pathology , Vaccines/immunology
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases and vaccines can occasionally cause new-onset or flare of immune-mediated diseases (IMDs). The adjuvanticity of the available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is based on either TLR-7/8 or TLR-9 agonism, which is distinct from previous vaccines and is a common pathogenic mechanism in IMDs. METHODS: We evaluated IMD flares or new disease onset within 28-days of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination at five large tertiary centres in countries with early vaccination adoption, three in Israel, one in UK, and one in USA. We assessed the pattern of disease expression in terms of autoimmune, autoinflammatory, or mixed disease phenotype and organ system affected. We also evaluated outcomes. FINDINGS: 27 cases included 17 flares and 10 new onset IMDs. 23/27 received the BNT - 162b2 vaccine, 2/27 the mRNA-1273 and 2/27 the ChAdOx1 vaccines. The mean age was 54.4 ± 19.2 years and 55% of cases were female. Among the 27 cases, 21 (78%) had at least one underlying autoimmune/rheumatic disease prior the vaccination. Among those patients with a flare or activation, four episodes occurred after receiving the second-dose and in one patient they occurred both after the first and the second-dose. In those patients with a new onset disease, two occurred after the second-dose and in one patient occurred both after the first (new onset) and second-dose (flare). For either dose, IMDs occurred on average 4 days later. Of the cases, 20/27 (75%) were mild to moderate in severity. Over 80% of cases had excellent resolution of inflammatory features, mostly with the use of corticosteroid therapy. Other immune-mediated conditions included idiopathic pericarditis (n = 2), neurosarcoidosis with small fiber neuropathy (n = 1), demyelination (n = 1), and myasthenia gravis (n = 2). In 22 cases (81.5%), the insurgence of Adverse event following immunization (AEFI)/IMD could not be explained based on the drug received by the patient. In 23 cases (85.2%), AEFI development could not be explained based on the underlying disease/co-morbidities. Only in one case (3.7%), the timing window of the insurgence of the side effect was considered not compatible with the time from vaccine to flare. INTERPRETATION: Despite the high population exposure in the regions served by these centers, IMDs flares or onset temporally-associated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccination appear rare. Most are moderate in severity and responsive to therapy although some severe flares occurred. FUNDING: none.

6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085269

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To summarise the available information on efficacy and safety of immunomodulatory agents in SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: As part of a European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) taskforce, a systematic literature search was conducted from January 2019 to 11 December 2020. Two reviewers independently identified eligible studies according to the Population, Intervention, Comparator and Outcome framework and extracted data on efficacy and safety of immunomodulatory agents used therapeutically in SARS-CoV-2 infection at any stage. The risk of bias was assessed with validated tools. RESULTS: Of the 60 372 records, 401 articles were eligible for inclusion. Studies were at variable risk of bias. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were available for the following drugs: hydroxychloroquine (n=12), glucocorticoids (n=6), tocilizumab (n=4), convalescent plasma (n=4), interferon beta (n=2), intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) (n=2) and n=1 each for anakinra, baricitinib, colchicine, leflunomide, ruxolitinib, interferon kappa and vilobelimab. Glucocorticoids were able to reduce mortality in specific subsets of patients, while conflicting data were available about tocilizumab. Hydroxychloroquine was not beneficial at any disease stage, one RCT with anakinra was negative, one RCT with baricitinib+remdesivir was positive, and individual trials on some other compounds provided interesting, although preliminary, results. CONCLUSION: Although there is emerging evidence about immunomodulatory therapies for the management of COVID-19, conclusive data are scarce with some conflicting data. Since glucocorticoids seem to improve survival in some subsets of patients, RCTs comparing glucocorticoids alone versus glucocorticoids plus anticytokine/immunomodulatory treatment are warranted. This systematic literature review informed the initiative to formulate EULAR 'points to consider' on COVID-19 pathophysiology and immunomodulatory treatment from the rheumatology perspective.

7.
RMD Open ; 7(1)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a global health problem. Beside the specific pathogenic effect of SARS-CoV-2, incompletely understood deleterious and aberrant host immune responses play critical roles in severe disease. Our objective was to summarise the available information on the pathophysiology of COVID-19. METHODS: Two reviewers independently identified eligible studies according to the following PICO framework: P (population): patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection; I (intervention): any intervention/no intervention; C (comparator): any comparator; O (outcome) any clinical or serological outcome including but not limited to immune cell phenotype and function and serum cytokine concentration. RESULTS: Of the 55 496 records yielded, 84 articles were eligible for inclusion according to question-specific research criteria. Proinflammatory cytokine expression, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), was increased, especially in severe COVID-19, although not as high as other states with severe systemic inflammation. The myeloid and lymphoid compartments were differentially affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection depending on disease phenotype. Failure to maintain high interferon (IFN) levels was characteristic of severe forms of COVID-19 and could be related to loss-of-function mutations in the IFN pathway and/or the presence of anti-IFN antibodies. Antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection showed a high variability across individuals and disease spectrum. Multiparametric algorithms showed variable diagnostic performances in predicting survival, hospitalisation, disease progression or severity, and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection affects both humoral and cellular immunity depending on both disease severity and individual parameters. This systematic literature review informed the EULAR 'points to consider' on COVID-19 pathophysiology and immunomodulatory therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Cytokines/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Female , Humans , Lymphocytes/immunology , Male , Phenotype , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066833

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe systemic inflammation associated with some stages of COVID-19 and in fatal cases led therapeutic agents developed or used frequently in Rheumatology being at the vanguard of experimental therapeutics strategies. The aim of this project was to elaborate EULAR Points to consider (PtCs) on COVID-19 pathophysiology and immunomodulatory therapies. METHODS: PtCs were developed in accordance with EULAR standard operating procedures for endorsed recommendations, led by an international multidisciplinary Task Force, including rheumatologists, translational immunologists, haematologists, paediatricians, patients and health professionals, based on a systemic literature review up to 15 December 2020. Overarching principles (OPs) and PtCs were formulated and consolidated by formal voting. RESULTS: Two OPs and fourteen PtCs were developed. OPs highlight the heterogeneous clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the need of a multifaceted approach to target the different pathophysiological mechanisms. PtCs 1-6 encompass the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 including immune response, endothelial dysfunction and biomarkers. PtCs 7-14 focus on the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection with immunomodulators. There was evidence supporting the use of glucocorticoids, especially dexamethasone, in COVID-19 cases requiring oxygen therapy. No other immunomodulator demonstrated efficacy on mortality to date, with however inconsistent results for tocilizumab. Immunomodulatory therapy was not associated with higher infection rates. CONCLUSIONS: Multifactorial pathophysiological mechanisms, including immune abnormalities, play a key role in COVID-19. The efficacy of glucocorticoids in cases requiring oxygen therapy suggests that immunomodulatory treatment might be effective in COVID-19 subsets. Involvement of rheumatologists, as systemic inflammatory diseases experts, should continue in ongoing clinical trials delineating optimal immunomodulatory therapy utilisation in COVID-19.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL