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1.
Infect Dis Ther ; 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966201

ABSTRACT

Systemic or pulmonary reactivations of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) have been reported in critically ill patients with COVID-19, posing a dilemma for clinicians in terms of their diagnostic and clinical relevance. Prevalence of HSV-1 reactivation may be as high as > 40% in this population, but with large heterogeneity across studies, likely reflecting the different samples and/or cut-offs for defining reactivation. There is frequently agreement on the clinical significance of HSV-1 reactivation in the presence of severe manifestations clearly attributable to the virus. However, the clinical implications of HSV-1 reactivations in the absence of manifest signs and symptoms remain controversial. Our review aims at providing immunological background and at reviewing clinical findings on HSV-1 reactivations in critically ill patients with COVID-19.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337875

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection have an overwhelming inflammatory response characterized by remarkable organs monocyte infiltration. We performed an immunophenotypic analysis on circulating monocytes in 19 COVID-19 patients in comparison with 11 naïve HIV-1 patients and 10 healthy subjects. Reduced frequency of classical monocytes and increased frequency of intermediate monocytes characterized COVID-19 patients with respect to both HIV naïve patients and healthy subjects. Intensity of C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) monocyte expression highly correlated with parameters of kidney dysfunction. Our data indicate that highly activated monocytes of COVID-19 patients may be pathogenically associated to the development of renal disease.

3.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 230, 2022 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Little is known about SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in asymptomatic patients affected by solid cancer, and whether it is associated with specific transcriptomics changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). METHODS: Patients affected by solid cancer treated in a top comprehensive cancer center in Italy during the first COVID-19 pandemic wave, and negative for COVID-19-symptoms since the first detection of COVID-19 in Italy, were prospectively evaluated by SARS-CoV-2 serology in the period between April 14th and June 23rd 2020. Follow-up serologies were performed, every 21-28 days, until August 23rd 2020. All SARS-CoV-2 IgM + patients underwent confirmatory nasopharyngeal swab (NPS). PBMCs from a subset of SARS-CoV-2 IgM + patients were collected at baseline, at 2 months, and at 7 months for transcriptome sequencing. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 serology was performed on 446 of the 466 recruited patients. A total of 14 patients (3.14%) tested positive for at least one SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin in the period between April 14th and August 23rd 2020. Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 IgM decreased from 1.48% in the first month of the accrual to 0% in the last month. Viral RNA could not be detected in any of the NPS. PBMC serial transcriptomic analysis showed progressive downregulation of interleukin 6 upregulated signatures, chemokine-mediated signaling and chemokine-chemokine receptor KEGG pathways. B- and T-cell receptor pathways (p-values = 0.0002 and 0.017 respectively) were progressively upregulated. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion rate in asymptomatic patients affected by solid cancer is consistent with that of asymptomatic COVID-19 assessed in the general population through NPS at the peak of the first wave. Transcriptomic features over time in IgM + asymptomatic cases are suggestive of previous viral exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Antibodies, Viral , Chemokines , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Incidence , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328545

ABSTRACT

Background: and rationale: Little is known about SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in asymptomatic patients affected by solid cancer, and whether it is associated with specific transcriptomics changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methods: : patients affected by solid cancer treated in a top comprehensive cancer center in Italy during the first COVID-19 pandemic wave, and negative for COVID-19-symptoms since the first detection of COVID-19 in Italy, were prospectively evaluated by SARS-CoV-2 serology in the period between April 14th and June 23rd 2020. Follow-up serologies were performed, every 21-28 days, until August 23rd, 2020. All SARS-CoV-2 IgM+ patients underwent confirmatory nasopharyngeal swab (NPS). PBMCs from a subset of SARS-CoV-2 IgM+ patients were collected at baseline, at 2 months, and at 7 months for transcriptome sequencing. Results: : SARS-CoV-2 serology was performed on 446 of the 466 recruited patients. A total of 14 patients (3.14 %) tested positive for at least one SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin in the period between April 14th and August 23rd 2020. Viral RNA could not be detected in any of the NPS. PBMC serial transcriptomic analysis showed progressive downregulation of interleukin 6 upregulated signatures, chemokine-mediated signaling and chemokine-chemokine receptor KEGG pathways. B- and T-cell receptor pathways (p-values = 0.0002 and 0.017 respectively) were progressively upregulated. Conclusions: : SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion rate in asymptomatic patients affected by solid cancer is consistent with that of asymptomatic COVID-19 assessed in the general population through NPS at the peak of the first wave. Transcriptomic features over time in IgM+ asymptomatic cases are strongly indicative of previous viral exposure.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319873

ABSTRACT

Background: and rationale: Little is known about SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in asymptomatic patients affected by solid cancer, and whether it is associated with specific transcriptomics changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methods: : patients affected by solid cancer treated in a top comprehensive cancer center in Italy during the first COVID-19 pandemic wave, and negative for COVID-19-symptoms since the first detection of COVID-19 in Italy, were prospectively evaluated by SARS-CoV-2 serology in the period between April 14th and June 23rd 2020. Follow-up serologies were performed, every 21-28 days, until August 23rd, 2020. All SARS-CoV-2 IgM+ patients underwent confirmatory nasopharyngeal swab (NPS). PBMCs from a subset of SARS-CoV-2 IgM+ patients were collected at baseline, at 2 months, and at 7 months for transcriptome sequencing. Results: : SARS-CoV-2 serology was performed on 446 of the 466 recruited patients. A total of 14 patients (3.14 %) tested positive for at least one SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin in the period between April 14th and August 23rd 2020. Viral RNA could not be detected in any of the NPS. PBMC serial transcriptomic analysis showed progressive downregulation of interleukin 6 upregulated signatures, chemokine-mediated signaling and chemokine-chemokine receptor KEGG pathways. B- and T-cell receptor pathways (p-values = 0.0002 and 0.017 respectively) were progressively upregulated. Conclusions: : SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion rate in asymptomatic patients affected by solid cancer is consistent with that of asymptomatic COVID-19 assessed in the general population through NPS at the peak of the first wave. Transcriptomic features over time in IgM+ asymptomatic cases are strongly indicative of previous viral exposure.

6.
Microorganisms ; 10(2)2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674731

ABSTRACT

Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been described in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. In the present two-center retrospective experience, we primarily aimed to assess the cumulative risk of HSV-1 reactivation detected on bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) samples in invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients with worsening respiratory function. The secondary objectives were the identification of predictors for HSV-1 reactivation and the assessment of its possible prognostic impact. Overall, 41 patients met the study inclusion criteria, and 12/41 patients developed HSV-1 reactivation (29%). No independent predictors of HSV-1 reactivation were identified in the present study. No association was found between HSV-1 reactivation and mortality. Eleven out of 12 patients with HSV-1 reactivation received antiviral therapy with intravenous acyclovir. In conclusion, HSV-1 reactivation is frequently detected in intubated patients with COVID-19. An antiviral treatment in COVID-19 patients with HSV-1 reactivation and worsening respiratory function might be considered.

8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(11): ofab217, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526175

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised patients show prolonged shedding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in nasopharyngeal swabs. We report a case of prolonged persistence of viable SARS-CoV-2 associated with clinical relapses of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a patient with mantle cell lymphoma who underwent treatment with rituximab, bendamustine, cytarabine with consequent lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). On 5 positive nasopharyngeal swabs, we performed viral culture and next-generation sequencing. We analyzed the patient's adaptive and innate immunity to characterize T- and NK-cell subsets. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs samples remained positive for 268 days. All 5 performed viral cultures were positive, and genomic analysis confirmed a persistent infection with the same strain. Viremia resulted positive in 3 out of 4 COVID-19 clinical relapses and cleared each time after remdesivir treatment. The T- and NK-cell dynamic was different in aviremic and viremic samples, and no SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were detected throughout the disease course. CONCLUSIONS: In our patient, SARS-CoV-2 persisted with proven infectivity for >8 months. Viremia was associated with COVID-19 relapses, and remdesivir treatment was effective in viremia clearance and symptom remission, although it was unable to clear the virus from the upper respiratory airways. During the viremic phase, we observed a low frequency of terminal effector CD8+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood; these are probably recruited in inflammatory tissue for viral eradication. In addition, we found a high level of NK-cell repertoire perturbation with relevant involvement during SARS-CoV-2 viremia.

11.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5608-5613, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363674

ABSTRACT

In this observational study, 13 patients with severe COVID-19 and 10 healthy controls were enrolled. The data concerning the analysis of circulating T cells show that, in severe COVID-19 patients, the expansion of these cell compartments is prone to induce antibody response, inflammation (CCR4+ and CCR6+ TFH) and regulation (CD8+ Treg). This pathogenic mechanism could lead us to envision a possible new form of biological target therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, CCR4 , Receptors, CCR6
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5608-5613, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206835

ABSTRACT

In this observational study, 13 patients with severe COVID-19 and 10 healthy controls were enrolled. The data concerning the analysis of circulating T cells show that, in severe COVID-19 patients, the expansion of these cell compartments is prone to induce antibody response, inflammation (CCR4+ and CCR6+ TFH) and regulation (CD8+ Treg). This pathogenic mechanism could lead us to envision a possible new form of biological target therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, CCR4 , Receptors, CCR6
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(4): e1009448, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190180

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection causes severe respiratory involvement (COVID-19) in 5-20% of patients through initial immune derangement, followed by intense cytokine production and vascular leakage. Evidence of immune involvement point to the participation of T, B, and NK cells in the lack of control of virus replication leading to COVID-19. NK cells contribute to early phases of virus control and to the regulation of adaptive responses. The precise mechanism of NK cell dysregulation is poorly understood, with little information on tissue margination or turnover. We investigated these aspects by multiparameter flow cytometry in a cohort of 28 patients hospitalized with early COVID-19. Relevant decreases in CD56brightCD16+/- NK subsets were detected, with a shift of circulating NK cells toward more mature CD56dimCD16+KIR+NKG2A+ and "memory" KIR+CD57+CD85j+ cells with increased inhibitory NKG2A and KIR molecules. Impaired cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production were associated with conserved expression of natural cytotoxicity receptors and perforin. Moreover, intense NK cell activation with increased HLA-DR and CD69 expression was associated with the circulation of CD69+CD103+ CXCR6+ tissue-resident NK cells and of CD34+DNAM-1brightCXCR4+ inflammatory precursors to mature functional NK cells. Severe disease trajectories were directly associated with the proportion of CD34+DNAM-1brightCXCR4+ precursors and inversely associated with the proportion of NKG2D+ and of CD103+ NK cells. Intense NK cell activation and trafficking to and from tissues occurs early in COVID-19, and is associated with subsequent disease progression, providing an insight into the mechanism of clinical deterioration. Strategies to positively manipulate tissue-resident NK cell responses may provide advantages to future therapeutic and vaccine approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , Humans , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Italy/epidemiology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 353, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The primary objective of the study is to describe the cellular characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation; the secondary outcome is to describe BALF findings between survivors vs non-survivors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 RT PCR, admitted to ICU between March and April 2020 were enrolled. At ICU admission, BALF were analyzed by flow cytometry. Univariate, multivariate and Spearman correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: Sixty-four patients were enrolled, median age of 64 years (IQR 58-69). The majority cells in the BALF were neutrophils (70%, IQR 37.5-90.5) and macrophages (27%, IQR 7-49) while a minority were lymphocytes, 1%, TCD3+ 92% (IQR 82-95). The ICU mortality was 32.8%. Non-survivors had a significantly older age (p = 0.033) and peripheral lymphocytes (p = 0.012) were lower compared to the survivors. At multivariate analysis the percentage of macrophages in the BALF correlated with poor outcome (OR 1.336, CI95% 1.014-1.759, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients, BALF cellularity is mainly composed of neutrophils and macrophages. The macrophages percentage in the BALF at ICU admittance correlated with higher ICU mortality. The lack of lymphocytes in BALF could partly explain a reduced anti-viral response.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Leukocyte Count , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Lymphocytes/cytology , Macrophages/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
15.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(11): e1304-e1314, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119446

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the attitudes and practice of Italian oncologists toward breast cancer care and related research activities. METHODS: A 29-question anonymous online survey was sent by e-mail to members of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology and the Italian Breast Cancer Study Group on April 3, 2020. Only medical oncologists (both those in training and specialists) were invited to complete the questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of 165 responding oncologists, 121 (73.3.%) worked in breast units. In the (neo)adjuvant setting, compared with before the emergency, fewer oncologists adopted weekly paclitaxel (68.5% v 93.9%) and a dose-dense schedule for anthracycline-based chemotherapy (43% v 58.8%) during the COVID-19 outbreak. In the metastatic setting, compared with before the emergency, fewer oncologists adopted first-line weekly paclitaxel for HER2-positive disease (41.8% v 53.9%) or CDK4/6 inhibitors for luminal tumors with less-aggressive characteristics (55.8% v 80.0%) during the COVID-19 outbreak. A significant change was also observed in delaying the timing for monitoring therapy with CDK4/6 inhibitors, assessing treatment response with imaging tests, and flushing central venous devices. Clinical research and scientific activities were reduced in 80.3% and 80.1% of respondents previously implicated in these activities, respectively. CONCLUSION: Medical oncologists face many challenges in providing cancer care during the COVID-19 outbreak. Although most of the changes in their attitudes and practice were reasonable responses to the current health care emergency without expected major negative impact on patient outcomes, some potentially alarming signals of undertreatment were observed.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , Telemedicine/trends , Breast/diagnostic imaging , Breast/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Medical Oncology/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060487

ABSTRACT

The primary objective of this multicenter, observational, retrospective study was to assess the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in intensive care units (ICU). The secondary objective was to assess predictors of 30-day case-fatality of VAP. From 15 February to 15 May 2020, 586 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the participating ICU. Of them, 171 developed VAP (29%) and were included in the study. The incidence rate of VAP was of 18 events per 1000 ventilator days (95% confidence intervals [CI] 16-21). Deep respiratory cultures were available and positive in 77/171 patients (45%). The most frequent organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27/77, 35%) and Staphylococcus aureus (18/77, 23%). The 30-day case-fatality of VAP was 46% (78/171). In multivariable analysis, septic shock at VAP onset (odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% CI 1.43-7.61, p = 0.005) and acute respiratory distress syndrome at VAP onset (OR 13.21, 95% CI 3.05-57.26, p < 0.001) were associated with fatality. In conclusion, VAP is frequent in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The related high fatality is likely the sum of the unfavorable prognostic impacts of the underlying viral and the superimposed bacterial diseases.

17.
Microorganisms ; 8(12)2020 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024612

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study is to evaluate if an independent association exists between liver enzyme elevations (LEE) and the risk of mortality or intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in patients with COVID-19. This was a single-center observational study, recruiting all consecutive adults with COVID-19. The elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) to the highest level between COVID-19 diagnosis and hospital discharge was categorized according to a standardized toxicity grade scale. In total, 799 patients were included in this study, 39% of which were female, with a mean age of 69.9 (±16.0) years. Of these patients, 225 (28.1%) developed LEE of grade ≥2 after a median of three days (interquartile range (IQR): 0-8 days) from the diagnosis of COVID-19, and they were estimated to have a higher hazard of death or ICU admission (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-1.88). The clinical and laboratory variables associated with the development of LEE were male sex, higher respiratory rate, higher gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and lower albumin levels at baseline. Among the analyzed treatments, steroids, tocilizumab and darunavir/ritonavir correlated with LEE. In conclusion, LEE were associated with mortality and ICU admission among COVID-19 patients. While the origin of LEE is probably multifactorial, LEE evaluation could add information to the clinical and laboratory variables that are commonly evaluated during the course of COVID-19.

18.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(1): 387-398, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with persistent viral shedding (PVS) in hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study including all consecutive adults hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. When the first nasopharyngeal swab was positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA (day 0), additional samples were obtained on days + 3, + 5, + 7 and then once every 7 days until virus detection was negative. PVS was defined as the duration of shedding of at least 21 days after diagnosis. The primary endpoint of this study was the prevalence of PVS. RESULTS: Data were obtained regarding 121 consecutive hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (median age 66 years, male sex 65.3%). Overall, the prevalence of PVS was 38% (46/121 patients). According to univariate analysis, factors associated with PVS were immunosuppression (6.7% vs 21.7%, p = 0.02), increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels (≥ 35 ng/ml) at the time of diagnosis (43.4% vs 67.3%, p = 0.02), time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis (median days 7.0 vs 3.5, p = 0.001), intensive care unit admission (22.7% vs 43.5%, p = 0.02), and need for invasive mechanical ventilation (20.0% vs 41.3%, p = 0.01). The multivariate analysis indicated that immunosuppression, increased IL-6 levels at the time of diagnosis, time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis, and need for mechanical ventilation were independent factors associated with PVS. CONCLUSIONS: PVS was detected in up to 38% of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and was strongly associated with immunosuppression, increased IL-6 levels, and the need for mechanical ventilation.

19.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(11): 1537-1544, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-764424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical characteristics, management and outcome of individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); and to evaluate risk factors for all-cause in-hospital mortality. METHODS: This retrospective study from a University tertiary care hospital in northern Italy, included hospitalized adult patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 between 25 February 2020 and 25 March 2020. RESULTS: Overall, 317 individuals were enrolled. Their median age was 71 years and 67.2% were male (213/317). The most common underlying diseases were hypertension (149/317; 47.0%), cardiovascular disease (63/317; 19.9%) and diabetes (49/317; 15.5%). Common symptoms at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis included fever (285/317; 89.9%), shortness of breath (167/317; 52.7%) and dry cough (156/317; 49.2%). An 'atypical' presentation including at least one among mental confusion, diarrhoea or nausea and vomiting was observed in 53/317 patients (16.7%). Hypokalaemia occurred in 25.8% (78/302) and 18.5% (56/303) had acute kidney injury. During hospitalization, 111/317 patients (35.0%) received non-invasive respiratory support, 65/317 (20.5%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and 60/317 (18.5%) required invasive mechanical ventilation. All-cause in-hospital mortality, assessed in 275 patients, was 43.6% (120/275). On multivariable analysis, age (per-year increase OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.04-1.10; p < 0.001), cardiovascular disease (OR 2.58; 95% CI 1.07-6.25; p 0.03), and C-reactive protein levels (per-point increase OR 1.009; 95% CI 1.004-1.014; p 0.001) were independent risk factors for all-cause in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 mainly affected elderly patients with predisposing conditions and caused severe illness, frequently requiring non-invasive respiratory support or ICU admission. Despite supportive care, COVID-19 remains associated with a substantial risk of all-cause in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cause of Death , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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