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1.
Pediatric Rheumatology ; 20(SUPPL 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1677513

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 severe pneumonia has been associated to systemic inflammation and elevation of blood parameters and reminiscent of cytokine storm syndrome. Stimulation of PBMC from patients with severe COVID-19 have shown a high secretion of IL-1β, a pivotal cytokine driving inflammatory phenotypes, which maturation and secretion is regulated by NLRP3 inflammasome. Steroidal anti-inflammatory therapies have shown efficacy in reducing mortality in critically ill patients, however the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV2 virus triggers such an extensive inflammation remain unexplained. Objectives: The overall objective of this study was to investigate if SARS-CoV2 drives inflammation in COVID-19 patients through NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion. Methods: Samples from SARS-CoV2 infected patients, were collected at day 0 and at 3 and 7 following treatment with anakinra. Fresh monocytes, purified through adherence, were cultured for 3, 6, 18 h in the presence or absence of LPS (100 ng/ml) and MCC950 (10μM). Release of IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-18 was quantified by ELISA kit. Relative gene expression analysis of ORF3a gene was performed by RT-qPCR. THP-1 cells were transfected with a plasmid containing ORF3a sequence by nucleofection. NLRP3 inflammasome and ASC speck formation were detected by confocal microscopy and/or by FACS analysis. Results: In the present study we show that circulating monocytes from COVID-19 patients display ASC specks, index of NLRP3 activation, and spontaneously secrete IL-1β in vitro. This spontaneous activation reverts following patient's treatment with the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra. Transfection of a monocytic cell line with cDNA coding for the ORF3a SARS-CoV2 protein, resulted in NLRP3- dependent ASC speck formation. The involvement of ORF3a in inflammasome activation was further supported by the detection by RT-PCR of ORF3a in monocytes from COVID-19 patients. Conclusion: In summary, these results provide a mechanistic explanation for the strong inflammatory manifestations associated to COVID-19 and further evidence that NLRP3 and IL-1β targeting could represent an effective strategy in this disease.

2.
Italian Journal of Medicine ; 15(1):67-70, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1178480

ABSTRACT

Since the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic, the possibility of recurrence of the disease after recovery has become a debated issue. We report a case of an 84-years-old male patient who was admitted to our hospital for dyspnea and fever. Lab and clinical workout showed that he had COVID-19. After a full recovery of symptoms and a double negative nasopharyngeal swab of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by realtime polymerase chain reaction assay, he was discharged from the hospital. One month later, he developed dyspnea and fever again with lung involvement. Surprisingly, the nasopharyngeal swab of SARS-CoV-2 was positive. Since he denied contacts with confirmed or suspected cases of COVID-19, he probably experienced a reactivation of a persistent infection. The failed eradication of the virus could depend on both virus' escape mechanisms and dysfunctional immune response. Further studies are needed to confirm the hypothesis of viral reactivation and identify signs of an incomplete clearance.

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