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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 907012, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963637

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Quantifying the combined impact of morbidity and mortality is a key enabler to assessing the impact of COVID-19 across countries and within countries relative to other diseases, regions, or demographics. Differences in methods, data sources, and definitions of mortality due to COVID-19 may hamper comparisons. We describe efforts to support countries in estimating the national-level burden of COVID-19 using disability-adjusted life years. Methods: The European Burden of Disease Network developed a consensus methodology, as well as a range of capacity-building activities to support burden of COVID-19 studies. These activities have supported 11 national studies so far, with study periods between January 2020 and December 2021. Results: National studies dealt with various data gaps and different assumptions were made to face knowledge gaps. Still, they delivered broadly comparable results that allow for interpretation of consistencies, as well as differences in the quantified direct health impact of the pandemic. Discussion: Harmonized efforts and methodologies have allowed for comparable estimates and communication of results. Future studies should evaluate the impact of interventions, and unravel the indirect health impact of the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Humans , Morbidity , Pandemics , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
2.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1898117

ABSTRACT

Objectives Quantifying the combined impact of morbidity and mortality is a key enabler to assessing the impact of COVID-19 across countries and within countries relative to other diseases, regions, or demographics. Differences in methods, data sources, and definitions of mortality due to COVID-19 may hamper comparisons. We describe efforts to support countries in estimating the national-level burden of COVID-19 using disability-adjusted life years. Methods The European Burden of Disease Network developed a consensus methodology, as well as a range of capacity-building activities to support burden of COVID-19 studies. These activities have supported 11 national studies so far, with study periods between January 2020 and December 2021. Results National studies dealt with various data gaps and different assumptions were made to face knowledge gaps. Still, they delivered broadly comparable results that allow for interpretation of consistencies, as well as differences in the quantified direct health impact of the pandemic. Discussion Harmonized efforts and methodologies have allowed for comparable estimates and communication of results. Future studies should evaluate the impact of interventions, and unravel the indirect health impact of the COVID-19 crisis.

3.
Arch Public Health ; 80(1): 151, 2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, most research has focused on the pathophysiology and management of the acute symptoms of COVID-19, yet some people tend to experience symptoms beyond the acute phase of infection, that is, Post COVID-19 condition (PCC). However, evidence on the long-term health impacts of a COVID-19 infection are still scarce. The purpose of this paper is to describe the COVIMPACT study, which aims to set up a cohort of people who have been tested positive for COVID-19 and study the evolution of their physical, mental and social health over the medium (3 months) and long term (two years), and the factors associated with an (un)favorable evolution. METHODS: COVIMPACT is a longitudinal cohort study organised over a two-years period between April 2021 and April 2023. The eligible population is all people aged 18 years and older, living in Belgium, with a recent COVID-19 infection and contacted by the health authorities for contact tracing. Two questionnaires are used: a baseline questionnaire that aims to assess the initial health status of the participants and their status during the acute phase of the illness, and a follow-up questionnaire that is sent every three months after participants enter into the cohort. A matched non-COVID-19 control group was also selected. As of November 1, 2021, 10,708 people completed the baseline questionnaire (5% of the eligible population) and the follow-up participation rate was 79%. In total, 48% of the cohort participants appeared to fit the proposed case definition of PCC (i.e. report at least one symptom related to their COVID-19 infection three months afterwards). DISCUSSION: This study was designed to provide timely information on the short and long term impact of a COVID-19 infection, to stakeholders such as policymakers, health practitioners and people with PCC. Although the follow-up participation rate was good (79%), the participation rate of the eligible population was low (5%). Compared to other studies, this study has a large sample, of non-hospitalised and hospitalised people, who will be followed over a long period of 3 months to two years post infection, and with a global approach to their health.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308893

ABSTRACT

Background: The spread of COVID-19 has affected people’s daily lives and the lockdown may have led to a disruption of daily activities and a decrease of people’s mental health. Aim: To identify correlates of adults’ mental health during the COVID-19 lockdown in Belgium and to assess the role of meaningful activities in particular. Methods: : A cross-sectional web survey for assessing mental health (General Health Questionnaire), resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale), meaning in activities (Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey) and demographics was conducted between April 24 and May 4, 2020. Hierarchical linear regression was used to identify key correlates. Results: : Participants (N=1781) reported low mental health (M=14.85/36). In total, 42.4% of the variance in mental health could be explained by variables such as gender, having children, living space, marital status, health condition, and resilience (β= -.33). Loss of meaningful activities was strongly related to mental health (β= -.36) and explained 9% incremental variance (R 2 change= .092, p <.001) above control variables. Conclusions: : The extent of performing meaningful activities during the COVID-19 lockdown in Belgium is positively related to adults’ mental health. Insights from this study can be taken into account during future lockdown measures in case of pandemics.

6.
J Clin Virol ; 142: 104897, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313211

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Assess the performance of five SARS-CoV-2 rapid serological tests (RST) using finger prick (FP) blood on-site to evaluate their usability for exposure assessment in population-based seroprevalence studies. STUDY DESIGN: Since cross-reactivity with common cold human coronaviruses occurs, serological testing includes a risk of false-positive results. Therefore, the selected cohort for RST-validation was based on combined immunoassay (presence of specific antibodies) and RT-qPCR (presence of SARS-CoV-2) data. RST-performance for FP blood and serum was assessed by performing each RST in two groups, namely SARSCoV- 2 positive (n=108) and negative healthcare workers (n=89). Differences in accuracy and positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were calculated for a range (1-50%) of SARS-CoV-2 prevalence estimates. RESULTS: The OrientGene showed overall acceptable performance, with sensitivities of 94.4% and 100%, and specificities of 96.6% and 94.4%, using FP blood and serum, respectively. Although three RST reach optimal specificities (100%), the OrientGene clearly outperforms in sensitivity. At a SARS-CoV-2 prevalence rate of 40%, this RST outperforms the other tests in NPV (96.3%) and reaches comparable PPV (94.9%). Although the specificity of the Covid-Presto is excellent when using FP blood or serum (100% and 97.8%, respectively), its sensitivity decreases when using FP blood (76.9%) compared to serum (98.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Performances of the evaluated RST differ largely. Only one out of five RST (OrientGene) had acceptable sensitivity and specificity using FP blood. Therefore, the latter could be used for seroprevalence studies in a high-prevalence situation. The OrientGene, which measures anti-RBD antibodies, can be valuable after vaccination as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests
8.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 2: 100019, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988716

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated the predictors of in-hospital mortality for COVID-19 patients who need to be admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). However, no data on the role of organizational issues on patients' outcome are available in this setting. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the role of surge capacity organisation on the outcome of critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs in Belgium. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of in-hospital mortality in Belgian ICU COVID-19 patients via the national surveillance database. Non-survivors at hospital discharge were compared to survivors using multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Specific analyses including only patients with invasive ventilation were performed. To assess surge capacity, data were merged with administrative information on the type of hospital, the baseline number of recognized ICU beds, the number of supplementary beds specifically created for COVID-19 ICU care and the "ICU overflow" (i.e. a time-varying ratio between the number of occupied ICU beds by confirmed and suspected COVID-19 patients divided by the number of recognized ICU beds reserved for COVID-19 patients; ICU overflow was present when this ratio is ≥ 1.0). FINDINGS: Over a total of 13,612 hospitalised COVID-19 patients with admission and discharge forms registered in the surveillance period (March, 1 to August, 9 2020), 1903 (14.0%) required ICU admission, of whom 1747 had available outcome data. Non-survivors (n = 632, 36.1%) were older and had more frequently various comorbid diseases than survivors. In the multivariable analysis, ICU overflow, together with older age, presence of comorbidities, shorter delay between symptom onset and hospital admission, absence of hydroxychloroquine therapy and use of invasive mechanical ventilation and of ECMO, was independently associated with an increased in-hospital mortality. Similar results were found in in in the subgroup of invasively ventilated patients. In addition, the proportion of supplementary beds specifically created for COVID-19 ICU care to the previously existing total number of ICU beds was associated with increased in-hospital mortality among invasively ventilated patients. The model also indicated a significant between-hospital difference in in-hospital mortality, not explained by the available patients and hospital characteristics. INTERPRETATION: Surge capacity organisation as reflected by ICU overflow or the creation of COVID-19 specific supplementary ICU beds were found to negatively impact ICU patient outcomes. FUNDING: No funding source was available for this study.

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