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1.
Antibiotics ; 11(5):695, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857732

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by the COVID-19 virus has required major adjustments to healthcare systems, especially to infection control and antimicrobial stewardship. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) and antibiotic consumption during the three waves of COVID-19 and to compare it to the period before the outbreak at Molinette Hospital, located in the City of Health and Sciences, a 1200-bed teaching hospital with surgical, medical, and intensive care units. We demonstrated an increase in MDR infections: particularly in K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp), A. baumannii, and MRSA. Fluoroquinolone use showed a significant increasing trend in the pre-COVID period but saw a significant reduction in the COVID period. The use of fourth- and fifth-generation cephalosporins and piperacillin–tazobactam increased at the beginning of the COVID period. Our findings support the need for restoring stewardship and infection control practices, specifically source control, hygiene, and management of invasive devices. In addition, our data reveal the need for improved microbiological diagnosis to guide appropriate treatment and prompt infection control during pandemics. Despite the infection control practices in place during the COVID-19 pandemic, invasive procedures in critically ill patients and poor source control still increase the risk of HAIs caused by MDR organisms.

2.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(9): e0220, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe patients according to the maximum degree of respiratory support received and report their inpatient mortality due to coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Analysis of patients in the Coracle registry from February 22, 2020, to April 1, 2020. SETTING: Hospitals in the Piedmont, Lombardy, Tuscany, and Lazio regions of Italy. PATIENTS: Nine-hundred forty-eight patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 948 patients, 122 (12.87%) received invasive ventilation, 637 (67.19%) received supplemental oxygen only, and 189 (19.94%) received no respiratory support. The median (quartile 1-quartile 3) age was 65 years (54-76.59 yr), and there was evidence of differential respiratory treatment by decade of life (p = 0.0046); patients greater than 80 years old were generally not intubated. There were 606 men (63.9%) in this study, and they were more likely to receive respiratory support than women (p < 0.0001). The rate of in-hospital death for invasive ventilation recipients was 22.95%, 12.87% for supplemental oxygen recipients, and 7.41% for those who received neither (p = 0.0004). A sensitivity analysis of the 770 patients less than 80 years old revealed a lower, but similar mortality trend (18.02%, 8.10%, 5.23%; p = 0.0008) among the 14.42%, 65.71%, and 19.87% of patients treated with mechanical ventilation, supplemental oxygen only, or neither. Overall, invasive ventilation recipients who died were significantly older than those who survived (median age: 68.5 yr [60-81.36 yr] vs 62.5 yr [55.52-71 yr]; p = 0.0145). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019, 13% received mechanical ventilation, which was associated with a mortality rate of 23%.

3.
Biomedicines ; 10(4)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may affect testicles. Lower testosterone levels have been associated with worse clinical outcomes and higher mortality. Our objective was to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of men admitted with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and its link with the pneumonia-treatment intensification. Short-term changes in hormonal parameters were also assessed. METHODS: Men admitted with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were recruited in two different hospitals in Piedmont, Italy. In all patients, the assessment of total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), gonadotropins, inhibin B (InhB), and other biochemical evaluations were performed at admission (T0) and before discharge (T1). Through a review of medical records, clinical history was recorded, including data on pneumonia severity. RESULTS: Thirty-five men (median age 64 [58-74] years) were recruited. Lower TT and cFT levels at T0 were associated with CPAP therapy (p = 0.045 and 0.028, respectively), even after adjusting for age and PaO2/FIO2 ratio in a multivariable analysis. In those discharged alive, lower TT and cFT levels were associated with longer hospital stay (p < 0.01). TT, cFT, and InhB were below the normal range at T0 and significantly increased at T1 (TT 1.98 [1.30-2.72] vs. 2.53 [1.28-3.37] ng/mL, p = 0.038; cFT (0.0441 [0.0256-0.0742] vs. 0.0702 [0.0314-0.0778] ng/mL, p = 0.046; InhB 60.75 [25.35-88.02] vs. 77.05 [51.15-134.50], p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Both TT and cFT levels are associated with adverse clinical outcomes in men admitted with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. As TT, cFT and InhB levels increase before discharge, short-term functional recovery of steroidogenesis and an indirect improvement of spermatozoa functional status could be hypothesized.

4.
Infez Med ; 30(1): 80-85, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772291

ABSTRACT

Introduction: liver abnormalities are common in COVID-19 patients and associated with higher morbidity and mortality. We aimed to investigate clinical significance and effect on the mortality of abnormal liver function tests (ALFTs) in COVID-19 patients. Methods: we retrospectively evaluated in a multicentre study all patients admitted with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Results: 434 patients were included in this analysis. Among overall patients, 311 (71.6%) had normal baseline ALT levels. 123 patients showed overall abnormal liver function tests (ALFTs) at baseline [101 ALFTs <2x UNL and 22 ≥2 UNL]. Overall in-hospital mortality was 14% and mean duration of hospitalization was 10.5 days. Hypertension (50.5%), cardiovascular diseases (39.6%), diabetes (23%) were frequent comorbidities and 53.7% of patients had ARDS. At multivariate analysis, the presence of ARDS at baseline (OR=6.11; 95% CI: 3.03-12.32; p<0.000); cardiovascular diseases (OR=4; 95% CI: 2.05-7.81; p<0.000); dementia (OR=3.93; 95%CI:1.87-8.26; p<0.000) and no smoking (OR=4.6; 95% CI: 1.45-14.61; p=0.010) resulted significantly predictive of in-hospital mortality. The presence of ALFTs at baseline was not significantly associated with mortality (OR=3.44; 95% CI=0.81-14.58; p=0.094). Conclusion: ALFTs was frequently observed in COVID-19 patients, but the overall in-hospital mortality was mainly determined by the severity of illness, comorbidities and presence of ARDS.

5.
BioMed ; 2(1):127-132, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1731938

ABSTRACT

Opportunistic invasive fungal infections (IFI) have been described in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19-related cytokine storm, immune dysregulation and lymphopenia may increase IFI susceptibility in comorbid patients. We described the case of a 64-year-old man with respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 infection complicated with disseminated cryptococosis. We analyzed the role played by the SARS-CoV-2-associated lymphopenia and the cumulative risk factors that lead to secondary infection by Cryptococcus neoformans, and its part in the dysregulation of the immunity response.

7.
Biomedicines ; 9(10)2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480578

ABSTRACT

Dalbavancin is a lipoglycopeptide approved for treatment of Gram-positive infections of skin and skin-associated structures (ABSSSI). Currently, off-label use at high dosages for osteoarticular infections deserves attention. This work aimed to study the long-term plasma pharmacokinetics of dalbavancin in outpatients with ABSSSI or osteoarticular infections, treated either with one or two 1500 mg doses of dalbavancin. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was used to measure total dalbavancin concentrations in plasma samples. The results were analyzed through a non-compartmental analysis (NCA). Breakpoint minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was used to calculate AUC/MIC and T > MIC parameters, adjusted by 93% protein binding. A total of 14 patients were enrolled, 11 with osteoarticular infection and 3 with ABSSSI. Long-term pharmacokinetics showed median T > MIC (0.125 mg/L) of 11.9 and 13.7 weeks for single and dual dose, respectively. Similarly, median AUC0-2w/MIC ratios of 20,590 and 31,366 were observed for single and dual dose regimens, respectively. No adverse events were observed, and treatment success was achieved in 12/14 patients. Failure was associated with the worst clinical conditions, bone infections, and single dose. The results of this study show that dalbavancin exposure exceeds previously suggested pharmacodynamic targets. Optimization of these targets is needed for the osteoarticular setting.

8.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108200, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440133

ABSTRACT

The world is facing up the most considerable vaccination effort in history to end the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) direct against the Receptor binding domain of the S protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) received an Emergency Use Authorization for outpatient management of mild to moderate manifestation from COVID-19. MAbs could prevent the transmission SARS-CoV-2 infection and protect individuals from progression to severe disease. Under the pressure of different treatment strategies, SARS-CoV-2 has been demonstrated to select for different sets of mutations named "variants" that could impair the effectiveness of mAbs by modifying target epitopes. We provide an overview of both completed and unpublished, or ongoing clinical trials of mAbs used and review state of art in order to describe clinical options, possible indications, and the place in therapy for these agents in the treatment of COVID-19 with a particular focus on anti-spike agents. Then, we reassume the current evidence on mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 that might confer resistance to neutralization by multiple mAbs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Animals , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Resistance/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
9.
J Clin Med ; 10(16)2021 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348654

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Adjunctive therapy with polyclonal intravenous immunoglobins (IVIg) is currently used for preventing or managing infections and sepsis, especially in immunocompromised patients. The pathobiology of COVID-19 and the mechanisms of action of Ig led to the consideration of this adjunctive therapy, including in patients with respiratory failure due to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. This manuscript reports the rationale, the available data and the results of a structured consensus on intravenous Ig therapy in patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: A panel of multidisciplinary experts defined the clinical phenotypes of COVID-19 patients with severe respiratory failure and, after literature review, voted for the agreement on the rationale and the potential role of IVIg therapy for each phenotype. Due to the scarce evidence available, a modified RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used. RESULTS: Three different phenotypes of COVID-19 patients with severe respiratory failure were identified: patients with an abrupt and dysregulated hyperinflammatory response (early phase), patients with suspected immune paralysis (late phase) and patients with sepsis due to a hospital-acquired superinfection (sepsis by bacterial superinfection). The rationale for intravenous Ig therapy in the early phase was considered uncertain whereas the panelists considered its use in the late phase and patients with sepsis/septic shock by bacterial superinfection appropriate. CONCLUSION: As with other immunotherapies, IVIg adjunctive therapy may have a potential role in the management of COVID-19 patients. The ongoing trials will clarify the appropriate target population and the true effectiveness.

10.
J Neurol Sci ; 428: 117610, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological involvement in Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is widely recognized. However, the role of pre-existing neurological comorbidities in modulating COVID-19-related mortality still remains unclear. This cohort study evaluates the COVID-19-related case fatality rate (CFR) of patients with pre-existing neurological diseases. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all patients consecutively admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of COVID-19 between March and April 2020. We used a multivariate regression analysis to estimate the association between pre-existing neurological diseases and COVID-19-related mortality. Then, we compared the CFR and survival curves of two cohorts (patients suffering vs. those not suffering from pre-existing neurological disease), matched trough the propensity score (PS). Age and other comorbidities were considered for PS calculation. We applied a 1:1 matching for the entire neurological cohort and, separately, for cerebrovascular, neurodegenerative, and other neurological diseases. RESULTS: Among 332 patients, 75 (22.6%) were affected by pre-existing neurological disease (n = 29 cerebrovascular, n = 26 neurodegenerative, n = 20 others). From the multivariate regression analysis, they resulted with a significant increase of COVID-19-related mortality (OR:2.559; 95%CI 1.181-5.545; p < 0.017). From the cohort analysis, CFR resulted 2-fold higher in patients with neurological disease (48.0% vs. 24.0%; p = 0.002). CFR was significantly higher in patients with neurodegenerative diseases compared to matched individuals (73.9% vs. 39.1%; p = 0.017), while CFR increase in patients with cerebrovascular diseases did not reach statistical significance (48.3% vs. 41.4%; p = 0.597). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing neurological comorbidities, in particular neurodegenerative diseases, increase significantly COVID-19-related case fatality, indicating a clear priority for viral screening, access to care facilities and vaccination in these populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 1837-1885, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333141

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Italian Society of Anti-Infective Therapy (SITA) and the Italian Society of Pulmonology (SIP) constituted an expert panel for developing evidence-based guidance for the clinical management of adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outside intensive care units. METHODS: Ten systematic literature searches were performed to answer ten different key questions. The retrieved evidence was graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology (GRADE). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The literature searches mostly assessed the available evidence on the management of COVID-19 patients in terms of antiviral, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)/non-invasive ventilation (NIV) treatment. Most evidence was deemed as of low certainty, and in some cases, recommendations could not be developed according to the GRADE system (best practice recommendations were provided in similar situations). The use of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies may be considered for outpatients at risk of disease progression. For inpatients, favorable recommendations were provided for anticoagulant prophylaxis and systemic steroids administration, although with low certainty of evidence. Favorable recommendations, with very low/low certainty of evidence, were also provided for, in specific situations, remdesivir, alone or in combination with baricitinib, and tocilizumab. The presence of many best practice recommendations testified to the need for further investigations by means of randomized controlled trials, whenever possible, with some possible future research directions stemming from the results of the ten systematic reviews.

12.
Updates Surg ; 73(5): 1775-1786, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274974

ABSTRACT

Several regimens of oral and intravenous antibiotics (OIVA) have been proposed with contradicting results, and the role of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is still controversial. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of oral antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing Surgical Site Infections (SSI) in elective colorectal surgery. In a multicentre trial, we randomized patients undergoing elective colorectal resection surgery, comparing the effectiveness of OIVA versus intravenous antibiotics (IVA) regimens to prevent SSI as the primary outcome (NCT04438655). In addition to intravenous Amoxicillin/Clavulanic, patients in the OIVA group received Oral Neomycin and Bacitracin 24 h before surgery. MBP was administered according to local habits which were not changed for the study. The trial was terminated during the COVID-19 pandemic, as many centers failed to participate as well as the pandemic changed the rules for engaging patients. Two-hundred and four patients were enrolled (100 in the OIVA and 104 in the IVA group); 3 SSIs (3.4%) were registered in the OIVA and 14 (14.4%) in the IVA group (p = 0.010). No difference was observed in terms of anastomotic leak. Multivariable analysis indicated that OIVA reduced the rate of SSI (OR 0.21 / 95% CI 0.06-0.78 / p = 0.019), while BMI is a risk factor of SSI (OR 1.15 / 95% CI 1.01-1.30 p = 0.039). Subgroup analysis indicated that 0/22 patients who underwent OIVA/MBP + vs 13/77 IVA/MBP- experienced an SSI (p = 0.037). The early termination of the study prevents any conclusion regarding the interpretation of the data. Nonetheless, Oral Neomycin/Bacitracin and intravenous beta-lactam/beta-lactamases inhibitors seem to reduce SSI after colorectal resections, although not affecting the anastomotic leak in this trial. The role of MBP requires more investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Surgery , Administration, Oral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Bacitracin , Cathartics/therapeutic use , Colectomy , Colorectal Surgery/adverse effects , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Neomycin , Pandemics , Preoperative Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control
13.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(12): 4861-4867, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228713

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is one of the most encouraging treatments against SARS-CoV-2 infection. After intravenous infusion, RDV is rapidly metabolized (t1/2 = 1 h) within the cells to its active adenosine triphosphate analogue form (GS-443902) and then it can be found in plasma in its nucleoside analogue form (GS-441524). In this real-life study, we describe the remdesivir and GS-441524 concentrations at three time points in nine ICU patients, through a validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. The observed data confirmed the very rapid conversion of RDV to its metabolite and the quite long half-life of GS-441524. The mean Cmin , Cmax and AUC0-24 , were < 0.24 ng/mL and 122.3 ng/mL, 2637.3 ng/mL and 157.8 ng/mL, and 5171.2 ng*h/mL and 3676.5 ng*h/ml, respectively, for RDV and GS-441524. Three out of nine patients achieved a Cmax  > 2610 ng/mL and 140 ng/mL and AUC0-24  > 1560 ng*h/mL and 2230 ng*h/mL for RDV and GS-441524, respectively. The mean t1/2 value for GS-441524 was 26.3 h. Despite the low number of patients, these data can represent an interesting preliminary report on the variability of RDV and GS-441524 concentrations in a real-life ICU setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
14.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227007

ABSTRACT

Recently, large-scale screening for COVID-19 has presented a major challenge, limiting timely countermeasures. Therefore, the application of suitable rapid serological tests could provide useful information, however, little evidence regarding their robustness is currently available. In this work, we evaluated and compared the analytical performance of a rapid lateral-flow test (LFA) and a fast semiquantitative fluorescent immunoassay (FIA) for anti-nucleocapsid (anti-NC) antibodies, with the reverse transcriptase real-time PCR assay as the reference. In 222 patients, LFA showed poor sensitivity (55.9%) within two weeks from PCR, while later testing was more reliable (sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 93.1%). Moreover, in a subset of 100 patients, FIA showed high sensitivity (89.1%) and specificity (94.1%) after two weeks from PCR. The coupled application for the screening of 183 patients showed satisfactory concordance (K = 0.858). In conclusion, rapid serological tests were largely not useful for early diagnosis, but they showed good performance in later stages of infection. These could be useful for back-tracing and/or to identify potentially immune subjects.

15.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CORACLE is a retrospective and prospective, regional multicenter registry, developed to evaluate risk factors for mortality in a cohort of patients admitted with SARS-CoV-2 infection within non-intensive wards. METHODS: The primary objective was to estimate the role of several prognostic factors on hospital mortality in terms of adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR) with multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: A total of 1538 patients were enrolled; 42% were female, and 58% were >70 years old. Deceased patients were 422 (27%), with a median age of 83 years (IQR (Inter Quartile Range) 76-87). Older age at admission (aOR 1.07 per year, 95%CI 1.06-1.09), diabetes (1.41, 1.02-1.94), cardiovascular disease (1.79, 1.31-2.44), immunosuppression (1.65, 1.04-2.62), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (3.53, 2.26-5.51), higher C-reactive protein values and a decreased PaO2/FiO2 ratio at admission were associated with a higher risk of hospital mortality. Amongst patients still alive on day 7, only hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treatment was associated with reduced mortality (0.57, 0.36-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Several risk factors were associated with mortality in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Although HCQ seems to be the only factor significantly associated with reduced mortality, this result is in contrast with evidence from randomized studies. These results should be interpreted in light of the study limitations.

16.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222060

ABSTRACT

Ceftobiprole combines an excellent spectrum for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) pathogens, with a low/medium MDR risk, and the ß-lactams' safety in frail patients admitted to the hospital in internal medicine wards which may be at high risk of adverse events by anti-MRSA coverage as oxazolidinones or glycopeptides. We aimed to report the available evidence regarding ceftobiprole use in pneumonia and invasive bacterial infections, shedding light on ceftobiprole stewardship. The clinical application and real-life experiences of using ceftobiprole for bloodstream infections, including infective endocarditis, are limited but nevertheless promising. In addition, extended-spectrum ceftobiprole activity, including Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has theoretical advantages for use as empirical therapy in bacteremia potentially caused by a broad spectrum of microorganisms, such as catheter-related bacteremia. In the future, the desirable approach to sepsis and severe infections will be administered to patients according to their clinical situation, the intrinsic host characteristics, the susceptibility profile, and local epidemiology, while the "universal antibiotic strategy" will no longer be adequate.

17.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(8): 985-992, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218961

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Therapy of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) involves evolving algorithms that include drugs aimed at reducing disease progression by counteracting two different, but intertwined processes: (i) the damage caused by the virus (with antivirals); (ii) the damage caused by a dysregulated host response (with immunomodulatory agents). AREAS COVERED: Herein, we discuss the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of antiviral agents employed over the past months for the treatment of COVID-19, and the reasons to be considered for antiviral selection. EXPERT OPINION: The available evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCT) currently discourages the use of lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and interferons, which did not show improved efficacy compared to standard care or placebo. Regarding remdesivir, the current body of evidence may conditionally support its use in COVID-19 patients requiring oxygen supplementation but still not requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Finally, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been proven efficacious in reducing the risk of severe disease development if administered early in the course of the disease to patients at risk of progression. The results of the ongoing RCT will certainly be crucial to further improve our understanding of the optimal place in therapy of antiviral agents for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Lopinavir , Treatment Outcome
18.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(9): 1125-1134, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122062

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically challenged the national health systems worldwide in the last months. Dalbavancin is a novel antibiotic with a long plasmatic half-life and simplified weekly administration regimens, thus representing a promising option for the outpatient treatment of Gram-positive infections and the early discharge of hospitalized patients. Dalbavancin is approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). Many preliminary data seem to support its use in other indications, such as osteomyelitis, prosthetic joint infections, and infective endocarditis. AREAS COVERED: A search in the literature using validated keywords (dalbavancin, Gram-positive infections, Gram-positive cocci, ABSSSI, intravenous treatment, and long-acting antibiotics) was conducted on biomedical bibliographic databases (PubMed and Embase) from 2004 to 30 September 2020. Results were analyzed during two consensus conferences with the aim to review the current evidence on dalbavancin in Gram-positive infections, mainly ABSSSI, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis, highlight the main limitations of available studies and suggest possible advantages of the molecule. EXPERT OPINION: The board identifies some specific subgroups of patients with ABSSSIs who could mostly benefit from a treatment with dalbavancin and agrees that the design of homogenous and robust studies would allow a broader use of dalbavancin even in other clinical settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Ambulatory Care/methods , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Administration Schedule , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/drug therapy , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/microbiology , Teicoplanin/administration & dosage , Teicoplanin/pharmacology
19.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 288: 103645, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104240

ABSTRACT

Several pre-clinical and clinical trials show that exogenous pulmonary surfactant has clinical efficacy in inflammatory lung diseases, especially ARDS. By infecting type II alveolar cells, COVID-19 interferes with the production and secretion of the pulmonary surfactant and therefore causes an increase in surface tension, which in turn can lead to alveolar collapse. The use of the pulmonary surfactant seems to be promising as an additional therapy for the treatment of ARDS. COVID-19 causes lung damage and ARDS, so beneficial effects of surfactant therapy in COVID-19-associated ARDS patients are conceivable, especially when applied early in the treatment strategy against pulmonary failure. Because of the robust anti-inflammatory and lung protective efficacy and the current urgent need for lung-supportive therapy, the exogenous pulmonary surfactant could be a valid supportive treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia patients in intensive care units in addition to the current standard of ARDS treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Phospholipids/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060487

ABSTRACT

The primary objective of this multicenter, observational, retrospective study was to assess the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in intensive care units (ICU). The secondary objective was to assess predictors of 30-day case-fatality of VAP. From 15 February to 15 May 2020, 586 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the participating ICU. Of them, 171 developed VAP (29%) and were included in the study. The incidence rate of VAP was of 18 events per 1000 ventilator days (95% confidence intervals [CI] 16-21). Deep respiratory cultures were available and positive in 77/171 patients (45%). The most frequent organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27/77, 35%) and Staphylococcus aureus (18/77, 23%). The 30-day case-fatality of VAP was 46% (78/171). In multivariable analysis, septic shock at VAP onset (odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% CI 1.43-7.61, p = 0.005) and acute respiratory distress syndrome at VAP onset (OR 13.21, 95% CI 3.05-57.26, p < 0.001) were associated with fatality. In conclusion, VAP is frequent in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The related high fatality is likely the sum of the unfavorable prognostic impacts of the underlying viral and the superimposed bacterial diseases.

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