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3.
Thromb J ; 20(1): 63, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064814

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) may be associated with the development of thrombosis. Experimental studies have confirmed the presence of NETs in thrombi specimens and potential role of NETs in the mechanisms of thrombosis. Clinical studies also have demonstrated significant changes in the levels of serum or plasma NETs biomarkers, such as citrullinated histones, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase, nucleosomes, DNA, and their complexes in patients with thrombosis. This paper aims to comprehensively review the currently available evidence regarding the change in the levels of NETs biomarkers in patients with thrombosis, summarize the role of NETs and its biomarkers in the development and prognostic assessment of venous thromboembolism, coronary artery diseases, ischemic stroke, cancer-associated thromboembolism, and coronavirus disease 2019-associated thromboembolism, explore the potential therapeutic implications of NETs, and further discuss the shortcomings of existing NETs biomarkers in serum and plasma and their detection methods.

4.
Revista Internacional del Trabajo ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in Spanish | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1883204

ABSTRACT

Resumen La expansión de la vigilancia digital a raíz de la COVID-19 ha reconfigurado las relaciones de poder en los entornos profesionales. Aquí se analiza críticamente la interacción entre esa vigilancia intrusiva y la ampliación de las prerrogativas empresariales en el lugar de trabajo físico y digital. Con la supervisión excesiva como denominador común de las actividades «esenciales» y «distanciables», se estudian los inconvenientes para ambas categorías de trabajadores durante la pandemia (y después). Se evalúa la idoneidad del marco jurídico de la Unión Europea para abordar la gestión basada en datos. El diálogo social, el empoderamiento de los trabajadores y la alfabetización digital se consideran formas eficaces de promover la flexibilidad, el bienestar y la competitividad.

6.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 217: 106655, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic affected healthcare systems worldwide. Predictive models developed by Artificial Intelligence (AI) and based on timely, centralized and standardized real world patient data could improve management of COVID-19 to achieve better clinical outcomes. The objectives of this manuscript are to describe the structure and technologies used to construct a COVID-19 Data Mart architecture and to present how a large hospital has tackled the challenge of supporting daily management of COVID-19 pandemic emergency, by creating a strong retrospective knowledge base, a real time environment and integrated information dashboard for daily practice and early identification of critical condition at patient level. This framework is also used as an informative, continuously enriched data lake, which is a base for several on-going predictive studies. METHODS: The information technology framework for clinical practice and research was described. It was developed using SAS Institute software analytics tool and SAS® Vyia® environment and Open-Source environment R ® and Python ® for fast prototyping and modeling. The included variables and the source extraction procedures were presented. RESULTS: The Data Mart covers a retrospective cohort of 5528 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. People who died were older, had more comorbidities, reported more frequently dyspnea at onset, had higher d-dimer, C-reactive protein and urea nitrogen. The dashboard was developed to support the management of COVID-19 patients at three levels: hospital, single ward and individual care level. INTERPRETATION: The COVID-19 Data Mart based on integration of a large collection of clinical data and an AI-based integrated framework has been developed, based on a set of automated procedures for data mining and retrieval, transformation and integration, and has been embedded in the clinical practice to help managing daily care. Benefits from the availability of a Data Mart include the opportunity to build predictive models with a machine learning approach to identify undescribed clinical phenotypes and to foster hospital networks. A real-time updated dashboard built from the Data Mart may represent a valid tool for a better knowledge of epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19, especially when multiple waves are observed, as well as for epidemic and pandemic events of the same nature (e. g. with critical clinical conditions leading to severe pulmonary inflammation). Therefore, we believe the approach presented in this paper may find several applications in comparable situations even at region or state levels. Finally, models predicting the course of future waves or new pandemics could largely benefit from network of DataMarts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Decision-Making , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Haematologica ; 106(12): 3034-3045, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547214

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a heavy impact on global health and economy and vaccination remains the primary way of controlling the infection. During the ongoing vaccination campaign some unexpected thrombotic events have emerged in subjects who had recently received the AstraZeneca (Vaxzevria) vaccine or the Johnson and Johnson (Janssen) vaccine, two adenovirus vector-based vaccines. Epidemiological studies confirm that the observed/expected ratio of these unusual thromboses is abnormally increased, especially in women in fertile age. The characteristics of this complication, with venous thromboses at unusual sites, most frequently in the cerebral vein sinuses but also in splanchnic vessels, often with multiple associated thromboses, thrombocytopenia, and sometimes disseminated intravascular coagulation, are unique and the time course and tumultuous evolution are suggestive of an acute immunological reaction. Indeed, plateletactivating anti-PF4 antibodies have been detected in a large proportion of the affected patients. Several data suggest that adenoviruses may interact with platelets, the endothelium and the blood coagulation system. Here we review interactions between adenoviral vectors and the hemostatic system that are of possible relevance in vaccine-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenia syndrome. We systematically analyze the clinical data on the reported thrombotic complications of adenovirus-based therapeutics and discuss all the current hypotheses on the mechanisms triggering this novel syndrome. Although, considering current evidence, the benefit of vaccination clearly outweighs the potential risks, it is of paramount importance to fully unravel the mechanisms leading to vaccineassociated thrombotic thrombocytopenia syndrome and to identify prognostic factors through further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Adenoviridae , Blood Coagulation , Blood Platelets , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21136, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493228

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is impressively challenging the healthcare system. Several prognostic models have been validated but few of them are implemented in daily practice. The objective of the study was to validate a machine-learning risk prediction model using easy-to-obtain parameters to help to identify patients with COVID-19 who are at higher risk of death. The training cohort included all patients admitted to Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli with COVID-19 from March 5, 2020, to November 5, 2020. Afterward, the model was tested on all patients admitted to the same hospital with COVID-19 from November 6, 2020, to February 5, 2021. The primary outcome was in-hospital case-fatality risk. The out-of-sample performance of the model was estimated from the training set in terms of Area under the Receiving Operator Curve (AUROC) and classification matrix statistics by averaging the results of fivefold cross validation repeated 3-times and comparing the results with those obtained on the test set. An explanation analysis of the model, based on the SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP), is also presented. To assess the subsequent time evolution, the change in paO2/FiO2 (P/F) at 48 h after the baseline measurement was plotted against its baseline value. Among the 921 patients included in the training cohort, 120 died (13%). Variables selected for the model were age, platelet count, SpO2, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, neutrophil count, and sodium. The results of the fivefold cross-validation repeated 3-times gave AUROC of 0.87, and statistics of the classification matrix to the Youden index as follows: sensitivity 0.840, specificity 0.774, negative predictive value 0.971. Then, the model was tested on a new population (n = 1463) in which the case-fatality rate was 22.6%. The test model showed AUROC 0.818, sensitivity 0.813, specificity 0.650, negative predictive value 0.922. Considering the first quartile of the predicted risk score (low-risk score group), the case-fatality rate was 1.6%, 17.8% in the second and third quartile (high-risk score group) and 53.5% in the fourth quartile (very high-risk score group). The three risk score groups showed good discrimination for the P/F value at admission, and a positive correlation was found for the low-risk class to P/F at 48 h after admission (adjusted R-squared = 0.48). We developed a predictive model of death for people with SARS-CoV-2 infection by including only easy-to-obtain variables (abnormal blood count, BUN, C-reactive protein, sodium and lower SpO2). It demonstrated good accuracy and high power of discrimination. The simplicity of the model makes the risk prediction applicable for patients in the Emergency Department, or during hospitalization. Although it is reasonable to assume that the model is also applicable in not-hospitalized persons, only appropriate studies can assess the accuracy of the model also for persons at home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Machine Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Multivariate Analysis , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , Rome/epidemiology
11.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep ; 16(5): 455-463, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442179

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high rate of respiratory failure, thromboembolism, bleeding, and death. Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are prone to both thrombosis and bleeding, calling for special care during COVID-19. We reviewed the clinical features of MPN patients with COVID-19, suggesting guidance for treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: One study by the European LeukemiaNet collected 175 MPN patients with COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic, from February to May 2020. Patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) were at higher risk of mortality (48%) in comparison with essential thrombocythemia (ET) (25%) and polycythemia vera (19%); the risk of death was higher in those patients who abruptly discontinued ruxolitinib. In patients followed at home, in regular wards, or in ICU, the thrombosis rate was 1.0%, 2.8%, and 18.4%, respectively. Independent risk factors for thrombosis were ET phenotype, transfer to ICU, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio; major bleeding occurred in 4.3% of patients, particularly those with PMF. MPN patients with non-severe COVID-19 treated at home should continue their primary or secondary antithrombotic prophylaxis with aspirin or oral anticoagulants. In the case of hospitalization, patients assuming aspirin should add low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) at standard doses. In contrast, LMWH at intermediate/therapeutic doses should replace oral anticoagulants prescribed for atrial fibrillation or previous venous thromboembolism. Intermediate/high doses of LMWH can also be considered in ICU patients with ET, particularly in the case of a rapid decline in the number of platelets and progressive respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative/complications , Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative/epidemiology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative/therapy , Myeloproliferative Disorders/complications , Myeloproliferative Disorders/diagnosis , Myeloproliferative Disorders/epidemiology , Myeloproliferative Disorders/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology
12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438523

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) started in December 2019 in China and then become pandemic in February 2020. Several publications investigated the possible increased rate of COVID-19 infection in hematological malignancies. Based on the published data, strategies for the management of chronic Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are provided. The risk of severe COVID-19 seems high in MPN, particularly in patients with essential thrombocythemia, but not negligible in myelofibrosis. MPN patients are at high risk of both thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications and this must be accounted in the case of COVID-19 deciding on a case-by-case basis. There are currently no data to suggest that hydroxyurea or interferon may influence the risk or severity of COVID-19 infection. Conversely, while the immunosuppressive activity of ruxolitinib might pose increased risk of infection, its abrupt discontinuation during COVID-19 syndrome is associated with worse outcome. All MPN patients should receive vaccine against COVID-19; reassuring data are available on efficacy of mRNA vaccines in MPNs.

14.
Am J Hematol ; 96(12): 1580-1586, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375592

ABSTRACT

The recent association of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) with COVID-19 vaccinations prompted the current retrospective review of 74 cases of CVT (median age = 44 years, range 15-85; 61% females) associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), seen at the Mayo Clinic, Catholic University of Rome, and University of Florence, between 1991 and 2021. Disease-specific frequencies were 1.3% (39/2893), 1.2% (21/1811) and 0.2% (3/1888) for essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis, respectively. Cerebral venous thrombosis occurred either prior to (n = 20, 27%), at (n = 32, 44%) or after (n = 22) MPN diagnosis. A total of 72% of patients presented with headaches. Transverse (51%), sagittal (43%) and sigmoid sinuses (35%) were involved with central nervous system hemorrhage noted in 10 (14%) patients. In all, 91% of tested patients harbored JAK2V617F. An underlying thrombophilic condition was identified in 19 (31%) cases and history of thrombosis in 10 (14%). Treatment for CVT included systemic anticoagulation alone (n = 27) or in conjunction with aspirin (n = 24), cytoreductive therapy (n = 14), or both (n = 9). At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range 0.1-28.6), recurrent CVT was documented in three (4%) patients while recurrent arterial and venous thromboses and major hemorrhage were recorded in 11%, 9% and 14%, respectively. Follow-up neurological assessment revealed headaches (n = 9), vision loss (n = 1) and cognitive impairment (n = 1). The current study lends clarity to MPN-associated CVT and highlights its close association with JAK2V617F, younger age and female gender. Clinical features that distinguish COVID vaccine-related CVT from MPN-associated CVT include, in the latter, lower likelihood of concurrent venous thromboses and intracerebral hemorrhage; as a result, MPN-associated CVT was not fatal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Myeloproliferative Disorders/complications , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/genetics , Janus Kinase 2/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Myeloproliferative Disorders/genetics , Point Mutation , Polycythemia Vera/complications , Polycythemia Vera/genetics , Primary Myelofibrosis/complications , Primary Myelofibrosis/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocythemia, Essential/complications , Thrombocythemia, Essential/genetics , Venous Thrombosis/genetics , Young Adult
16.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(6): 115, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275905
17.
Int Labour Rev ; 161(2): 289-314, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273098

ABSTRACT

An unprecedented COVID-19-induced explosion in digital surveillance has reconfigured power relationships in professional settings. This article critically concentrates on the interplay between technology-enabled intrusive monitoring and the augmentation of managerial prerogatives in physical and digital workplaces. It identifies excessive supervision as the common denominator of "essential" and "remotable" activities, besides discussing the various drawbacks faced by the two categories of workers during (and after) the pandemic. It also assesses the adequacy of the current European Union legal framework in addressing the expansion of data-driven management. Social dialogue, workers' empowerment and digital literacy are identified as effective ways to promote organizational flexibility, well-being and competitiveness.

18.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 13(1): e2021032, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234866

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic requires revisiting our current approach to major blood disorders, including ITP (Immune Thrombocytopenia), stirring up the production of several disease-specific practical guidelines. This report describes an updated version of consensus-based practical guidelines on the management of ITP, adapted to the Italian health system and social context. It highlights the role of the hematologist in offering guidance for choosing differentiated approaches in relation to specific circumstances and is intended to provide them with a useful tool for sharing the decision-making process with their patients. Probably, the greatest risk to avoid for a patient with suspected, ongoing or relapsed ITP - that is not severe enough to place him or her at risk for major bleeding - is to be infected in non-hospital and hospital healthcare settings. This risk must be carefully considered when adapting the diagnostic and therapeutic approach. More in detail, the document first addresses the appropriate management for COVID-19 negative patients with newly diagnosed ITP or who experience a relapse of previous ITP, according to first and second lines of treatment and then the management of COVID-19 positive patients according to their severity, from paucisymptomatic to those requiring admission to Intensive Cure Units (ICU). The pros and cons of the different treatments required to correct platelet count are discussed, as are some specific situations, including chronic ITP, splenectomy, thromboembolic complication and anti COVID-19 vaccination.

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