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1.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S79, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189534

ABSTRACT

Background. Antenatal and neonatal viral exposure may put the developing brain at risk for abnormal neurodevelopment. A clinical follow-up program was created in the Congenital Infection Program at Children's National Hospital to follow infants with in utero or early life exposure to SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this study was to determine if infants with early SARS-CoV-2 exposure have abnormal neurodevelopment in infancy. Methods. We performed a retrospective review of all infants evaluated in the follow-up program between 3/2020 - 11/2021. Demographic details, SARS-CoV-2 infection/ testing data, pregnancy/birth data, and specialty consult and NICU records were extracted from infants' medical charts. Infants were divided into 3 SARS-CoV-2 exposure groups: 1) antenatal exposure to symptomatic mother, 2) antenatal exposure to asymptomatic mother, 3) neonatal infection. All infants received a neurologic exam and developmental screening with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) in 5 domains (Communication, Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Problem Solving, Personal-Social) during their evaluation. The ASQ accounts for prematurity. Outcomes of interest were an abnormal neurologic exam or ASQ scores close to or below suggested cut-offs. Multivariate analysis was used to study correlations between exposure group and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Results. Thirty-five infants were seen for up to 3 outpatient visits. Most infants (83%) were exposed in utero - 16 to symptomatic mothers (Group 1) and 12 to asymptomatic mothers (Group 2);1 chart did not have symptom data. Six were exposed only as a neonate (Group 3). Group 1 had abnormal neurologic exams at mean (SD) age 112 (24) days (Table 1) and ASQ scores close to or below cut-offs for all domains (Fig. 1) more frequently than Groups 2 or 3. Group 1 was more likely to score below any ASQ cutoff compared to Group 2 (P=.04);of the 5 domains, differences were significant for Fine Motor (P=.01) and Personal-Social (P=.02). Conclusion. Early SARS-CoV-2 exposure may impact infant development, especially among those exposed in utero to a symptomatic mother. Vaccination and other precautions to reduce spread and symptoms may protect against early neurodevelopmental delays. Future work should prioritize longitudinal follow-up of children with early SARS-CoV-2 exposure. (Table Presented).

3.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S338, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185905

ABSTRACT

Background: Children and young adults were initially reported as largely spared from severe complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the impact to this population has been significant. Methods: This observational retrospective cohort study includes 420 symptomatic children and young adults with lab confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection treated between March 15 and June 16, 2020 at Children's National Hospital in Washington DC. We identified and compared cohorts of non-hospitalized (N=324) and hospitalized (N=96) patients, including non-critically ill (N=64) and critically ill hospitalized (N=32) patients. Clinical and demographic data were extracted from medical records Results: Of 420 SARS-CoV-2-infected symptomatic patients, 23% required hospitalization, of which 67% were non-critically ill and 33% were critically ill. All age groups were represented in the symptomatic cohort, with a median age of 8.6 years. Patients > 15 years of age represented 44% of critical care admissions. Males and females were equally represented in all cohorts. Underlying medical conditions were present in 36%, but more common in hospitalized (59 %) and critically ill (66 %) patients. The most frequent underlying diagnosis overall was asthma (16 %), but also included neurologic (6 %), diabetes (3 %), obesity (3 %), cardiac (3 %), hematologic (3 %) and oncologic (1 %) conditions. The majority (66 %) of SARSCoV- 2 infected patients presented with respiratory symptoms with or without fever. Other symptoms were also present, including diarrhea/vomiting (21 %), myalgia (11 %), chest pain (8 %) and loss of sense of smell or taste (7%). Hospitalized patients required varying levels of respiratory support, including mechanical ventilation, BiPAP, RAM cannula and HFNC. Additional presentations included diabetic hyperglycemia, sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis, vascular complications, and multisystem inflammation. Treatment included remdesivir, convalescent plasma, tocilizumab and other therapies. Conclusion: Although children/young adults have been less affected than elderly adults, the impact of SARS-CoV2 on this population has been significant in Washington DC and informs other regions anticipating their surge.

4.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S338, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185903

ABSTRACT

Background: Background: Multi-system Inflammatory Syndrome of Children (MIS-C) has recently emerged internationally as a serious inflammatory complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection with significant morbidity for the pediatric population. Methods: This observational retrospective cohort study includes 33 children meeting CDC criteria for MIS-C treated between March 15 and June 17, 2020 at Children's National Hospital in Washington DC. Clinical and demographic data were extracted from medical records and are summarized. Results: Of 33 hospitalized MIS-C patients, 42% were critically ill, and 58% were non-critically ill. The median age was 8.9 years (0.7-18.7 years). More males (58 %) than females (43 %) were represented in the MIS-C cohort. The majority (75%) of children had no underlying medical condition. Criteria for incomplete or complete Kawasaki Disease (KD) were present in 39% of patients, while an additional 9% had some features of KD. However the remaining 52% of MIS-C patients presented with other sub-phenotypes including prominent severe abdominal pain and/or nonspecific multiorgan dysfunction. 30% presented with shock requiring volume and/or inotropic support. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were present in 61% of patients. Virus was detectable by PCR in 36% of patients. At the time of initial evaluation, 39% (13/33) of children had identified cardiac abnormalities including myocardial dysfunction (5/33;15%), coronary ectasia (4/33;12%), coronary aneurysm (3/33;9%), or pericardial effusion 5/33;15%) either alone or in combination. Cytokine profiling identified elevation of several cytokines in this cohort, including IL-6. Treatment has included intravenous immunoglobulin, aspirin, anakinra and other immunomodulatory therapies, with overall rapid response to therapy. No deaths have occurred. Conclusion: The emergence of MIS-C late in the surge of SARS-CoV-2 circulation in the Washington DC metropolitan region has added to the already significant burden of hospitalized and critically ill children in our region. A significant percentage of these children present with cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities, whether or not with KD features at presentation. Detailed characterization of immune responses and long term outcome of these patients is a priority.

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