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J Med Virol ; 94(11): 5251-5259, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919347


Accurate estimates of the total burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are needed to inform policy, planning, and response. We sought to quantify SARS-CoV-2 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths by age in Michigan. Coronavirus disease 2019 cases reported to the Michigan Disease Surveillance System were multiplied by age and time-specific adjustment factors to correct for under-detection. Adjustment factors were estimated in a model fit to incidence data and seroprevalence estimates. Age-specific incidence of SARS-CoV-2 hospitalization, death, vaccination, and variant proportions were estimated from publicly available data. We estimated substantial under-detection of infection that varied by age and time. Accounting for under-detection, we estimate the cumulative incidence of infection in Michigan reached 75% by mid-November 2021, and over 87% of Michigan residents were estimated to have had ≥1 vaccination dose and/or previous infection. Comparing pandemic waves, the relative burden among children increased over time. In general, the proportion of cases who were hospitalized or who died decreased over time. Our results highlight the ongoing risk of periods of high SARS-CoV-2 incidence despite widespread prior infection and vaccination. This underscores the need for long-term planning for surveillance, vaccination, and other mitigation measures amidst continued response to the acute pandemic.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Michigan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies
J Infect Dis ; 222(1): 9-16, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-31382


BACKGROUND: As part of the Household Influenza Vaccine Evaluation (HIVE) study, acute respiratory infections (ARI) have been identified in children and adults from 2010 to 2018. METHODS: Annually, 890 to 1441 individuals were followed and contacted weekly to report ARIs. Specimens collected during illness were tested for human coronaviruses (HCoV) types OC43, 229E, HKU1, and NL63. RESULTS: In total, 993 HCoV infections were identified during the 8 years, with OC43 most commonly seen and 229E the least. HCoVs were detected in a limited time period, between December and April/May and peaked in January/February. Highest infection frequency was in children <5 years (18 per 100 person-years), with little variation in older age groups (range, 7 to 11 per 100 person-years). Overall, 9% of adult cases and 20% of cases in children were associated with medical consultation. Of the 993 infections, 260 were acquired from an infected household contact. The serial interval between index and household-acquired cases ranged from 3.2 to 3.6 days and the secondary infection risk ranged from 7.2% to 12.6% by type. CONCLUSIONS: Coronaviruses are sharply seasonal. They appear, based on serial interval and secondary infection risk, to have similar transmission potential to influenza A(H3N2) in the same population.

Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus/genetics , Family Characteristics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Seasons , Young Adult