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1.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 10(1): 13, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The initiation, anatomic pattern, and extent of tau spread in traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the mechanism by which TBI leads to long-term tau pathology, remain controversial. Some studies suggest that moderate to severe TBI is sufficient to promote tau pathology; however, others suggest that it is simply a consequence of aging. We therefore conducted a systematic narrative review of the literature addressing whether a single moderate to severe head injury leads to long-term development of tauopathy in both humans and animal models. METHODS: Studies considered for inclusion in this review assessed a single moderate to severe TBI, assessed tau pathology at long-term timepoints post-injury, comprised experimental or observational studies, and were peer-reviewed and published in English. Databases searched included: PUBMED, NCBI-PMC, EMBASE, Web of Science, Academic Search Premiere, and APA Psychnet. Search results were uploaded to Covidence®, duplicates were removed, and articles underwent an abstract and full-text screening process. Data were then extracted and articles assessed for risk of bias. FINDINGS: Of 4,150 studies screened, 26 were eligible for inclusion, of which 17 were human studies, 8 were preclinical animal studies, and 1 included both human and preclinical animal studies. Most studies had low to moderate risk of bias. Most human and animal studies (n = 12 and 9, respectively) suggested that a single moderate to severe TBI resulted in greater development of long-term tauopathy compared to no history of head injury. This conclusion should be interpreted with caution, however, due to several limitations: small sample sizes; inconsistencies in controlling for confounding factors that may have affected tau pathology (e.g., family history of dementia or neurological illnesses, apolipoprotein E genotype, etc.), inclusion of mostly males, and variation in reporting injury parameters. INTERPRETATION: Results indicate that a single moderate to severe TBI leads to greater chronic development of tauopathy compared to no history of head injury. This implies that tau pathology induced may not be transient, but can progressively develop over time in both humans and animal models. Targeting these tau changes for therapeutic intervention should be further explored to elucidate if disease progression can be reversed or mitigated.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications , Brain/pathology , Tauopathies/etiology , Animals , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Tauopathies/pathology
2.
J Neurotrauma ; 38(1): 1-43, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066221

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus attacks multiple organs of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, including the brain. There are worldwide descriptions of neurological deficits in COVID-19 patients. Central nervous system (CNS) symptoms can be present early in the course of the disease. As many as 55% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients have been reported to have neurological disturbances three months after infection by SARS-CoV-2. The mutability of the SARS-COV-2 virus and its potential to directly affect the CNS highlight the urgency of developing technology to diagnose, manage, and treat brain injury in COVID-19 patients. The pathobiology of CNS infection by SARS-CoV-2 and the associated neurological sequelae of this infection remain poorly understood. In this review, we outline the rationale for the use of blood biomarkers (BBs) for diagnosis of brain injury in COVID-19 patients, the research needed to incorporate their use into clinical practice, and the improvements in patient management and outcomes that can result. BBs of brain injury could potentially provide tools for detection of brain injury in COVID-19 patients. Elevations of BBs have been reported in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of COVID-19 patients. BB proteins have been analyzed in CSF to detect CNS involvement in patients with infectious diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculous meningitis. BBs are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for diagnosis of mild versus moderate traumatic brain injury and have identified brain injury after stroke, cardiac arrest, hypoxia, and epilepsy. BBs, integrated with other diagnostic tools, could enhance understanding of viral mechanisms of brain injury, predict severity of neurological deficits, guide triage of patients and assignment to appropriate medical pathways, and assess efficacy of therapeutic interventions in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries/blood , Brain Injuries/diagnosis , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Brain/pathology , Brain Injuries/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/blood , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
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