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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(21): 703-708, 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865662

ABSTRACT

Seizures, transient signs or symptoms caused by abnormal surges of electrical activity in the brain, can result from epilepsy, a neurologic disorder characterized by abnormal electrical brain activity causing recurrent, unprovoked seizures, or from other inciting causes, such as high fever or substance abuse (1). Seizures generally account for approximately 1% of all emergency department (ED) visits (2,3). Persons of any age can experience seizures, and outcomes might range from no complications for those with a single seizure to increased risk for injury, comorbidity, impaired quality of life, and early mortality for those with epilepsy (4). To examine trends in weekly seizure- or epilepsy-related (seizure-related) ED visits† in the United States before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, CDC analyzed data from the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP).§ Seizure-related ED visits decreased abruptly during the early pandemic period. By the end of 2020, seizure-related ED visits returned almost to prepandemic levels for persons of all ages, except children aged 0-9 years. By mid-2021, however, this age group gradually returned to baseline as well. Reasons for the decrease in seizure-related ED visits in 2020 among all age groups and the slow return to baseline among children aged 0-9 years compared with other age groups are unclear. The decrease might have been associated with fear of exposure to COVID-19 infection in EDs deterring parents or guardians of children from seeking care, adherence to mitigation measures including avoiding public settings such as EDs, or increased access to telehealth services decreasing the need for ED visits (5). These findings reinforce the importance of understanding factors associated with ED avoidance among persons with epilepsy or seizure, the importance that all eligible persons be up to date¶ with COVID-19 vaccination, and the need to encourage persons to seek appropriate care for seizure-related emergencies** to prevent adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Seizures/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
2.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(5): 475-485, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748793

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected adult mental health (MH), with racial and ethnic minoritized groups disproportionately affected. Objective: To examine changes in adult MH-related emergency department (ED) visits into the Delta variant pandemic period and identify changes and inequities in these visits before and during COVID-19 case surges. Design, Setting, and Participants: This epidemiologic cross-sectional study used National Syndromic Surveillance Program data from US adults aged 18 to 64 years from 1970 to 2352 ED facilities from January 1, 2019, to August 14, 2021. All MH-related ED visits and visits related to 10 disorders (ie, anxiety, depressive, bipolar, schizophrenia spectrum, trauma- and stressor-related, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, disruptive behavioral and impulse, obsessive-compulsive, eating, and tic disorders) were identified. Exposures: The following periods of MH-related ED visits were compared: (1) high Delta variant circulation (July 18-August 14, 2021) with a pre-Delta period (April 18-May 15, 2021), (2) after a COVID-19 case peak (February 14-March 13, 2021) with during a peak (December 27, 2020-January 23, 2021), and (3) the Delta period and the period after a COVID-19 case peak with the respective corresponding weeks during the prepandemic period. Main Outcomes and Measures: ED visits for 10 mental disorders and all MH-related visits. Results: This cross-sectional study included 107 761 319 ED visits among adults aged 18 to 64 years (59 870 475 [56%] women) from January 1, 2019, to August 14, 2021. There was stability in most MH-related ED visit counts between the Delta and pre-Delta periods (percentage change, -1.4% to -7.5%), except for eating disorders (-11.9%) and tic disorders (-19.8%) and after a COVID-19 case peak compared with during a peak (0.6%-7.4%). Most MH-related ED visit counts declined in the Delta period relative to the prepandemic period (-6.4% to -30.7%); there were fluctuations by disorder when comparing after a COVID-19 case peak with the corresponding prepandemic period (-15.4% to 11.3%). Accounting for ED visit volume, MH-related ED visits were a smaller proportion of visits in the Delta period compared with the pre-Delta period (visit ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.85-0.86) and prepandemic period (visit ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.79-0.80). After a COVID-19 case peak, MH-related ED visits were a larger proportion of ED visits compared with during a peak (visit ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.04) and the corresponding prepandemic period (visit ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.11-1.12). Of the 2 510 744 ED visits included in the race and ethnicity analysis, 24 592 (1%) were American Indian or Alaska Native persons, 33 697 (1%) were Asian persons, 494 198 (20%) were Black persons, 389 740 (16%) were Hispanic persons, 5000 (0.2%) were Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander persons, and 1 172 683 (47%) were White persons. There was between- and within-group variation in ED visits by race and ethnicity and increases in selected disorders after COVID-19 peaks for adults aged 18 to 24 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this cross-sectional study suggest that EDs may have increases in MH-related visits after COVID-19 surges, specifically for young adults and individual racial and ethnic minoritized subpopulations. Public health practitioners should consider subpopulation-specific messaging and programmatic strategies that address differences in MH needs, particularly for those historically marginalized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tic Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tic Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(8): 313-318, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702098

ABSTRACT

Emergency departments (EDs) in the United States remain a frontline resource for pediatric health care emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, patterns of health-seeking behavior have changed during the pandemic (1,2). CDC examined changes in U.S. ED visit trends to assess the continued impact of the pandemic on visits among children and adolescents aged 0-17 years (pediatric ED visits). Compared with 2019, pediatric ED visits declined by 51% during 2020, 22% during 2021, and 23% during January 2022. Although visits for non-COVID-19 respiratory illnesses mostly declined, the proportion of visits for some respiratory conditions increased during January 2022 compared with 2019. Weekly number and proportion of ED visits increased for certain types of injuries (e.g., drug poisonings, self-harm, and firearm injuries) and some chronic diseases, with variation by pandemic year and age group. Visits related to behavioral concerns increased across pandemic years, particularly among older children and adolescents. Health care providers and families should remain vigilant for potential indirect impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including health conditions resulting from delayed care, and increasing emotional distress and behavioral health concerns among children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Treatment/classification , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Surveillance , United States
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(8): 319-324, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702097

ABSTRACT

In 2021, a national emergency* for children's mental health was declared by several pediatric health organizations, and the U.S. Surgeon General released an advisory† on mental health among youths. These actions resulted from ongoing concerns about children's mental health in the United States, which was exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic (1,2). During March-October 2020, among all emergency department (ED) visits, the proportion of mental health-related visits increased by 24% among U.S. children aged 5-11 years and 31% among adolescents aged 12-17 years, compared with 2019 (2). CDC examined changes in U.S. pediatric ED visits for overall mental health conditions (MHCs) and ED visits associated with specific MHCs (depression; anxiety; disruptive behavioral and impulse-control disorders; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; trauma and stressor-related disorders; bipolar disorders; eating disorders; tic disorders; and obsessive-compulsive disorders [OCD]) during 2019 through January 2022 among children and adolescents aged 0-17 years, overall and by sex and age. After declines in weekly visits associated with MHCs among those aged 0-17 years during 2020, weekly numbers of ED visits for MHCs overall and for specific MHCs varied by age and sex during 2021 and January 2022, when compared with corresponding weeks in 2019. Among adolescent females aged 12-17 years, weekly visits increased for two of nine MHCs during 2020 (eating disorders and tic disorders), for four of nine MHCs during 2021 (depression, eating disorders, tic disorders, and OCD), and for five of nine MHCs during January 2022 (anxiety, trauma and stressor-related disorders, eating disorders, tic disorders, and OCD), and overall MHC visits during January 2022, compared with 2019. Early identification and expanded evidence-based prevention and intervention strategies are critical to improving children's and adolescents' mental health (1-3), especially among adolescent females, who might have increased need.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Treatment/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Health , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mental Disorders/classification , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Surveillance , Sex Distribution , United States/epidemiology
5.
Vaccine ; 39(31): 4250-4255, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274452

ABSTRACT

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention explored use of emergency department (ED) visit data, during 2018-2020, from the National Syndromic Surveillance Program to monitor vaccine-associated adverse events (VAE) among all age groups. A combination of chief complaint terms and administrative diagnosis codes were used to detect VAE-related ED visits. Postvaccination fever was among the top 10 most frequently noted diagnoses. VAE annual trends demonstrated seasonality; visits trended upward starting in September of each year, coinciding with the administration of seasonal influenza vaccines. The 2020 VAE-related visit trend declined below the 2018 and 2019 baselines during March 22-September 5, 2020, before returning to the seasonal pattern. VAE-related visits declined in children aged 3-18 years in 2020 compared with 2018-2019, especially in the back-to-school months. These findings demonstrate that syndromic surveillance can complement traditional VAE reporting systems without an additional demand on data collection resources.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Sentinel Surveillance , Child , Data Collection , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Population Surveillance , United States/epidemiology
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(15): 566-569, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187182

ABSTRACT

Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic), non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black), and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons have experienced disproportionately higher rates of hospitalization and death attributable to COVID-19 than have non-Hispanic White (White) persons (1-4). Emergency care data offer insight into COVID-19 incidence; however, differences in use of emergency department (ED) services for COVID-19 by racial and ethnic groups are not well understood. These data, most of which are recorded within 24 hours of the visit, might be an early indicator of changing patterns in disparities. Using ED visit data from 13 states obtained from the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP), CDC assessed the number of ED visits with a COVID-19 discharge diagnosis code per 100,000 population during October-December 2020 by age and race/ethnicity. Among 5,794,050 total ED visits during this period, 282,220 (4.9%) were for COVID-19. Racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 ED visit rates were observed across age groups. Compared with White persons, Hispanic, AI/AN, and Black persons had significantly more COVID-19-related ED visits overall (rate ratio [RR] range = 1.39-1.77) and in all age groups through age 74 years; compared with White persons aged ≥75 years, Hispanic and AI/AN persons also had more COVID-19-related ED visits (RR = 1.91 and 1.22, respectively). These differences in ED visit rates suggest ongoing racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 incidence and can be used to prioritize prevention resources, including COVID-19 vaccination, to reach disproportionately affected communities and reduce the need for emergency care for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(15): 552-556, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187178

ABSTRACT

During March 29-April 25, 2020, emergency department (ED) visits in the United States declined by 42% after the declaration of a national emergency for COVID-19 on March 13, 2020. Among children aged ≤10 years, ED visits declined by 72% compared with prepandemic levels (1). To assess the continued impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on EDs, CDC examined trends in visits since December 30, 2018, and compared the numbers and types of ED visits by patient demographic and geographic factors during a COVID-19 pandemic period (December 20, 2020-January 16, 2021) with a prepandemic period 1 year earlier (December 15, 2019-January 11, 2020). After an initial decline during March-April 2020 (1), ED visits increased through July 2020, but at levels below those during the previous year, until December 2020-January 2021 when visits again fell to 25% of prepandemic levels. During this time, among patients aged 0-4, 5-11, 12-17, and ≥18 years, ED visits were lower by 66%, 63%, 38%, and 17%, respectively, compared with ED visits for each age group during the same period before the pandemic. Differences were also observed by region and reasons for ED visits during December 2020-January 2021; more visits during this period were for infectious diseases or mental and behavioral health-related concerns and fewer visits were for gastrointestinal and upper-respiratory-related illnesses compared with ED visits during December 2019-January 2020. Although the numbers of ED visits associated with socioeconomic factors and mental or behavioral health conditions are low, the increased visits by both adults and children for these concerns suggest that health care providers should maintain heightened vigilance in screening for factors that might warrant further treatment, guidance, or intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , United States/epidemiology
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1494-1496, 2020 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874996

ABSTRACT

CDC works with other federal agencies to identify counties with increasing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence (hotspots) and offers support to state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Understanding whether increasing incidence in hotspot counties is predominantly occurring in specific age groups is important for identifying opportunities to prevent or reduce transmission. The percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results (percent positivity) is an important indicator of community transmission.* CDC analyzed temporal trends in percent positivity by age group in COVID-19 hotspot counties before and after their identification as hotspots. Among 767 hotspot counties identified during June and July 2020, early increases in the percent positivity among persons aged ≤24 years were followed by several weeks of increasing percent positivity in persons aged ≥25 years. Addressing transmission among young adults is an urgent public health priority.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1404-1409, 2020 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809623

ABSTRACT

As of September 21, 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had resulted in more than 6,800,000 reported U.S. cases and more than 199,000 associated deaths.* Early in the pandemic, COVID-19 incidence was highest among older adults (1). CDC examined the changing age distribution of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States during May-August by assessing three indicators: COVID-19-like illness-related emergency department (ED) visits, positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and confirmed COVID-19 cases. Nationwide, the median age of COVID-19 cases declined from 46 years in May to 37 years in July and 38 in August. Similar patterns were seen for COVID-19-like illness-related ED visits and positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results in all U.S. Census regions. During June-August, COVID-19 incidence was highest in persons aged 20-29 years, who accounted for >20% of all confirmed cases. The southern United States experienced regional outbreaks of COVID-19 in June. In these regions, increases in the percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 test results among adults aged 20-39 years preceded increases among adults aged ≥60 years by an average of 8.7 days (range = 4-15 days), suggesting that younger adults likely contributed to community transmission of COVID-19. Given the role of asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission (2), strict adherence to community mitigation strategies and personal preventive behaviors by younger adults is needed to help reduce their risk for infection and subsequent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to persons at higher risk for severe illness.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(23): 699-704, 2020 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526399

ABSTRACT

On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency to combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As the number of persons hospitalized with COVID-19 increased, early reports from Austria (1), Hong Kong (2), Italy (3), and California (4) suggested sharp drops in the numbers of persons seeking emergency medical care for other reasons. To quantify the effect of COVID-19 on U.S. emergency department (ED) visits, CDC compared the volume of ED visits during four weeks early in the pandemic March 29-April 25, 2020 (weeks 14 to 17; the early pandemic period) to that during March 31-April 27, 2019 (the comparison period). During the early pandemic period, the total number of U.S. ED visits was 42% lower than during the same period a year earlier, with the largest declines in visits in persons aged ≤14 years, females, and the Northeast region. Health messages that reinforce the importance of immediately seeking care for symptoms of serious conditions, such as myocardial infarction, are needed. To minimize SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, transmission risk and address public concerns about visiting the ED during the pandemic, CDC recommends continued use of virtual visits and triage help lines and adherence to CDC infection control guidance.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Sentinel Surveillance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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