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1.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147344

ABSTRACT

Purpose Our objective was to (1) identify associated characteristics of financial hardship (FH), and (2) evaluate associations of FH with mental health symptoms among cancer survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Using data from the nationally representative COVID-19 Impact Survey, we defined cancer survivors as those with a self-reported diagnosis of cancer (n = 854,7.6%). We defined FH using the following question: “Based on your current financial situation, how would you pay for an unexpected $400 expense?” Multivariable Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) to identify associated characteristics of FH and associations of FH with mental health symptoms among cancer survivors overall and by age (18–59 years/60+ years). Results Forty-one percent of cancer survivors reported FH, with 58% in 18–59 and 33% in 60+ year old respondents. Compared to cancer survivors aged 60+ years, those aged 30–44 (aPR:1.74,95% CI:1.35–2.24), and 45–59 years (aPR:1.60,95% CI:1.27–1.99) were more likely to report FH. Compared to non–Hispanic(NH)–White cancer survivors, NH–Black cancer survivors had a 56% higher prevalence of FH (aPR:1.56;95% CI: 1.23–1.97). Among 60+ years aged cancer survivors, NH–Black (aPR:1.80;95% CI: 1.32–2.45) and NH–Asian cancer survivors (aPR:10.70,95% CI:5.6–20.7) were more likely to experience FH compared to their NH–White counterparts. FH was associated with feeling anxious (aPR:1.51,95% CI:1.11–2.05), depressed (aPR:1.66,95% CI:1.25–2.22), and hopeless (aPR:1.84,95% CI:1.38–2.44). Conclusion Minoritized communities, younger adults, and cancer survivors with low socioeconomic status had a higher burden of FH, which was associated with feelings of anxiety, depression, and hopelessness.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275973, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119392

ABSTRACT

The US population faced stressors associated with suicide brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the relationship between stressors and suicidal ideation in the context of the pandemic may inform policies and programs to prevent suicidality and suicide. We compared suicidal ideation between two cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys of adults in the United States: the 2017-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 2020 COVID-19 and Life Stressors Impact on Mental Health and Well-being (CLIMB) study (conducted March 31 to April 13). We estimated the association between stressors and suicidal ideation in bivariable and multivariable Poisson regression models with robust variance to generate unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and aPR). Suicidal ideation increased from 3.4% in the 2017-2018 NHANES to 16.3% in the 2020 CLIMB survey, and from 5.8% to 26.4% among participants in low-income households. In the multivariable model, difficulty paying rent (aPR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-2.1) and feeling alone (aPR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.5-2.4) were associated with suicidal ideation but job loss was not (aPR: 0.9, 95% CI: 0.6 to 1.2). Suicidal ideation increased by 12.9 percentage points and was almost 4.8 times higher during the COVID-19 pandemic. Suicidal ideation was more prevalent among people facing difficulty paying rent (31.5%), job loss (24.1%), and loneliness (25.1%), with each stressor associated with suicidal ideation in bivariable models. Difficulty paying rent and loneliness were most associated with suicidal ideation. Policies and programs to support people experiencing economic precarity and loneliness may contribute to suicide prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidal Ideation , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Suicide, Attempted/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Nutrition Surveys , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1124, 2022 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since COVID-19 first appeared in the United States (US) in January 2020, US states have pursued a wide range of policies to mitigate the spread of the virus and its economic ramifications. Without unified federal guidance, states have been the front lines of the policy response. MAIN TEXT: We created the COVID-19 US State Policy (CUSP) database ( https://statepolicies.com/ ) to document the dates and components of economic relief and public health measures issued at the state level in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Documented interventions included school and business closures, face mask mandates, directives on vaccine eligibility, eviction moratoria, and expanded unemployment insurance benefits. By providing continually updated information, CUSP was designed to inform rapid-response, policy-relevant research in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and has been widely used to investigate the impact of state policies on population health and health equity. This paper introduces the CUSP database and highlights how it is already informing the COVID-19 pandemic response in the US. CONCLUSION: CUSP is the most comprehensive publicly available policy database of health, social, and economic policies in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. CUSP documents widespread variation in state policy decisions and implementation dates across the US and serves as a freely available and valuable resource to policymakers and researchers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , Public Health , United States/epidemiology
4.
Journal of clinical and translational science ; 5(Suppl 1):86-86, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1710761

ABSTRACT

IMPACT: Understanding how perceived discrimination affects Asian Americans can help stakeholders target subgroups that are at highest risk of discrimination-related behaviors and design culturally appropriate interventions to ensure equitable access to healthcare. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed longstanding anti-Asian racism in the US. Yet, effects of discrimination on Asian American health are unknown, partly because diverse Asian American populations are analyzed in aggregate. We aim to understand how perceived discrimination affects healthcare utilization among different Asian American subgroups. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We examine the association of perceived discrimination with healthcare utilization using the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In the CHIS, respondents reported whether they would’ve gotten better medical care if they belonged to a different race. We examine the association between these responses and physician visits within the past year, in the survey years 2003, 2004 and 2016-2017. We adjust for covariates based on the Andersen Health Behavior model. Subsequent modeling examines potential mediating and moderating factors such as limited English proficiency, immigration status, income, and survey year. Asian American subgroups analyzed include Asian Indian, Korean, Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Japanese, and other Asian. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Results will highlight how perceived discrimination incentivizes or disincentivizes certain Asian subgroups to utilize healthcare. Asian American subgroups have differing and diverse experiences with discrimination due to their historical and cultural differences;results will elucidate how discrimination affects these subgroups. Results will be compared to non-Hispanic Whites, who represent the racial group least likely to experience discrimination in the US. Mediation and moderation analysis will help understand how traditionally cited factors for healthcare utilization interact with perceived discrimination on Asian Americans. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Asian American subgroups are understudied, despite Asian Americans being one of the fastest growing racial groups in the US. Understanding how perceived discrimination affects Asian Americans can help stakeholders target subgroups that are at highest risk of discrimination-related behaviors and design culturally appropriate interventions.

5.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 196, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has highlighted consistent inequities in incidence, disease severity, and mortality across racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States (US) and beyond. While similar patterns have been observed with previous viral respiratory pathogens, to date, no systematic review has comprehensively documented these disparities or potential contributing factors. In response, this review aims to synthesize data on racial and ethnic disparities in morbidity and mortality due to viral acute respiratory infections (ARI) other than SARS-CoV-2. This review will focus on understanding structural health and social factors to contextualize race and ethnicity driving these disparities in the US. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic review of studies published from January 1, 2002, onward. Our search will include PubMed/MEDLINE, EBSCO Host-CINAHL Plus, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant articles. We will include studies of any design that describe racial/ethnic disparities associated with viral ARI conducted in the US. Primary outcomes include incidence, disease severity or complication, hospitalization, or death attributed to ARI. Secondary outcomes include uptake of preventive interventions including vaccination, handwashing, social distancing, and wearing masks. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract relevant data. Data characterizing individual-, community-, and structural-level factors associated with these disparities will be abstracted to better understand the underlying structural inequities contributing to racial disparities in ARI. We will assess the methodological quality of all studies and will conduct meta-analyses using random effects models if appropriate. DISCUSSION: Findings from this systematic review will shed light on patterns of racial and ethnic disparities in viral ARI in the United States to support mathematical modeling of epidemic trajectories, intervention impact, and structural drivers of transmission, including structural racism. Moreover, data emerging from this review may reignite pandemic preparedness focused on communities with specific vulnerabilities related to living and working conditions given prevailing structural inequities, thus facilitating improved future pandemic responses to novel or endemic viral respiratory pathogens. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020219771.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic , United States/epidemiology
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