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1.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(4): 952-963, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085507

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the place and cause of death during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to assess its impact on excess mortality. METHODS: This national death registry included all adult (aged ≥18 years) deaths in England and Wales between January 1, 2014, and June 30, 2020. Daily deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic were compared against the expected daily deaths, estimated with use of the Farrington surveillance algorithm for daily historical data between 2014 and 2020 by place and cause of death. RESULTS: Between March 2 and June 30, 2020, there was an excess mortality of 57,860 (a proportional increase of 35%) compared with the expected deaths, of which 50,603 (87%) were COVID-19 related. At home, only 14% (2267) of the 16,190 excess deaths were related to COVID-19, with 5963 deaths due to cancer and 2485 deaths due to cardiac disease, few of which involved COVID-19. In care homes or hospices, 61% (15,623) of the 25,611 excess deaths were related to COVID-19, 5539 of which were due to respiratory disease, and most of these (4315 deaths) involved COVID-19. In the hospital, there were 16,174 fewer deaths than expected that did not involve COVID-19, with 4088 fewer deaths due to cancer and 1398 fewer deaths due to cardiac disease than expected. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a large excess of deaths in care homes that were poorly characterized and likely to be the result of undiagnosed COVID-19. There was a smaller but important and ongoing excess in deaths at home, particularly from cancer and cardiac disease, suggesting public avoidance of hospital care for non-COVID-19 conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cause of Death/trends , Heart Diseases/mortality , Home Care Services/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/mortality , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Diagnostic Errors/mortality , Diagnostic Errors/statistics & numerical data , England/epidemiology , Female , Hospice Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales/epidemiology
3.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(11): e009654, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to evaluate changes in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) practice in England by analyzing procedural numbers, changes in the clinical presentation, and characteristics of patients and their clinical outcomes during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients who underwent PCI in England between January 2017 and April 2020 in the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society database. RESULTS: Forty-four hospitals reported PCI procedures for 126 491 patients. There were ≈700 procedures performed each week before the lockdown. After the March 23, 2020 lockdown (11th/12th week in 2020), there was a 49% fall in the number of PCI procedures after the 12th week in 2020. The decrease was greatest in PCI procedures performed for stable angina (66%), followed by non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (45%), and ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (33%). Patients after the lockdown were younger (64.5 versus 65.5 years, P<0.001) and less likely to have diabetes (20.4% versus 24.6%, P<0.001), hypertension (52.0% versus 56.8%, P=0.001), previous myocardial infarction (23.5% versus 26.7%, P=0.008), previous PCI (24.3% versus 28.3%, P=0.001), or previous coronary artery bypass graft (4.6% versus 7.2%, P<0.001) compared with before the lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: The lockdown in England has resulted in a significant decline in PCI procedures. Fewer patients underwent PCI for stable angina. This enabled greater capacity for urgent and emergency cases, and a reduced length of stay was seen for such patients. Significant changes in the characteristics of patients towards a lower risk phenotype were observed, particularly for non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, reflecting a more conservative approach to this cohort.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angina Pectoris/therapy , COVID-19 , England , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Heart ; 107(2): 113-119, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808650

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the place and causes of acute cardiovascular death during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of adult (age ≥18 years) acute cardiovascular deaths (n=5 87 225) in England and Wales, from 1 January 2014 to 30 June 2020. The exposure was the COVID-19 pandemic (from onset of the first COVID-19 death in England, 2 March 2020). The main outcome was acute cardiovascular events directly contributing to death. RESULTS: After 2 March 2020, there were 28 969 acute cardiovascular deaths of which 5.1% related to COVID-19, and an excess acute cardiovascular mortality of 2085 (+8%). Deaths in the community accounted for nearly half of all deaths during this period. Death at home had the greatest excess acute cardiovascular deaths (2279, +35%), followed by deaths at care homes and hospices (1095, +32%) and in hospital (50, +0%). The most frequent cause of acute cardiovascular death during this period was stroke (10 318, 35.6%), followed by acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (7 098, 24.5%), heart failure (6 770, 23.4%), pulmonary embolism (2 689, 9.3%) and cardiac arrest (1 328, 4.6%). The greatest cause of excess cardiovascular death in care homes and hospices was stroke (715, +39%), compared with ACS (768, +41%) at home and cardiogenic shock (55, +15%) in hospital. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an inflation in acute cardiovascular deaths, nearly half of which occurred in the community and most did not relate to COVID-19 infection suggesting there were delays to seeking help or likely the result of undiagnosed COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Mortality/trends , Stroke , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Causality , England/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/mortality
5.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 7(3): 238-246, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691280

ABSTRACT

AIMS: COVID-19 might have affected the care and outcomes of hospitalized acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We aimed to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic changed patient response, hospital treatment, and mortality from AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Admission was classified as non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or STEMI at 99 hospitals in England through live feeding from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project between 1 January 2019 and 22 May 2020. Time series plots were estimated using a 7-day simple moving average, adjusted for seasonality. From 23 March 2020 (UK lockdown), median daily hospitalizations decreased more for NSTEMI [69 to 35; incidence risk ratios (IRR) 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47-0.54] than STEMI (35 to 25; IRR 0.74, 95% CI 0.69-0.80) to a nadir on 19 April 2020. During lockdown, patients were younger (mean age 68.7 vs. 66.9 years), less frequently diabetic (24.6% vs. 28.1%), or had cerebrovascular disease (7.0% vs. 8.6%). ST-elevation myocardial infarction more frequently received primary percutaneous coronary intervention (81.8% vs. 78.8%), thrombolysis was negligible (0.5% vs. 0.3%), median admission-to-coronary angiography duration for NSTEMI decreased (26.2 vs. 64.0 h), median duration of hospitalization decreased (4 to 2 days), secondary prevention pharmacotherapy prescription remained unchanged (each > 94.7%). Mortality at 30 days increased for NSTEMI [from 5.4% to 7.5%; odds ratio (OR) 1.41, 95% CI 1.08-1.80], but decreased for STEMI (from 10.2% to 7.7%; OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-0.97). CONCLUSION: During COVID-19, there was a substantial decline in admissions with AMI. Those who presented to hospital were younger, less comorbid and, for NSTEMI, had higher 30-day mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Angiography/statistics & numerical data , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Mortality/trends , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/virology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/virology , Seasons , United Kingdom/epidemiology
6.
Lancet ; 396(10248): 381-389, 2020 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-642223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic have reported a substantial drop in the number of patients attending the emergency department with acute coronary syndromes and a reduced number of cardiac procedures. We aimed to understand the scale, nature, and duration of changes to admissions for different types of acute coronary syndrome in England and to evaluate whether in-hospital management of patients has been affected as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We analysed data on hospital admissions in England for types of acute coronary syndrome from Jan 1, 2019, to May 24, 2020, that were recorded in the Secondary Uses Service Admitted Patient Care database. Admissions were classified as ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI), myocardial infarction of unknown type, or other acute coronary syndromes (including unstable angina). We identified revascularisation procedures undertaken during these admissions (ie, coronary angiography without percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], PCI, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery). We calculated the numbers of weekly admissions and procedures undertaken; percentage reductions in weekly admissions and across subgroups were also calculated, with 95% CIs. FINDINGS: Hospital admissions for acute coronary syndrome declined from mid-February, 2020, falling from a 2019 baseline rate of 3017 admissions per week to 1813 per week by the end of March, 2020, a reduction of 40% (95% CI 37-43). This decline was partly reversed during April and May, 2020, such that by the last week of May, 2020, there were 2522 admissions, representing a 16% (95% CI 13-20) reduction from baseline. During the period of declining admissions, there were reductions in the numbers of admissions for all types of acute coronary syndrome, including both STEMI and NSTEMI, but relative and absolute reductions were larger for NSTEMI, with 1267 admissions per week in 2019 and 733 per week by the end of March, 2020, a percent reduction of 42% (95% CI 38-46). In parallel, reductions were recorded in the number of PCI procedures for patients with both STEMI (438 PCI procedures per week in 2019 vs 346 by the end of March, 2020; percent reduction 21%, 95% CI 12-29) and NSTEMI (383 PCI procedures per week in 2019 vs 240 by the end of March, 2020; percent reduction 37%, 29-45). The median length of stay among patients with acute coronary syndrome fell from 4 days (IQR 2-9) in 2019 to 3 days (1-5) by the end of March, 2020. INTERPRETATION: Compared with the weekly average in 2019, there was a substantial reduction in the weekly numbers of patients with acute coronary syndrome who were admitted to hospital in England by the end of March, 2020, which had been partly reversed by the end of May, 2020. The reduced number of admissions during this period is likely to have resulted in increases in out-of-hospital deaths and long-term complications of myocardial infarction and missed opportunities to offer secondary prevention treatment for patients with coronary heart disease. The full extent of the effect of COVID-19 on the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome will continue to be assessed by updating these analyses. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, Public Health England, Health Data Research UK, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angina, Unstable/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , England/epidemiology , Facilities and Services Utilization , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Revascularization , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
7.
Eur Heart J ; 41(41): 4057-4070, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-630381

ABSTRACT

Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of non-communicable disease globally and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lung disease. Importantly, recent data by the World Health Organizations (WHO) indicate that in the last two decades global tobacco use has significantly dropped, which was largely driven by decreased numbers of female smokers. Despite such advances, the use of e-cigarettes and waterpipes (shisha, hookah, narghile) is an emerging trend, especially among younger generations. There is growing body of evidence that e-cigarettes are not a harm-free alternative to tobacco cigarettes and there is considerable debate as to whether e-cigarettes are saving smokers or generating new addicts. Here, we provide an updated overview of the impact of tobacco/waterpipe (shisha) smoking and e-cigarette vaping on endothelial function, a biomarker for early, subclinical, atherosclerosis from human and animal studies. Also their emerging adverse effects on the proteome, transcriptome, epigenome, microbiome, and the circadian clock are summarized. We briefly discuss heat-not-burn tobacco products and their cardiovascular health effects. We discuss the impact of the toxic constituents of these products on endothelial function and subsequent CVD and we also provide an update on current recommendations, regulation and advertising with focus on the USA and Europe. As outlined by the WHO, tobacco cigarette, waterpipe, and e-cigarette smoking/vaping may contribute to an increased burden of symptoms due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to severe health consequences.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Tobacco Products/adverse effects , Water Pipe Smoking/adverse effects , Humans
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