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1.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814143
3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(7): 1354-1368, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500136

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the transcriptomic differences between patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: RNA was extracted from cardiac tissue flash frozen at therapeutic surgical septal myectomy for 106 patients with HCM and 39 healthy donor hearts. Expression profiling of 37,846 genes was performed using the Illumina Human HT-12v3 Expression BeadChip. All patients with HCM were genotyped for pathogenic variants causing HCM. Technical validation was performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. This study was started on January 1, 1999, and final analysis was completed on April 20, 2020. RESULTS: Overall, 22% of the transcriptome (8443 of 37,846 genes) was expressed differentially between HCM and control tissues. Analysis by genotype revealed that gene expression changes were similar among genotypic subgroups of HCM, with only 4% (1502 of 37,846) to 6% (2336 of 37,846) of the transcriptome exhibiting differential expression between genotypic subgroups. The qRT-PCR confirmed differential expression in 92% (11 of 12 genes) of tested transcripts. Notably, in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the transcript for angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a negative regulator of the angiotensin system, was the single most up-regulated gene in HCM (fold-change, 3.53; q-value =1.30×10-23), which was confirmed by qRT-PCR in triplicate (fold change, 3.78; P=5.22×10-4), and Western blot confirmed greater than 5-fold overexpression of ACE2 protein (fold change, 5.34; P=1.66×10-6). CONCLUSION: More than 20% of the transcriptome is expressed differentially between HCM and control tissues. Importantly, ACE2 was the most up-regulated gene in HCM, indicating perhaps the heart's compensatory effort to mount an antihypertrophic, antifibrotic response. However, given that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses ACE2 for viral entry, this 5-fold increase in ACE2 protein may confer increased risk for COVID-19 manifestations and outcomes in patients with increased ACE2 transcript expression and protein levels in the heart.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/genetics , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Child , Genotype , Humans , Middle Aged , Myocardium/metabolism , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 113(3): 738-746, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has changed the world as we know it, and the United States continues to accumulate the largest number of COVID-related deaths worldwide. There exists a paucity of data regarding the effect of COVID-19 on adult cardiac surgery trends and outcomes on regional and national levels. METHODS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database was queried from January 1, 2018, to June 30, 2020. The Johns Hopkins COVID-19 database was queried from February 1, 2020, to January 1, 2021. Surgical and COVID-19 volumes, trends, and outcomes were analyzed on a national and regional level. Observed-to-expected ratios were used to analyze risk-adjustable mortality. RESULTS: The study analyzed 717 103 adult cardiac surgery patients and more than 20 million COVID-19 patients. Nationally, there was a 52.7% reduction in adult cardiac surgery volume and a 65.5% reduction in elective cases. The Mid-Atlantic region was most affected by the first COVID-19 surge, with 69.7% reduction in overall case volume and 80.0% reduction in elective cases. In the Mid-Atlantic and New England regions, the observed-to-expected mortality for isolated coronary bypass increased as much as 1.48 times (148% increase) pre-COVID rates. After the first COVID-19 surge, nationwide cardiac surgical case volumes did not return to baseline, indicating a COVID-19-associated deficit of cardiac surgery patients. CONCLUSIONS: This large analysis of COVID-19-related impact on adult cardiac surgery volume, trends, and outcomes found that during the pandemic, cardiac surgery volume suffered dramatically, particularly in the Mid-Atlantic and New England regions during the first COVID-19 surge, with a concurrent increase in observed-to-expected 30-day mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology
8.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 11(6): 689-696, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738738

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic currently gripping the globe is impacting the entire health care system with rapidly escalating morbidities and mortality. Although the infectious risk to the pediatric population appears low, the effects on children with congenital heart disease (CHD) remain poorly understood. The closure of congenital heart surgery programs worldwide to address the growing number of infected individuals could have an unintended impact on future health for COVID-19-negative patients with CHD. Pediatric and congenital heart surgeons, given their small numbers and close relationships, are uniquely positioned to collectively assess the impact of the pandemic on surgical practice and care of children with CHD. We present the results of an international survey sent to pediatric and congenital heart surgeons characterizing the early impact of COVID-19 on the care of patients with CHD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Hospital Administration , Pandemics , Child , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Global Health , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Organizational Policy , Patient Care Management/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
11.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 11(5): 548-556, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646289

ABSTRACT

As recovery of congenital heart surgery programs begins during this COVID-19 pandemic, we review key considerations such as screening, protection of patients and health care workers (HCWs), case prioritization, barriers to reactivation, redesign of patient care teams, contribution of telemedicine, modification of trainees' experiences, preparation for potential resurgence, and strategies to maintain HCW wellness. COVID-19 has tested the resolve and grit of our specialty and we have an opportunity to emerge more refined.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Recovery of Function , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 11(5): 675-679, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638726

ABSTRACT

The world as we once knew it has been drastically altered secondary to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The impact of these changes, particularly for those practicing in the medical profession, extends beyond the physical to the psychological, emotional, and spiritual. We discuss the factors that contribute to these stresses, way to manage them, and how we as leaders of our teams can inspire resilience and help our colleagues endure these most difficult times.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Courage , Leadership , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Surgical Procedures, Operative/standards , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 11(4): 395-400, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617248
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